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About tlie same time that Eichard Rolle the hermit completed 
the Pricks of Conscience for the use of his unlearned countrymen in 
the Iforth of England, Dan Michel, of Northgate, Kent, furnished 
the Southern folk with a devotional manual, bearing the quaint but 
thoroughly English title of the Ayeuhite of Tnwijt (the again-biting 
of the inner wit), or the Remorse of Conscience. 

The Pricke of Conscience is, as its author tells us, draAvn 
out of divers books, but the Ayenhite of Imoyt is a literal trans- 
lation of a French treatise, entitled Le somme des Vices et de Vertices, 
and sometimes, but incorrectly, styled Li lihres roiaux de Vices et de 
Vertus ; Lelivre des Commandemens ; La somme le roi ; Le miroir 
du monde. It was composed in the year 1279 for use of Philip 
the Second of France, by Frere Lorens (or Laurentius Gallus, as he 
is designated in Latin), of the order of Friars Preachers. ' 

Two copies of the French treatise are preserved in the British 
Museum collection — Cotton MS., Cleopatra, A v., and Royal MS., 
1 9, c. II., the former of which has been frequently consulted and found 
useful in explaining some few difficulties in the English text. 

Mr Stevenson notices two English prose versions much later than 
the one here printed. 

The earlier copy, written in a Midland dialect about the year 
1400, or perhaps a little earlier, is contained in Additional MS. 17013, 

' No intimation of this is given in the Translator's preface. He speaks of tlie 
work as his own production. See pp. 1, 262. Mr Bond, of the British Museum, found 
it to be a translation, and pointed out to the Editor of the Roxburgh Club the MSS. 
containing the original French version. (See Ayenbite of Inwyt, p. vii-ix, edited 
by the Rev Jos. Stevenson, M.A., 1855.) 


and is entitled j)e hoc of vices and vertues. The other, in the Bod- 
leian Library, MS. 283 (formerly MS. E. 7.7), may be referred to 
about the year 1440, or perhaps a little later, and is entitled The 
'imrrour of the worlde that some calleth vice and vertn. 

The next prose version was made by Caxton, who calls his Avork 
Tlie hooh royal, or The hook for a kyng} 

It was probably suggested by Chaucer's Persones Tale, which is an 
adaptation of some chapters of the French treatise,'^ to which it is of 
course much superior. The poet has introduced much original matter, 
as in the chapter on Pride, where he speaks of "inordinate scantiness 
and superfluity of clothing," and his treatment of the subject differs 
considerably from his author : thus Chaucer makes the remedium in 
each case immediately follow the description of any particular sin. 
Frere Lorens treats the remedia separately, as so many gifts of the 
Holy Ghost. 

In the Persones Tale there occurs, but once only, the curious 
phrase " the schipe (or the hyre or the wages) of seruauntes," in 
which the term schipe is explained by the words hyre or wayes 
(probably an addition of the scribe's). Tyrwhitt and subsequent 
editors have left the word unglossed, and its meaning was not so 
clearly evident until I had found the following corresponding phrase 
in the Ayenhite of Inwyt: " pe ssepe of hare sergons," the pay of 
their servants.' 

As T have not succeeded in finding the word in any English 
•writer of the 13th or 14th centuries, I am inclined to think that 
Chaucer was not altogether ignorant of Dan Michel's version. 

For some years past a new edition of the Ayenhite of Inwyt has 

1 Mr Stevenson does not appear to have known of the existence of any metrical 
English versions of Frere Lorens' work. They were probably more abundant than 
tho prose translation. A copy in the Northern dialect, ascribed to Ilampole, is 
preserved in Cotton i\IS. Tib. E vii. (and a later fragment among the Sion College 
MSS.), which seems to have given rise to several dialectical versions, among which 
may be mentioned Harl. MS. 435, MS. Bodl. 48, MS. Langb. 5, MS. More 215, 
MS. Singer. See Examinalion of the " Remarks on the Glossary to tlie Anticnt 
Metrical Romance of Havelok the Dane," &c. (p. 30.) 

» Tyrwhitt and subsequent editors have been altogether in the dark as to the 
original of this talc. 

•■^ sf:cpe is Kentish for schipe, for in this dialect an e is constantly put for a 
jS'orthern and Midland i. 


been greatly needed, and both "Wright and Thorpe have at different 
times proposed its repubhcation. The Eoxburgh Club edition is both 
scarce and high-priced, and therefore entirely out of the reach of 
ordinary students of Early English. Moreover, it is much to be 
regretted that Mr Stevenson has considerably lessened the value of 
his edition of so important a work by suppressing the English author's 
Preface and Table of Contents, as well as two little treatises following 
the larger work, which, being included in the Contents, should have 
been printed, or, at any rate, some reason assigned for their omission. ' 

From the Manuscript itself we learn that tlxeAi/enbite of Ttiwijt -wa-s 
completed "ine pe yeare of oure Ihordes beringe (birth) 1340," " ine 
J?e eue of jje holy apostles Symon an ludas," by Dan Michel of 
I^orthgate, a brother of the Cloister of Saint Austin of Canterbury. 
We cannot but regret that no more information is afforded us of one 
who so thoroughly identified himself "with the country-folk among 
whom he dwelt as to choose this homely " English of Kent," in pre- 
ference to a less provincial form of English, adopted by other South- 
ern writers, in which he might teach, as he himself says, old and 
young, parents and children, to eschew all manner of sin, and to 
preserve a conscience void of all impurity. 

Of all the English works written in the 14th century, the Ayen- 
hite of Inioyt is, unquestionably, the most important and valuable 
that has hitherto been published ; and we owe a debt of gratitude to 
Mr Stevenson who first called attention to its pliilological pecuHar- 

Much uncertainty attaches itself to most of our Early English 
works of this period as to authorship, date, and dialect — particulars of 

' Mr Stevenson has wrongly translated his author's title. Ayenhite of Inwit 
does not mean Redemption of the Soul. Dan Michel uses Wi]pbegge in the sense of to 
redeem, and the substantive formed from this is u-i])begginge (AVicliffe has Ayenbying), 
and the correct term for soul is zauel. Many of the mistakes in the Text and 
Glossary to the Eoxburgh edition might have been avoided by a reference to the 
French MSS. Thus Mr Stevenson prints tene (=tin) for teue (yesterday evening), 
and explains vendonginge as manure instead of uendage, or sale ; russole* he glosses 
as reeds, instead of cakes cooked in the frying-pan. With a boldness not to be com- 
mended, he occasionally alters his author's language, and in printing \>erne (a 
genuine 0. E. form) for ]>esne, he teaches us how rigidly Editors of Early English 
works should adhere to their MSS. 


the greatest importance to tlie philologist who seeks to gain any- 
clear notions of Early English Grammar ; but with rare good fortune 
the Ayenhite of Inwyt comes to us as a philological monument, the 
value of which is not diminished by any uncertainty on these points. 
And as such it must ever be regarded as the standard of comparison 
for the language of the 14th century, by which a clearer knowledge 
of Early English inflexions may be gained than has, hitherto, been 
possible by means of the scanty materials within our reach. 

As a small contribution towards a more systematic investigation 
of Early English Grammar, the editor of this volume has endeavoured 
to place before the reader the chief characteristics of the Southern 
dialect, and the points of diff'erence between it and Northern English. 
He felt he could not do better than avail himself of the present 
opi^ortunity for discussing these matters, in the hopes that others 
may be induced to devote some attention to this subject, so that 
the future historians of our language will have no cause to endorse 
the opinion of no mean authority, " that there is not a general 
agreement of scholars on many cardinal points of English inflection, 
and mdeed that no thorough systematic and comprehensive attempt 
at the investigation of these questions has yet been made." 

Tottenham, Dec, 1866. 


The Arundel MS. 57, containing the Ayenhite of Imcijt, is a 
folio copy, written on vellum, and is the autograph of the author. 

The printed catalogue thus describes the other contents of the 
volume : — 

1. "Versus Gylde de prophetia Aquile," fol. 4. b. Incip. Tolle 
cwput Martis bis. 

2. Ejusdeni " Versus Northmannie," fol. 4. b. Incip. Anglla 
transmittet leopardum liUa Gcdli. 

3. " Expositio versuum Gyldne de prophetia Aquilic et Heremitte," 
fol. 5. Incip. Continetur infer dicta heremite satis. 

4. Thomas de Erseldoune's prophecy of King Edward II., fol. 
8. b. 

Thomas de Erseldoune escot & dysur dit au Key Alisandre le 
pro-oles de suthdites du Rey Edward ke ore est ka\int yl fast auestre- 
To ny3t is boren a barn in Kaerneruani fat ssal wolden fe out ydlis ylc 
an J)e kyng Alesand^-e acsede hwan ssal fat be. Jje menstral 3ede hwan 
banockes bourne is y-det myd nia/inis bonis, hwan hares kendlef in 
hert]) staues hwan laddes wenddej)' leuedes hwan me ledej? men to 
sella wytj) rapis hwan Rokys burjj is no bur)) hwan men gyven an 
foln of tuenti pou«d for an seme of hwete. E. ssel. uordo. P. for^. 
vi3t and strengpe of al Mi3t. Er M. fri croked xl. alle bi hoked. 

Ssel diuerse an daunce fet neuir wes .y. mad. ine fronee. 

5. Les prophecies de Merlyn, fol. 8. b. 

6. Prologus in Evangelium S. Matthsei, fol. 97. 

7. Evangelium S. Matthsei cum expositione perampla, fol. 98, 



On list en la uio ties peres que .i. saint howmie conta comment 
il estoit deuenu moine e disoit quil auoit este 63 dun paien 
qui estoit prestre as ydoles . e quant il estoit enfes vne foij entra on 
temple auoec son pere repostement. Iloec uit .i. grant diable qui 
sasist sor .i. faudestuel e toute sa niaisnee enuiron lui. Iloec uint .i. 
des princes e laoura. Lors li demanda cil qui seoit ou throne dont il 
uenoit . e il respondi quil uenoit dune terre ou il auoit esmeu e por- 
chace mout de guerres e mout de troubles si que mout de genj i 
estoient mort . e mout de sane i estoit espandu3. Le mestre demanda 
en comhien de tens il auoit ce fet : e il respondi en .xxx. iors. Cil 
li dist en tant de tens as si poi fet . lors co??imanda quil fust batuj e 
nial menez ^ apres celui uint .i. autre q?/i ensuit laoura com le 
premier. Le mestre li demanda dont il uenoit : Cil respondi quil 
uenoit de la mer ou il auoit fet mout de tempestes mout de niefs 
trisees . e mout de gen3 neej. ^ Le mestre demanda en comhien de 
tens. II respondi en .xx. iours. Cil dist en tant de tens as si poi 
fet. ^ Apres uint le tier3 qui respondi qil uenoit dune cite ou il 
auoit cues noces . e iloec auoit esmeu e pourchace tenco/2S e mellees 
si que mout de gent i estoient mort . e enseur quetout il auoit occis 
le mari. Le mestre li demanda comhien de tens il auoit mis a ce fere. 
II respondi que .x. iors. Lors co?;mianda quil feust bien batu por ce 
qil auoit tant demore a ce fere san3 plus. ^ Audarrein uint .i. autre 
deuant le prince e laoura . e cil li demanda dont uiens tu. II re- 
spondi quil uenoit del hermitage ou il auoit este .xl. an3 pour tempter 
.i. moine de fornicacion cest pecche de luxure . e tant ai fait que cele 
nuit lai uaincu . e tresbuche en eel pecchie. ^ Lors sailli sus le 
mestre e le baisa e acola e li mist la corone en la teste . e le fist seoir 
iouste lui . e li dist que grant chose auoit fet e grant proesce. ^ Ore 
disoit le preudo??tme que quant il out ce oi : e ce ueu il pensa que 
g}-ant chose estoit de moine e par cele acheson estoit il deuenu 

' For translation see pp. 238 — 240 of (he present work. 


Introduction, pageiii, 1. 25; fov jrfvvincicdistics Yeadprovincialisms 
Page viii, foot note 2, 1. 4 ; for occia' read occurs 

— xxviii, foot note ; for cmcl read to 

— xxxviii, 1. 5 ; for tite Jje read ttte we 

Page 128, 1. 21 ; for in prisone read ine prlsone 

— 140, side notes, 1. 31 ; for a^s is to its, <^-c., read assccssin to 
his, ^-c. 

Page 159, foot note • for ansicerie^ read an^uene}^ 

— 184, 1. 12; for icely-liolpe read icel y-holpe 

— 187, 1. 24; [(?i]a?/mo/i^. The MS. may be right. Palsgrave 
has aymant. 

Page 194, 1. 19 ; for hebbe]> read habbep 

— 223, 1. 21 ; for liarten read herten 

— 231, 1. 11 ; for ivy-oute read ivylJpyoute 

— 244, 1. 11 ; for zayte read 2av/[«]fe 

— 246, 1. 3 ; for yuelded (so in MS.) read yuelde 

— 246, 1. 7 ; for na-^ read 7ia-^\t\ 

— 253, 1. 25 ; for zayte read zay\)i\te 

— 262, 1. 13; for inmyttte read inwytte 

— 265, 1. 8 from bottom ; for i-yuolliche read ryl^t^uolliche 

— 269, I. 9 from bottom ; for broken read bropren 

— 270, 1. 4 ; for tieh'^n read ide-^en 

— 251, 1. 2 from bottom ; 'huer Jjet Z*' speAr of J?e wyttes," &c. ; 
is sjyek at first sight looks like either an error for ich sp)ek = I spake, 
or is ])-speke =. is spoken. The is, however, I believe to be an old 
and genuine form, corresponding to the modem provincial es, I. 

Margery. Wull ye eat a couust o' brid and chezee, cozen 
Andra 1 

Andreic. No, es thankee, cozen Margery ; vor es eat a crub as cs 
come along ; bezides es Avent to dinner jest avore. — Well, bet, cozen 
Margery, whot onser dest gi' ma to tha quesson es put vore now-reert. 

{An E'xmoor Courtship.) 



In considering the characteristics of the Southern dialect, we 
shall not compare it with the Midland, which presents us with no 
one typical form, hut with the Northern or JSTorthumbrian, the gram- 
matical forms and inflexions of which are more uniform and constant. 
This appears to be the only mode of obtaining a clear conception 
of the great and distinctive featui'es of these two extensive forms of 
our ancient sjDeech, and it is, perhaps, the best means we could adopt 
to enable us to draw, as closely as possible, the line of demarcation 
between the dialects formerly spoken in the Xorth and South of this 

We shall discuss these peculiarities of dialect under the folloAving 
heads : — 

I. Orthographical Differences. 
II. Grammatical ,, 

III. Lexicographical „ 

I. Orthographical Differences. 
A. Consonants. 
1. Cli for K. The Southern dialect prefers the soft sound ch to 
that of k. ^ The following examples may be added to those contained 
in Preface to Hampole. 






kele (cold) 


smek (smoke) 


crok (cross) 2 


smak (taste) 


caf (chaff) 


sek (sack) ^ 


carl (churl) 

^ "We find in the Sn dialect durchede for derknesse, darkness. 
' Exists in English crooTt^ crutch. ^ Cp. sack and satch-el. 



In the twelfth century we find lolach = wlak == /»7.-(3(-warni) ; 
hack == heck; stream ; folcli, folk, people. 

In Wiltshire and Devonshire we may hear the following remnants 
of this proimnciation : — 
blatch = black pritch, prutch = prick patch (= pitch) = pick 

The pronominal and adjectival forms each, such, and lohich, 
were represented thus in the two dialects : — 

Southern. Northern, 

ech I .j^ 

uch ) 

Southern. Northern, 

swuch \ 

zuych > swilk 

such / 

whuch whilk 

The Semi-Saxon forms in the Southern dialect were 
eleh sivelch and loelch 

The Midland forms are mostly like the Southern with respect to 
the substitution of ch for Jc, but a preference is given to the i sound, 
e. g. ijcJi, swich (sich), wich. 

Adjectives in the Southern dialect ended in -licit (sing.), and 
-Uche (pi.), and Adverbs in -It die ; but in the Northumbrian, when 
the final -e had no grammatical functions, the distinction between 
Adjectives and Adverbs could not well be kept up, so that the 
terminations -Uch and -Jiclie were represented by -lie {-UTx, Uke), 
and -ly.^ We have a trace of the double adverbial form -lilce and 
-ly in the Ormulum. 

2. V for F. The use of v for /', as vinger for finger, visch for 
fisch, &c., is another well-known peculiarity of the old Southern 
dialect, which has, however, gradually become disused in the Eastern 
division of the Southern coiinties (in Kent and Sussex). In the 
xivth, and up to the middle of the xviith century, this usage was 
well marked. 2 

We never find the v for / in any ^N'orthumbrian production. 

4. Z for S. The Ayenbite is the only work of the xivth century 
that contains examples of the use of z for s, as mtge for siiige, zour 

' 'lij is of course a later form. 

-In one or two instances, as vetch = ieich, vat =• hi, we have retained the 
Southern and provincial form. 


for sour, &c. But while this pronunciation is well marked in 
modern Southern dialect, as spoken in the Southern and Western 
counties, Ave find no trace of it in the chronicle of Robert of Gloucester. 
The modern Kentish vernacular has dropped this peculiarity, 
though it seems to have been common enough in Kent as late as the 
middle of the seventeenth century. 

4. In the present dialect of the South of England (as spoken in 
"Wiltshire, Devonshire, and Somersetshire) we find 


=: brush 

hirch =: rich 


= dread ^ 

hirn = run 


= thrush 

hirsh = rush 


= great 

"We have several good instances of this metathesis in the literature 

of the xiiith and xivtli centuries. 



Southern. Northern. 

heme (berne) 

= brenne(burn) 

curlle = crulle (curl) 


= brende(burnt) 

fersch (versshe) = fresch (fresh) 


= breste (burst) 

forst = frost 


= brast (burst, 

gers = gres (grass) 


thirlle = thrille(pierce) 

burde (birde) 

z=z bride (lady, 

therste = threste(thirst) 


yrne = rinne (run) 


= crud (curd) 

orn (arn) = ran 

5. PS for SP Haps = hasp, waps = wasp, are well-known 
modern Southern provincialistics, but with the exception of C7-i/w for 
crisjJ (in Wright's Fragments of Popular Science) I know of no 
ancient examples. 

6. G for Y. The Southern dialects in some few instances 
retained a g, which in the I^orthern became softened into y, as in 
the modern English buy and say. 

Southern. Northern. i Southern. Northern. 

begge bye I segge saye 

7. B for V. The Southern forms libbe, habbe, and hehbe, were 
represented by the Xorthern h're, hare, and heve (heave). 

' Cf. Lrid = bird, still in use in the North of England. 


B. Vowels. 

1. for ^. I have previously pointed out in the preface to 
Hampole the suhstitution of o in the place of a in words of Anglo- 
Saxon origin. 

Southern. Northern. Southern. Northern. 

bon ban lore lare 

bor bar (bare) &c. &c. 

horn ham 

But we also find the following forms in the Southern literature of 
the xivth century, which are never met with in any pure jSTorthum- 
brian production : — 


== can 


= hand 


= land 


= man 


=: stand 














. strand 

In Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Somersetshire we still find 
examples of this pronunciation in liond (hand), lond (land), dovli 
(dark), lovk (lark), apple (apple). 

The Ayenbite contains fewer examples of this than most speci- 
mens of the Southern dialect, and in some few instances a preference 
is given to the a sound, as 

hlawe (blow) knawe (know) mawe (mow) 

zange (song) zmve (sow) 

Tiiis preference of o to a, which is also found in some of the 
]\Iidland dialects, evidently explains the following curious forms : 

Midland. ' Northumbrian. 



fro = fra (from) 


= sla (slay) 

flo = fla (flay) 


= thare (there) 

gove = gave 


= ware (were) 

ond = and (anger) 


= ya (yea) 

^ for A. In some few Avords 

we have e in 

the Southern dialect 

where the Northern prefers a. 

Southern. Northern. 



a3en agan (gan, gain) = 


hare = hair 










barn = bairn, 


sla == slay 

(child, son) 


stra i= straw 


claw (clar) 


wapen = weapon 


am == eagle 


yha = yea 


fla =flay 

The following forms seem to come under this head : 










clai = (clay) 


graithe = (prepare) 


dai = (day) 


hai = (hay) 


aght = (eight) 


kai = (key) 

eye (eie) agh = (awe) 
With these we may compare the j\lidland forms of the N'orth- 

•umbrian personal pronouiis : 

Midland thei, their, theim, for 

ISTorthern thai (tha), thair (thar), thaim (thain) 

The Southern preterites of one class of strong verbs often take an 

e when the ^Northumbrian has a. 






bar = bore 


spak = spoke 


brak = broke 


swar = swore 


gaf = gave 

In the modern dialect of Sussex we find fleg = flag ; ?ie?ig = 
hang ; meish = marsh ; reg = rag. In Devonshire, kej) = cap ; 
kerning = carping. 

The Old Frisian language presents us with similar forms, as, 
,9fe/= stafl' ; bend = band ; iceter = water. 

Not only has the Ayenbite preserved similar forms in which a is 
replaced by e, but it presents us with a far larger number than any 
other Southern composition. 

bend = band 
berk = bark 
bleddre = bladder 
blest = blast 

leste =: last 

mentle = mantle 

mere =^ mare 

merss = marsh 

^ Jle, sle, may stand for Jlea and slea. 

* In Dorsetshire dai/ and zvhei/ are pronounced de, whe, &c. 
Dorset Grammar in Philolog. Soc. Proceed., 1864, p. 12. 

See Outlines of 




= bran 


= shall 


= brass 


= shade 


= chaff 


= shape 


= clapper 


= stripe 


= craft 


= staff 


= awl 


= tliraU 


= apple 


= trap 


= ash 


= vat 


= glad 


= water 


= had 


= sad 


= kast (i«/.) 


'= Satiu'day 


= ladder 

Aw for Ai 

(A.S. ag) : 








flain (flayed) 





TJ for I. In the works of the Southern writers of the tliirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries we fhid the words fist, lull, thin, sin, &c., 
written /«s#, hul, thini, thunne, sun, &c. 

Our modern pronunciation coincides generally with the Northern 
dialects, in wliich this substitution of m for i was unknown. 

In Wiltshire we may still hear Hunk (= hluik), spark ; frum 
(N. frim), fresh ; hud, hide ; huz, his ; Iujj, Hp : putcher, pitcher ; 
vur, fire ; whuch, which. 

In the Old Kentish of the Ayenbite an e takes the place of the 
Southern u and the ISTorthern i. 


(a) Western. 

(b) Eastern. 




















rig (back) 


In the following list of words taken fr<jm. the Ayenbite, the e 
represents u or i. 


= boil (bile) 


= milk 


= bustle 


=^ mind 


— busy 

pet, pett 

e= pit 


=: bridale 


=: pride 

bredgroine =bridegroom 


= rig = ridge = 


= bring 



= guilt 


= skill 


= liill 


= stick 


= kitchen 


= stiff 


= kin 


= sting 


= kine 


= silk 


= kind 


= strip 


■=. kiss 


= filth 


= kith = cuth or 


= fire 

couth in va\- 


= self 



= singe 


= kite 


= sink 


=r limb 


= sin 


= inill 

We find in O.Frisian hrenga, to bring, stek, stick, together with 
the double forms hlenda and hlinda, heljxc and hiljpa. 

In the modem Kentish and Sussex dialects we meet with knet = 
knit ; meece = mice ; melk = milk ; j;'e^ = pit ; whelst = whilst. 
This use of e for i stiU prevails in some of the Southern counties. 

In "Wiltshire we find peg = pig ; steel = stile ; stenk = stink, and 
the published specimens of the Exmoor dialect contain the following 
examples : 

























= prick 


= rip 


= thing 


= trim 


= fist 


= sad 


:= sick 


In some few instances we have retained the Southern orthography 
with the JSTorthern pronunciation : husij = the ISTorthern hysij, just 
as dizzy = the Southern dusi. 

Biiihl, guilt, &c., in Southern orthography were Avritten hidde, 
gidt, and in the ISTorthern, hyJde, gyJt, &c. In stint and stunt both 
dialectal forms have been preserved. 

The in hop and slope seem to have arisen out of a u sound, since 
the older Southern forms were Imppe and sliqipe, corresponding to 
the Northern Mpjje and shpj^e. 

5. Eo for E. The Editor of the Ormulum, in pointing out some of 
the dialectical peculiarities of his author, notices the use of the simple 
vowel e for the compound eo. In no specimen of the Northumbrian 
dialect do we ever find the employment of the compound vowel. 
Thus the Southern forms breoste (breast) ; clieose (choose) ; creope 
(creep) ; deop (deep) ; lease (lose) ; neose (nose) ; teen (anger) ; 
weoved (altar), &c., are in Northern orthography hrcste, chese, crepie, 
dep, lese, nese, tene, weved, &c. 

Occasionally in the Southern dialect the eo is written ?/, as dupie 
for deope, durJc for deorl; imdk for rneolk ; duere for deore (dear). ' 
Cp. Vul tor feol, fell, and Jndd for heold, held. 

In the printed examples of the Herefordshire dialect ue often 
takes the place of eo, as hue (they), for heo ; htiere (their) for heore ; 
Jiuern (them) for heoni ; Imen (to be) for heon ; huere (bear) for heore ; 
duere (dear) for deore ; Inierte (heart) for heorte, &c.'^ 

In Kemble's paper on the North Anglian dialect, we are told that 
the West Saxon eo was represented in Kentish ]\Ianuscripts by iu, io, 
ia, and ie. 

We find some traces of this in the Kentish specimens of the xivth 
century, for in the Ayenbite ie or ye is constantly employed for eo.^ 

^ This may account for the modern pronunciation of lese (lose) and ehese (choose) 
= the Sn leose and c/ieose. 

- Since writing the above I have found both forms in Trevisa's translation of 
Iligden's Polychronicon (Cotton MS. Tiberius D. vii. written in the Sn dialect, 
probably of Gloucestershire), e. g., heo and htie, she ; ]jeos or ])ucs, this, these ; tte 
perhaps occur more frequently than eo, as thuef, thief; witescli, for ivcosch, washed. 

3 The modern Kentish dialect has i/y (used by Shoreham) for ble (A.S. bleo), 
colour, likeness. In the Ayenbite and Slioreham's poems we find b>/ for beo, be ; vri/ 
for freo, free; ffl>/ for ffleo, glee ; z>/ for seo, see ; ffr>/Jtond for greyhound, &c. 



Ordinary Southern form, 


breost (breast) 

chiese \ 
chyew / 

cheose (choose), 


creope (creep) 

(liepe 1 
dyepe j 

deope (deep) 

diere \ 
dyere ) 

deore (dear) 

lieniy ; 
lyerny ) 

leorne (learn) 

liese ) 
lyese ) 

leose (lose) 

Ordinary Southern form, 
leove (lief, dear) 

neode (need) 

theoster (darkness) 

teone (anger) 




niede ^ 

nyede j 

thiester ) 

thyester ) 



wieued ) 

I weoued (altar) 
"vvyetied ; 

■\vied weod (weed) 

vyend feond (fiend) 

ATyend freond (friend) 

Many preterites in eo take ie, as liield, Mid, held, Melp, hiljp, helpied. 

6. In the South-west of England at the present day such words 
as cart, card, and garden, are pronounced as Icyart, kyard, gyarden. 
Here the ya represents the original West Saxon ed, which in modern 
English is represented by a. In Somersetshire calf, grape, leap, 
leave, are j)ronounced Jceave, greap, leap, leave. In the Eastern 
division, as in Kent and Sussex, we may hear beam, deaic, gdut (geat), 
li'eaf, tdust, for heam, dew, gate, calf, taste. (See Outhnes of Dorset 
Grammar in Philolog. Soc. Proceedings, 1864, pp. 12, 13, 14.) 

We have no trace of tliis in Robert of Gloucester, Lives of the 
Saints, &c., but in the works of Shoreham and Dan Michel, we find 
abundant evidence (as the following examples will shoAv) that the old 
Kentish folk of the fourteenth century retained the ancient West 
Saxon pronunciation, for ea is written yea, ya. 

■=. beam 




bryead \ 

bryad ) 

cheak = cheek 

cleape = clepe (call) 

chyeaste \ 

chieaste j 

cheap =z cheep 

■=. strife cheaste 

dyad | 

dyead j 








= dead 

= death 
= deaf 

=: dew 

= hold 
= head 


hyeap ^ 
hyap ) 

= heap 


= salve 
= sloth 


= hue 


= spark 


= leaf 


= show 


= leap 


= virtue 


= lewd 


= dispute 


= rob 


= tear 


= shrew 
= salt 

vealde \ 
vyealde J 

= fold 

The Kentish j^reterites hea-^ (bent) ; cheas (chose) ; leas (lost) ; 
Jeat (hoived) ; stea-^ (ascended) ; zeald (sold) ; teald (told), correspond 
to the ordinary Southern he'^, dies, les, let, ste'^, teld (told). 

Sometimes the initial ea is represented by y, as yald, old ; yarm, 
arm ; yarn, ran ; year, ear ; yeast, east ; yerne, run ; yerthe, earth ; 
yestre, easter. 

With these we may compare the modern Southern provincialisms 
yarm = arm ; yarth ■= earth ; yeat = eat ; yeast =. east, &c. 

7. The only old Kentish forms corresponding to the modern buoy 
(boy), cwoaf (coat), &c., are 

guos = goose 
ZU0I3 = (the Dorset zull) := 


= bone 


= good 


= go 



The Onnulum, wliicli is of Midland origin and abounds in i!^orth- 
ern forms, contains scarcely any plural nouns terminating in the 
syllable e7i, while the Ancren Rewle, St Marherete and La3amon's 
"Brut," written in the Southern dialect, abound in them. 

In the longest and best specimens of the ^Northumbrian dialect 
of the early English period, I have not succeeded in finding more 
than three or four plural noims in en, as eglien (eyes), oxen, and 
nclion (shoes). But in Southern works of the same period they are 
almost as plentiful as in the earlier (Semi-Saxon) stage of the 

The following list of Southern plurals in en might no doubt be 
augmented, as they contain such forms only as have come under my 
own observation ; they all, however, serve to corroborate the statement 
made as to the frequent use of this inflexion. 
















* beden 




* bellen 




* benen 

prayers, boons 



* blissen 



blooms (flower) 





* bougeren 


^ The modern dialect of the South- -western counties still exhibits a fondness for 
this termination, as housen, peasen, neiffhbottrhooden. 

» All words marked thus (*) occur in the Ayenbite (1340) ; those marked with 
a dagger occur in Shoreham. 



* brotliren 

* Lryesten 


* carten 

* cellen 

* cherclien 

* children 

* clauen 

* crouch en 


* dyeuelen 

* diaknen 


brothers ' 









daws (choughs) 
















* do^tren 

* dropen 

* earen 

* yearen 

* eddren 

* elmessen 

* ejen 

t verden 

* von 


* halewen 








troops, armies 





hallows, saints 

clothes, gar- 

1 hretheni and chlldern occur in Early Eng. writers. 


* heaveden 

* liennen 

* hesten 

* honden 

* lierten 

t joyen 

* kempen 

* ken 

* lanibren 

* lompen 

* lenden 

* lippen 
t loken 




shirts of horse- 

hests, com- 




















* messen 

* modren 


* nettlen 

* nykeren 

* nykken 


* pesen 

* pinen 


* reven 

* roten 
rothern ^ 

* zaulen 

scheon shoes 

schrewen shrews 
schiren shires 


rewards (meeds) 















sheriffs, reeves 
roods (crosses) 

rothers, oxen 


' In Cott. MS. Tib. D. vii. rotheron, oxon, clnjldroii, are written for rutheren, 
oxm, children-. 




t tren 

> trees 





* zennen 



1 traps 



* treppen 








weeds (clothes) 




* wellen 





t sibben 







* werren 


* zideii 





* Avodewen 

1 widows 



t woken 




* womben 




* wonden 

[ wounds 




* wrecchen 


* spearken 


* wychen 




* wyngen 


* stableii 



\ wings 









* sterren 



t wyken 
* wysen 

Avays, modes 



* ympen 




* vetheren 


* tongen 


* vle3en ) 

vli^en ) 

* vorbisnen examples 



* toknen 



1 rods 

t ton 




The wliole of these do not, of course, belong to the n declension. 
Benen, deuelen, doren, honden, sunnen, srmlen, originally ended in 
-a; brother en, dolitren (do-^tren), heavedxii, modren, sustren {sos- 
tren), terminated in -ii ; and calveren, childeren, lyren, lambren,^ 
formerly ended in -ri/.. 

The A.-Saxon plural vowel inflexions -a, -?/., &c., were repre- 
sented in the Semi-Saxon by -e, and in the Early English period by 

The Northumbrian forms corresponding to the Southern bretheren , 
childeren, kine, were brether, childer, kye. 

The A.S. plural lendenu'^ (loins) became lenden in Southern 
English; the JSTorthern dialect employed the form lends, for which they 
formed a singular, lend, which is not to be found in any pure 
Southern writer. 

Occasionally the -en is represented by a final -e, as asse = 
assen, asses ; honde = honden, hands ; lij)];)e = lippen, lips ; sterre = 
sterren, stars ; stede ■=^ steden, steeds. 

Dr Guest, in the second volume (p. 75) of the Philological 
Society's Proceedings, has noticed these forms, but considers them as 
Northern forms. His statement is as follows : — 

" Anglo-Saxon nouns belonging to the n declension, as steorra, a 
star, steda, a steed, assa, an ass, &c., generally formed their plural in 
-an, as steorran, stedan, ossen, &c. But in the Northern dialect they 
substituted a vowel for the ending -an; and it is probable that these 
Northern plurals are represented by the sterre, stede, asse of the 
following examples : — 

(1) The fifte 3er he gan argument 

Of the sterre and of the firmement. 

(Sevyn Sages, 197.) 

(2) "VMii kyng other eorl cam on hjon to weorre,^ 
Quyk he lokyd in the steorre. — {Kanij Alls. 76.) 

(3) As y you sey bothe heore stede 

Feollen to grounde dede. — (A". Alis. 2263.) 

1 Zambre = lambs, occurs in the Ormulum. 

2 The sinff. does not occur in A.S. authors. 

" The -e in tveorre represents the -en in the infinitive. 


(4) And afftyr fyftene hundiyd asse 
Bar wyn and oyle, more and lasse. 

(B. a de Lion, 6453.)" 

' The three works from which the quotations are made, adds Dr 
Guest, are strongly marked with the peculiarities of the !N'orthern 

They certainly do contain some I^Torthern peculiarities, but not its 
distinctive peculiarities. The Seven Sages and the Eom. of King 
Eichard are in a Midland dialect, and K. Alisander is in the dialect 
of a locality where hoth Southern and Midland forms were em- 

The substitution of a vowel for the -an (as ego := eyes ; ivitgo, 
witrju = projihets) was undoubtedly a characteristic of the I^orthern 
dialect during the ninth and tenth centuries ; but is not to be found 
in any ITorthern writer of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 

The substitution of -e for -n ' is Southern rather than Northern, 
as the folloAving examples will show : — 

The nijtingale bigon the speche 
In one hurne of one breche 
And sat upone vaii'e boje 
Thar were abute hlosme ino^e.^ 

[Owl and Nightingale, p. 1.) 

Berne :=. Bemen (trumpets). 

The engles in the dai-red 

Blewedh heore heme. — (JRelig. Poems, p. 68.) 

Angles . . blcAve here hemen. 

{Lives of Saints, Harl. MS. 2277, fol. 11 b.) 

' The use of final -e for -n is quite common in the Southern dialect, not only in 
the plurals of nouns, but also in the preterite plural, infinitive mood, and gerund 
of verbs. In addition to these we find such forms as aT^e = a^n (again) ; o^e = oyn 
(own) ; neo-^e = ncoyn (nine) ; bhse, blosmen (blossoms) ; seove = scoven (seven). 

2 Blosme ino^e = flowers' enough = many flowers. Iiio-^e is the plural of iiio-^, 
enough. The pi. Blosmen occurs much later, as in the following extract;— 
Lenten yo come with love to toune 
With blosmen ant with briddes roune 
That al this blisse bringeth.— (<S^fc. of Lyric Poet. p. 43.) 


Browe =. Browen (brows). 

(1) On heu hire her is fayr ynoh, 

Hire broive broune, hire e^e ' blake. 

{Sjpec. of Lyric Poet. p. 28.) 

(2) Hyre he^e ^ havieth wounded me y-"wisse 

Hire bende hroicen that bringeth bUsse. — {rjid. p. 39.) 
CldrcJie-=^ Chirchen (churches). 

(3) Horn let wurche 
Chapeles and chirche. 

(K. Horn, p. 39, E. E. Text See.) 

(4) Tliat folc hi gunne quelle 

And clmrchen for to felle. — {Ihid. p. 2.) 
Breste = Bresten (breasts). 

Ther to me aneleth the wyttes fy^f, 
And fe^et, and hrede and lenden. — (Shorehnm, p. 43.) 
He het that me scholde hire lede : to the tonnes ende 
And hire hreosten fram hire bodie, with kene hokes rende. 

{8t Katherine, p. 76.) 
Crowe ■=. Croioen (crows). 

An hwanne heo habeth me of-slahe, 

Heo hongeth me on heore hahe, 

Thar ich a-schewele pie an croice 

From than, the thar is i-sowe. — {Old and N. p. 55.) 

Wenestu that haueck bo the Avorse 

Thoj croioe bigrede him bi the mersh, 

And goth to him mid hare chirme, 

Eijt so hi wille wit him schirme. — {Hid. p. 304.) 

Seint Edmund & his felawe: as hit was ofte here wane 
In a day fram Lenkenore : wende to Abyndone 
As hi come in a gret faleye : blake monekes he sej 
As hit crowen & clioi^en were : fleo bi their anhej. 

{&t Edmund, p. 76.) 

* e^e and he^e = e^en = eyes. 


Dede ■=. Deden (deeds). 

My gode deden tuetli fol smalle. 

{SjMc. of Lyric Poet. p. 99.) 

Of myne deden fynde y non god. — (Ibid. p. 99.) 

"WTien we bueth dempned after ur dede, 

A domesday, when ryhtes bueth tolde, 

When we shule suen thy wounde blede, 

To speke thenne we bueth unbolde. — (Ibid. p. 100.) 

Fewe gode dede ich habbe ido. — (St Brandan, p. 27.) 

J^je = EyM (eyes). 

. , . . syththe bifore here e-^e 
lie wende up to hevene as hi alle ise3e, 

(MS. Harl. 2277, fol. 23.) 

Gret fur heo let make bifore here aire eje 

(Ibid, fol. 40.) 

Hyre he-^e haueth wounded me y-wisse. 

(Spec, of Lyric Poet. p. 39.) 

Ke sholde he vor bothe his 636 
So don, jif he the bet ne se^e. 

(Oivl and Nightingale, 1. 381-2, p. 14.) 

Hyre eyyn aren grete and gray ynoh. 

(Sjpec. of Lyric Poet. p. 34.) 

Fere =: Per en (companions), 

Coveytise myn keyes here 

Nithe ant onde were rax fere 

That bueth folkes fyle. — (Sjjec. of Lyric Poet. p. 49.) 

Hi weren ure ifere. — (Moral Ode, p. 25.) 

This bosteres & this lieres as hi sitteth bi here fere 
Bringeth wimmen in sclaundre 

(Harl, MS. 2277, fol. 18 a.) 

Tnejferen he hadde 

That he with him ladde. — (King Horn, p. 92.) 


See K. Horn, p. 3. 
Herte ■=. Herten (hearts). 

Ac liy habbetli liire herten zuo arered ine God that hi ne prayzeth 
the wordle. — {Ayenhite, pp. 142, 152.) 

The they were on fote bothe, 

They foughte togedre Avith heorte ^vrot]^e. 

(7v. Alis. p. 302.) 

Gret ioye hi ha,dde in here liurte that hi mi3te this iseo. 

{St Brcmdan, p. 7.) 
Here-=. Her en (hair shii-ts). 

He werede harde here, — {St BeJcet, p. 75.) 

The nioder werede harde here : for onre louerdes lone 
Fram the schuldre to the hele. — {St Edmund^ p. 71.) 

])is children . . . werede here here frie a Avyke. 

{Ihid. p. 72.) 

And euere as heo hem sende clothes : as heo hem mijt iAvynne 
Thexvfith heo w-olde heren sende, — {Ibid. p. 72.) 
Henne = Hennen (hens). 

The voxe hird amang al menne 
And tolde the wolf with the brode crune 
That on him send gees and henne • 
That other geet and motune. 

{Camden Society's Polit. Songs, p. 198.) 
Honde = Honden (hands). 

We ne thore no3t this kny3tes seide : do bi the as we wolde 
For the kyng ous het the bringe him : thyn honde faste ybounde. 

He makede hem al a3en hire wille : his honden faste bynde 
& ladde him forth harde ynou3 : his honden faste bihynde. 

(;S^^ Cristo]pher, p. 63.) 
. . . . he het his men anon 
Seint Andreu scourgi so : tho that him oke ech bon 
And siththe bynde him lionde & fet. — {St Andrew, p. 100.) 

' Hennen, hens, occurs in the Ayenhite. 
c * 


Y-fetered were ys legges under his horse wombe y 
Bothe with yrn ant with stele mankled were ys honde. 

[Politic. Songs, p. 218. 

He smot doixn is heued 

. . . is 7tom7e» gon he wrynge. — (/&icZ. p. 193.) 

Mony frenshe wyf wryngeth hire lionde. — (Ibid. p. 188.) 

Sone, y se thi bodi byswongen 

Fet ant honden thonrhout stongen. — {Lyric P. p. 81.) 

. atte last hi founde 
The forme of onre louerd in a Rode : ibeten and ibounde 
Inailled thurf fet and honde: as our louerd wiihyyi ivounde (wounds) 
That hadde the gywes ido : god 3yA^e hem harde stounde (blows). 

{The Jews and the Cross, p. 43.) 

Lo7ne = Lomen (tools). 

At eve-song even neh 
Ydel men ^et he seh 
Lomen habbe an honde. 

{Spec, of Lyric Poet. p. 41.) 

This other swore alle ant some 

That er wer come with lo7ne 

That so nes hit nout ryht. — {Ihid. p. 42.) 

Mede = Meden (good deeds). 

Middel-erd for men wes made 

Un mihti aren is meste mede. — {Ibid. p. 22.) 

Schreire = Schreiven (wretches, villains). 
Gywes hatieth oure leuedi moche : and hire suete sone also 
That is isene in manie dede : that the schrewen habbeth ido. 

{The Jews and the Cross, p. 42.) 

The king hadde al to fewe 
To-3enes so vele schrewe. 

{King Horn, p. 2, E. E. Text Soc.) 

Sterre = Sterren (stars). 

Ine the Apocalyps Sent lohan 

I-se3 ane wymman wyth Sonne by-gon 



Thane mowe al onder hyre ton 

I-crouned wyth tuel(f) sterre 

Sycli a leuedy nas nevere non 

Wyth thane fend to werre. — (Shoreham^s Poems,-p.lS3.) 

And the cours of the steorren 

In heom he juggeth al his weorren. — (^K. Alis. p. 67.) 

By the mone and by the sterren 

Hy connen ingge alle icerren. — {Ihid. p. 203.) 

He loked and kneowe in the sterre 

Of alle this kynges theo grete weorre. — {Ihid. p. 113. 

Him tho3te that ther stod a treo : ri3t tofore his bedde 
That anon to the sterren tilde : and wel wide spredde. 

{St Kenelm, p. 51.) 

Hereof 36 ssolle understonde that in the firmament beth 
Planetes yliche clere sterren sevene as 3e seth. 

{R. of Gl. fol. 39.) 

Hwat canstu wrecche thing of storre 
Bute that thu bi-haitest hi feorre. 

{Old and Night, p. 45.) 

Thah thu iseo the steorre al swa 

Nortu the Avisure neauer the mo. — (Ibid. p. 46.) 

The Sonne and monne and many sterren 

By easte aryseth swythe /en'e??. — {Shoreham, p. 137.) 

Soule = Soulen (souls). 

Oure dettes byeth oure zennes that we habbeth ydo wexe ojie 
our zcmlen. — {Ayenhite, p. 88.) 

And lete us hatie the woh 

And luvie the ri3te 

And bringe ure saicle 

To heoveriche li3te. — {Relig. Songs, p. 80.) 

To there blisse us bringe god, the rixlit abuten ende 
Thenne he ure soide unbint of licames bende. 

{Moral Ode, p. 34.) 


Alle halewene sotde glade beoth : that in lieuene beoth ido 

That siiyeth oure loverdes way : and for him schadde also 

Here blod for his suete loue. — (St Dunstan, p. 39.) 

Shvldre = Shuldren (shoulders). 

A suetly suyre heo hath to holde, 

With armes, shuldre, ase mon wolde 

Ant fyngres feyre forte folde. — {Lyric Poems, p. 52.) 

A strong rop ther was siththe above : fram the sclmldre ido 

To his buttok of hors her : to holde hit faste to. 

{St Edmund, p. 75.) 

Up here scliiddren hi nouie this holi bodi anon. 

{St Beket, p. 125.) 

Tlieo delfpis wonetli hire byside 

A strong best of gret pryde, 

They haveth sclmldren on the rygge, 

And eke as scharpe as sweordis egge. 

(A^ Alls. p. 272.) 
Sytlie = Syihen (times). 

In a wyndou ther we stod, we custe us fyfty sythe. 

{Spec, of Lyric Poet. p. 91.) 

For pL see Glossary to Ayenbite, s.v, Zypen. 

Tunge = Tungen (tongues). 

O tyme a Seint Petres dei, gret feste with here tunge 

In the see hi makede of Seint Peter, and here servise sunge. 

{St Brandan, p. 20.) 

Tongcn occurs in the Ayenbite, pp. 22, 142. 

Lunge = Lungen (lungs). 

Nu schal for-rotien 

thine teoh and tlii tunge 

Thi mahe and thi milte, 

tlii livre and thi lunge 

And thi throte-bolle 

That thu mide sunge. — {Relig. Songs, p. 76.) 

Also in a man hys body 

Seme]) .... aer in jje longon. 

{Trevisa, 1387. Cott. MS. Tib. D vii.) 


Wede =z Weden (garments). 

I-luved ich. habbe gomeu and gleo 
And prude and feire wedei — {Relig. Songs, p. 66.) 
Nolde ich 3even enne peni for his weden alls. — {Ibid. p. 71.) 

The kyng of Mantona and his knyghtes 
Buth y-armed redy to fyghte 
In bruny of stel and riche iveden 
They doth go swithe on steden (steeds). 

{K. Alls. p. 57.) 
Woimde = Woundxn (wounds). 

"Wide were is wounde 

He tholede harde stounde. — [Lyric Poems, p. 97.) 

Sone y wil with the fouiiden, 

Y deye y-wis for thine loounden, — (Ibid. p. 82.) 

His deope wounden bledeth fast. — [Ibid. ]). 112.) 
The iconden bledde al longe ni3t. 

{StiBeket, p. 113.) 
Ac overcome nas he no3t, thai is tvounden dedliche were. 

(B. of Gl fol. 67.) 

& he let him lede in to an yle, vor to hele is icounde, 
& deide as the beste kni3t that me wuste evere yfoimde. 

{Ibid. 67 b.) 
See other example under Honde, Honden, p. xx. 
Tonge = Tongen (tongs). 

He sat longe and bitho3te him : longe hou hit were 
He bitho3te him ho hit was : he dro3 forth his tonge 
And leide in. the hote fur : and spac faire longe 
Forte the tonge was al afure : and siththe stille ynou3 
The devel he hente bi the nose. — {St Dunstan, p. 36.) 

Tho come ther suche schrewen mo wel thicke bi eche side 
With tangen, and with hameres berninge meni on. 

{St Brandan, p. 22.) 
Sunne ■=. Sunnen (sins). 

Godemen, for godes luve, 

bileveth eoure sunne. — Belig. Songs, p. 83.) 


^ai ! Nai ! hi shalle wel avinde 
That hi mid longe wope mote 
Of hore sunnen bidde bote, 
Ar hi mote euer kume thare, 

{Owl and N. p. 30.) 

Wyke z=. loolcen (weeks). 

Tuelmonth & elleue icyke : alle this maidenes were 
At Eome with this hoH pope. — {The 11,000 Virgins, p. 68.) 
In thyssere joye we scholde by-louken 
Al hyre joy en of vourti luolcen 

The wyles he 3ede with chyld. 

{Shoreham, p. 121.) 

The following are additional examples of plurals in -e ; — 
The water was ful of longe recde (reeds). 

{K. Alis. p. 210.) 

Ac wat etestu, that thou ne li^e, 

Bute atterco2?pe (spiders), and fule vli-^e (flies) 

An wormes. — {Owl and N., p. 21.) 

Ah thah my Hf me bed at-schote, 
The 3et ich mai do gode note, 
Me mai upone smale sticke 
Me sette a wude ine the thicke, 
An swa mai mon toUi hun to 
Lutle briddes and i-vo. 
An swa me mai mid me bi-3ete 
Wel gode brede to his mete. 

{Owl and N. p. 56.) 

Of drawing of bowes and stikke (sticks) 
Theo eyr bycam tho trouble and thikke. 

(A'. Alis. p. 168.) 
They haueth no wolle to spynne 
Heore clothis buth of bestis skynne (skins). 

{Ibid. p. 279.) 
Ne hy ne han boures ne halles 
Ne casteles with lieiffhe walles 


Bot in trowes and in denne (dens) 

And in roches lioled withinne 

Thereinne is her wonyghing. — [K. Alis. p. 244.) 

This venym creopith under my rihbe (ribs) 
That y may no longer libbe. — [Ihid. p. 324.) 

The kynedom of heuene ten maidenes iliche is 

That is ech maner folc that ne -wilneth no3t amis 

No folie of flesches wille ac thurf the ten heste (commandments) 

Lede hys lyf in clennisse. — {Harl. 2277, fol. 11 a.) 

After numerals, in the older stages of the language, the gen. pi. 
is properly used, but in 14th-century English the pi. is often used. 
Of the hul of Olyvet sone hi wende adoun 
To the bor^ of lerusalem, and bilevede in the toun 

A jjousend stapjpe (paces) ther bituene 

A Jjousend stappen of such pas a myle nojt hit is. 

{Harl. MS. 2277, fol. 24.) 

Of plurals in e representing older forms in -an, -a, -u {ru), numerous 
examples might be selected from the Southern literature of the earlier 
part of the 1 3th century. 



The ^Northern dialect during the thirteenth and fourteenth cen- 
turies seems to have adopted the termination -es as the inflexion of 
the genitive singular for nouns of all genders. The Southern dia- 
lect, following the usage of the older stage of the language, formed 
the genitive of masculine and neuter nouns in -es, but of feminine 
substantives in -e. 

Suete Ihesu, king of blysse 

Myn liuerte loue, min Inierte lisse 

Thou art suete myd y-wisse 
* Wo is him that the shal misse. — {L]jric Poems, p. 57.) 

Suete Ihesu min huerte lyht 

Thou art day with-oute nyht. — (Ibid. p. 57.) 

For loue thou 8636 thin keorte blode.^ — (Ibid. p. G9.) 


Thin heorte lone thou sendest us. — {Lyric Poems, p. f 3.) 
The suert is at myn herte grounde. — {Ibid. p. 8L) 

Suete Ihesu min huerte "bote 

In myn huerte thou sete a rote 

Of thi iouQ>— {Lyric Poems, p. 57.) 

Suete Ihesu min Imerte gleem 
Bryhtore then the sonne beem 
Ybore thou were in Bedlehem. — {lUd. p. 57*) 

Suete Ihesu my soide fode 

Thin werkes bueth bo swete ant gode. — {Ihld, p. 58*) 

Ihesu, do me that for for thi name 

Me Hketh to dre3e pyne ant shame, 

That is thy so^de note ant frame 

Ant make myn herte milde ant tame. — {Ihid. p. 71.) 

So that Barint the olde man ri3t at his hurte grounde 

Wei wepinge bigan to teUe what he er founde. — {St Brandan, p. 2.) 

The wonde swelth an aketh 

So doth the naddre stenge. — {Shoreham, p. 104.) 

And (the devele) dede hym in an addre icede 
That best was of mest sclireuhede of aUe beste. 

{Ihid. p. 158.) 

At the iooke end spake the ermyte 
And askede the munke of the spyryte. 

{Roh. B. Hand. Syn. p. 61.) 

Hit is gode monne i-wone 
A was from the worlde frome. 

{Or. N. p. 17, 1. 476.) 

An nime jeme of chirchc stevene 

Hu murie is the blisse of hovene. 

{Owl and N. p. 25.) 
Heo mai hire guld at-wende 
A rihte weie thurh chirche bende. — {Ibid. p. 49.)] 


But tha^ the prest hys messe do 

Inne dedleclie semie corse 

Thet sacrement man be thou syker 

For hym. nys najt worse ; For loke 

The sacrement nys na[3t] the wors 

Tha9 that ludas hyt toke. — (Shoreham, p. 27.) 

Thre maner peyne man fangeth 
For hys iie7i7ie nede. — (Ibid. p. 37.) 

To wake 
Hy thet slepeth ine serine slep 
Amendement to niaky, — (Ibid. p. 51.) 

An hors is strengur than a mon ; 

Hit berth on rugge grete semes, 
An dra3th bivore grete temes 
An tholeth bothe ^erd and spure 
An stont i-teid at midne dure. 

{Owl and N. p. 27.) 
The justise het his men openy thovene ' (the oven's) mouth. 

{Harl. MS. 2277, fol. 96 a.) 
Craddok erl of Cornwaile is avis sede 
That a senatour of rome yhote maximian 
Was of the kunde of this londe, a suithe noble man 
Vor he was Leoflines sone that Eleyne uncle was 
The gode Constantines sone moder, vor non betere nas. 

{R. of Gl. fol. 32.) 
Seynt Jame the gode man ri^t is to habbe in mone 
Seint Johnes brother the evangelist Godes aunte sone 
His moder was oure leuedi soster, 

{Harl MS. 2277, fol. 97 a.) 
In godhed toke he then way 
That to helle gates lay. 

{Harrowing of Hell, p. 15.) 

* This word is marked masculine by Boswortb. 

s:xviii grammatical peculiarities. 

Thou wilt me bringe to helle detli. 

{Lyr. Poems, p. 103.) 

Tho the nabbeth god idon & therinne beth ifunde 

He scullen falle swithe rathe in to helle grunde 

Thaer-inne he scullen wunie buten ore and ende 

ISTe brecth never eft Crist helle dure to lese hem of bende. 

{Moral Ode, p. 27, 11. 90, 91 ) 

Ac helle king is oreles with tha the he mai bride. 

{lUd. p. 29, 1. 109.) 

Sone so the quene fader Corineus was ded 
He vorsoc is owe wif and astrild made quene. 

{R. of Gl Cott. MS. Calig. A xi. fol. 11.) 

Conan the quene cosyn he clupede tho al stille. 

{Ihid. fol. 33 h.) 

Modred is neveu 

y crouned him sulve king thoru the quene rede 

{R. of Gl. fol. 61 a.) 

This wes on oure lecedy even. 

{Polit. Songs, p. 219.) 

This umnne weole (delight of joy) y wolefor gon 
Ant wyht in wode be fleme. — {Lyr. Poems, p. 44.) 

Fram dethe to lyve he aros thurf oure levedi lore.^ 

{Saints, p. 59.) 
The gode for-horede the fend 

Wyth hys hlaundynge stevene (with the voice of his flattery). 

{Shoreham, p. 59.) 

Ac Edward the other adde thre children bi is wive 
An sone that het Edward & dojtren also tu.eye 
Margarete & Cristine that gode wimmen were beye 
This gode children a3te be evermore in munde 
Vor Engelond, 3if hii nere, were 3ut out of kuude, 
As 3e mowe ihure her afterward in king Henries lif 

' Chaucer has " our lady veyl." See Prologue and Cauterhury Tales, I. 695. 


How Engelond com to kunde ^en thoru the gode quene Mold iwis 
That thes Margarete do3ter was, Mold the gode quene. 

{R.ofGl fol. 91 h.) 

He fond Horn in arme 
On Rymenhilde barme. 

(A' Horn, 1. 706, E. E. T. Soc.) 

The word bigan to springe 

Of Rymenhilde weddinge. — (Ibid. 1. 1018.) 

He dude Horn inn late 

Ei3t at halle gate. — (Ibid. 1. 1074.) 

A. Sax. ceddre, a vein.' 

Ich haue the leten eddre hlod. 
(Of the vox and of the woK a fable. Relig. Antiq. p. 272.) 

Leove moder, quath Lucie : if thu leovest in holi churche 
And the wordes of the godspel : & wold ther-after wurche 
Thurf tuocliinge of Seint Agace Tumbe : thu wost hoi anon. 

(Lives of Saints, p. 102, 1. 33.) 

Seint Lucie com 
To Seinte Agace holie Tumbe & hire moder with hire nom, 

(Ibid. p. 102, 1. 36.) 

To Seinte Lucie norici he wende : and eschte hire faste 
What Lucie were so onbicome hire god awei to caste. 

(Ibid. p. 103, 1. 59.) 

& Constantin Eleijne son ^e, witeth wel Eome nom 
& sut/it/ie Maximan that of hor beyre blod ich com. 

(R. of Gl. fol. 60 a.) 

Eichard due of Normandie Emme brother the quene 
Adde an sone that het Eoberd. — (Ibid. 99 a.) 

A (on) Seinte Marie dai in the leynte biheveded [were] bothe ifere. 

(Harl. MS. 2277, fol. 98 b.) 

Crist ycleped heuene lomb com to saynt Ion. — (Relig. Antiq. p. 87.) 
1 Clene ora out the vei/ne hlod.— {Harl. MS. 2277, fol. 14 a.) 


Ihesu Crist heouene king 

3ef us alle god endyng 

That bone biddeth t\iQ.—{Lyr. P., p. 59.) 

Ihesu for thi niu chela myht 

Thou graunte us alle heuene lyht. — (Ibid. p. 60.) 

Helpe me Jieuene queue, for thyn ever ycham. — (Ibid. p. 93.) 

Suete Ihesu of JSTazareth 
Thou do us heuene mede. — {Ibid. p. 112.) 
See Lives of Saints, p. 103, 1. 67 ; p. 107, 1. 202. 


No trace of the Genitive plural in -e7ie, 'Cn (A. -Sax. ena), is to 
be found in the Ormulum, the Bestiary, or Genesis and Exodus, 
although examples of this inflexion are common enough in La3amon, 
Seinte Marherete, and other Southern writers of the Semi-Saxon 
period. It is entirely absent form any pure specimen of the Northum- 
brian dialect of the 14th century, but is frequently employed by 
Southern writers as late as a.d. 1387. 

Apostlene veet :=. feet of the apostles. 

The hym with a touwayle-schete Ihesu 

After soper by-gerte 
And water inta bacyn 
Myd a wel mylde herte," 

And Avesschte 
Al his apostlene veet 
Thos ordre forthe he lesschte. — (SJwreJiam, p. 51.) 

Here god hi solde stiUe 

And to thapostlen fet hit caste. 

(Harl MS. 2277, fol. 25 b.) 

Da^en ende = end of fourty days. 

At fourty da-^en ende, — (Shorehain, p. 126.) 

Deovlene fere = the companion of devils. 
Ich wisse men mid mine songe, 
That hi ne sunegi nowiht longe ; 


I bidde horn that heo i-swike 
That heom-seolve ne hi-swicke : 
For betere is that heo wepen here 
Than elles-hwar to been deovlene fere. 

[Old 4' N. p. 32.) 
Develen prynces = princes of devils, 

Seue develen prynces beth. — (Shorehain, p. 109.) 

Englene songs = songs of angels. 

Go we aUe thene wei . for he lis "wulle bringe 
Mid tho faire fewe men . beforen heuene kinge 
Ther is aire meruthe mest . mid englene songe. 

{Morcd Ode, p. 33, 1. 177.) 

E'^ene wepynge = weeping of the eyes. 

Therfore thy schrifte man schel be wythoute stoneynge, 

Myd herte I03, and, jef thou my3t, 

Myd thyn e^ene wepynge. — {Slioreham, p. 35.) 

Feenden mestrye == power of the fiends ; fenden jewyse = judg- 
ment of fiends (devils), 

Schelde ous wanne we deade beth 

Fram dXio, feenden mestrye. — {Ibid, p. 84.) 

I-schelde ous wanne we dede beth, 
Fram alle/e?^(:?e^^e jewyse. — [Ilnd. p. 85.) 

FoweJen Parays = Parish of Fowls. 

Ther is oure gode procuratour that moche god ous haveth ido 

Ii; the Fowelen Parays and ine the Lond of Schep also. 

{St. Brandan, pp. 16, 17, 11. 353, 365, 379.) 

Bestyn hyng = king of beasts. ' 

That hestyn kyng 
Hys kynde may he noght forgo. — (Odavian, p. 177.) 

Doggen s of dogs. 

A dasyn of doggen 

Ne myhte hiredrawe. — {Polii. Songs, p. 239.) 

' Treviaa (1387) has besione (or hestoun) kynde. — {Cott. MS. Vesp. D vii, fol. 52 h.) 


Gromene = cf grooms (men), 

Gobelyn made is gerner 

Of gromene maw. — {Pullt. Songs, p. 238.) 

Jewene Imve zzz law of the Jews. 

To ^Q jewene lawe. — {Cott. Vesp., D. vii, fol. 148 h.) 

Gyivene wille = will of the Jews. 

Pilatus thurf the gyivene wille : Tiim demde therto. 

{Life of Pilate, p. 11 4, 1. 103.) 

Gyiuene falsliede =^falsehood of the Jews. 
Whan thou underjete, quath themperour : the gywene falshede 
Whi naddestou ispeke ther a3e : and desturbed the lithere dede. 

{Life of Pilate, p. 116, 1. 200.) 

Eeg regum, that is kyngene kyng. — {Cott. Vesj)., D. vii, fol. 282 h.) 

Proplietene =■ of the prophets. 

The man that healdeth thys tAvo 

Of charyte the heastes 

Al he folueth the lawe of gode 

And proplietene gestes. — {Shoreham, j). 92.) 

Alle soulen day ■=. Day of All Souls or All Souls' Day. 
& eke quath thangel that thou telle the pope her-of sone 
That me holde alle soulen day as ri3t is to done 
& as wide as holi churche that he makie his heste 
The morwe after alle halewen day ' that me holde thulke feste 
That ech man ententifliche as forth as he may 
For alle the soulen in purgatorie hidde thulke day. 

{Harl. MS. 2277, fol. 145 a.) 
Alle sotden day an urthe rijt is to holde heje. — {Ibid.) 
Soueni3t he bilevede ther: for-to alle Soulen day. — {St Beket, p. 58.) 

Soulen =. Of Soul. 
Ther Cometh two maner soiden. — {Ha^-l. MS. 2277, fol. 131.) 

1 Alle Halewen day = All Hallows' Day = All Saints' Day. (See Life of St 
Dunsian, p. 39, 1. 181, where phrase Alle halewene soule glad beoth = all the souls 
of the saints are joyful.) 


Spousebrecliene seme =. words of adulterers. 

These spousebreclien sawe. — {Sliorelmm, p. 62.) 

Tren rynde = The bark of trees. 

Schipes they haven y-hote pyrates 
In the water is heore gates : 
Whan hit is ebhe, up they "buth 
"Wlian hit is flod, y-scheot they beoth 
Heo buth ymad of oysers y fynde 
And y-bounde al with tren rynde. 

{King Alls. p. 255, 1. G187.) 

Wermene mete ■=. Meat of worms. 

Huet is man bot velthe and a zechvol of donge, loermene mete. 

{Aijenhlte, p. 216.) 

Tliornene croune ■=^ Crown of thorns. 
Hy to-steke hys SAvete hefed 
Wyth one tliornene coroune. — (Shoreham, p. 85.) 

See also Had. MS. 2277, fol. 13 b. 

Occasionally we find -e as well as -ene, as the sign of the genitive 
plural, as in the following examples : 

Bole liuden = Hides of bulls. 

Hi leten hem di^te a gret schip, and above it al bi-caste 
With hole huden stronge ynou ynailed (therto faste). 

{St Brandan, p. 5.) 

Bugle ^ marine hlisse = Bliss of angels and men. 

He (God) one mai & seal beo engle & manne blisse. 

{Alond Ode, p. 33, 1. 189.) 
Alle halewe = Of all Saints. 

a church he let rere 

Of oure loverd & alle haleice: in thulke place there 

Six hondred 3er & fyve : oure loverd ther bifore 

Of Marie his swete moder : an urthe were ibore 

The church that was of oure levedi & of alle lialeioen ifonde 

Stont 3ut & is icleped Marie la rounde. 

{Harl. MS. 2277, fol. 144.) 


Aire devele wet =z The way of all Devils. 

& this tuei enchantours to grounde hem overcome ' 
& dryve hem an aire devele wey. 

(Harl. MS. 2277, fol. 121 a.) 

hi also 

Schiille gon an aire devele wei bote god nyme 3eme ther to'. 

{Ibid. fol. 145 h.) 
Vyf myle wei =z The way of five miles. 
In pais hi wende forth here wey : & the bodi with hem toke 

Vyf myle wei hi were awend : er thothere awoke. 

(Lives of Saints, p. 56.) 

Twenty myle weyes = Tlie ways of twenty miles. 

Twenty myle Aveyes and mo 

No myght men astryde go 

Bote he step ondede men, 

In dale, in downe, in wode, in fen. 

(/i. Alls. p. 183, 1. 444G.) 
Mamie lif-=. life of men. 

Alle manne lif :=. the live of all men 

We scullen aire inaime ^ lif icnawe ther also ure owe. 

{Moral Ode, p. 27, 1. 82.) 
Alle cldlde = of all children. 

The eldeste soster of hem jjreo oiire levedi swete & mylde 
Bar oure loverd Ihesu Crist best of alle cliilde. 

{Harl. MS. 2277, fol. 37 a.) 
Alle thing e ■=. of all things. 

Fairest of alle thinge. — {Ibid. fol. 38 a.) 

(See Moral Ode, p. 33, 1. 177.) 

Aire heme ■= of all children. 

Marie cleophee 

Hadde tuei hoHe sones bi hire loverd Zebedee 

Seint Jame the holi man & seint Johan the wangelist 

That was aire heme best mid our loverd Ihesu Crist. 

{Harl. MS. 2277, fol. 35 h.) 

1 Manne as the gen. pi. is used by Trevisa (a.d. 1387) in Cott. MS. Yesp. D 
vii, fol. 286 a. 


V. Traces of the genitive singular nouns in -e are not very 
common, and tliey are remnants either of the n declension or of 
that class of masculines in -u or -o, which made the genitive singular 
in -a. 


" How he lepte with myght and niayne 
on the stede hack." 

{Rom. of Oct avian, p. 217, 1. 144G.) 

In is wode rage he wende 
Vor to'ke ' is uncle deth. 

{R. of Gl. Cott. MS. Caluj. A xi, fol. 65 a.) 

Bidde we seinte Marie 

For hire milde mode, 

For the teres that heo wep 

For hire sone hlod. — (Relig. Poems, p. 84.) 

Ich cristni the in the vader name 
And sone, and Holy Ghostes. 

(Shoreliavi's Poems, p. 10.) 

Fowel for tlii false sawe 

For bsddi (I forbid) the this wode schawe ; 

Thou fare into the filde. — {Relig. Antiq. p. 245.) 

"\\^lil y wes a clerc in scole, wel much el y couthc of lore, 

Ych haue tholed for thy love woundes fele sore ; 

Fer from liom ant eke from men, under the icode gore. 

{Lyr. Poems, p. 91.) 
He let his schup stonde 
And 3ede to londe ; 
His folc he dude abide 
Under loude side. 

{K. Horn, p. 29, 1. 1024, E. E. T. S.) 

^ Marsh treats itnele (and quene) as following under the same rule as brother, 
mocler, dorter, wliich dropped the genitive inflexion in A.-Saxon writers. 




Atliulf heo sede he blithe 

And to Horn tliou go wel switlie 

He is under wude bo^e 

And with him kni3tes ino^e. — (Ihid. p. 35,1. 1227.) 


The adjective in the Southern dialects retains most of the older 
inflexions. In the !N"orthern dialects the distinction between the 
definite and indefinite forms of the adjective is not preserved, and 
the final -e in the plural is for the most part disregarded. 


God (good), the gode (the good). 











goden \ 
gode i 


1 of all genders 
gode ) 


godene ) 

> seldom 
gode ) 


goden 1 
gode j 




goden ) 
gode •' 






goden \ 
gode ) 
















I. & Acc. gode 


godes ^ 


2 godes 


godre 2 


1 gode 
( goden 


2 gode 


i gode 
v goden 





' The genitive form of the indefinite adjective is more often used in indefinite 
and demonstrative words than in other adjectives. 
- Seldom used. 


He (God) wythstent the j^rouden. — (Shorchavi, p. 107.) 

And fe children ham lovie togidere and beuly fe uela3rede of po 
greaten. — (Ayenbite, p. 139.) 

Vor Jjerne dyaf hi clepie]) lyf and fane dya]) Jjet is to fe guoden 
heginnynge of Hue hi hit clepie j) Jjan eiide. — [Ihid. p. 72.) 

Alsuo tek]) ])e writinge Jjet me ssel zeche red ate yecdden and 
najt mid fe yonge, fe ne byejj na3t yproued in nyedes ac mid J)e 
yealde Jjet habbejj yzoje and yproued jje jjinges, ])et is Jjet wyt and 
fet red. Vor fan jjet Roboam, Salomounes zone, vorlet fane red 
of fe yecdden guode men, vor fane red of yonge he vorleas f e 
gratteste del of his kingdome. — {Ibid. p. 184.) 

For 3yf thy wyl rejoth more 
In enyes hunnes thynges 

Eote yn God .... thou ne anourest God aryjt. 

(Shoreham, p. 95.) 
Vuolf quad the vox him tho 
Al that thou havest her bifore ido, 
In thouht, in speche, and in dede, 
In euche otheres Jcunnes quede 
Ich the for3eve at thisse nede. 

(Relig. Antiq. p. 277.) 

Herbi f ou mi3te wel understonde, 
J?at on his areu, fat of er schonde, 
To stele to ojieres mannes bedde. — {Oivl ^ N. p. 51.) 

Bysshopes and barounes to the kynges pes, 
Ase men that weren fals, fykel and les, 
Othes hue him sworen in stude ther he wes. 
To buen him hold ant trcAve for alles cunnes res. 

{Camden Society's Polit. Songs, p. 214.) 

And what may f e dyches be 

But hire f olemode poverte 

Jjat nones hunnes assaylyng 

Ne may derve f e tour for no f ing. 

(Castel of Love, 1. 855.) 


Ures formes faderes gult we abigget alle. — {Moral Ode, p. 28.) 

jjes worlde lis Aviile fordrenche 
Mest alle men he jiveS drinke of one deofles scenclie 
He sceal him cunne sculde wel, jif he him nele screnche 
Mid ealmiMies godes luve ute f e us biwerien 
Wid (from) fes loreoches worldes luue, fat he ne mawe us derien. 

{Ihld. p. 32.) 

Elche rune he ihurd & he wot alle dede 

He ]5iu-<5-sih<5 elclies mannes j?anc jjat seal us to rede. 

{Hid. p. 25.) 

He is elclies godes ful. — {Ihid. p. 33.) 

Ther com to ous a 3ung man suythe fair and hende, 
He welcomede ous everechon mildeliche and suete 
And nemnede ev&reches owe name and wel myldeliche ous gan grete. 

{St Brandan, p. 3.) 

The fox so godne ne can (knows) nanne 
The (though) he kunne so vele wrenche. 

Oiol^N.^. 28.) 

Ich wot hwo schal beon anhonge, 

Other elles/M???e deth afonge. — {Ibid. p. 41.) 

And hit is grat wonder thet hi loketh zuich ane fiehlene castel as 
hare fyeble bodye aye zuych ane strangne vend ase is the dyeuel of 
helle. — {Ayenhite, p. 227.) 

Vor alsuo ase the angles of heuene habbeth grat glednesse of ane 
zene3ere huanne he him repenteth and deth penonce vor his zennes, 
alsuo the dyevelen ham gledieth huanne hi mo3e overcome and do 
valle into zenne ane guodne man ; and the more thet he is of grat 
stat and the parfiter, the more heth he the gratter glednesse huanne 
he him may gyly, ase the vissere heth more blisse vor to nime ane 
grains visse thane ane littlene. — {Ibid. p. 238.) 

Non yzij ane yongne boryeis and ane newene kni3t. Mochel 
habbeth thos of vele tho3tes, newe, diverses, and wylvolle. — {Ibkl. 
p. IGl.) 


Of alle tliise yefthes (of kenae, of hap, and of grace) we ssel thonki 
god and servi vor thet hi cometh alle of Mm. Tha^les the proude 
hise zelth to the dyevele vor thane vaJsne peny of ydele blisse. 

(Ai/enbite, p. 24.) 

tha3 me godne sckele hem telle, 

!N"an:;t hyt ne ganth (avails). 

{Slwreham^ s Poems, p. 135.) 

I wylle me ssrive and ich wille zigge alle mine zennes aye me, 
na3t of othren, ne ayens otTiren as doth the ypocrites. — (Ai/enbite, p. 

Efterward the ssrifte ssel by yhol na^t to-deld ine vele ssriveres. 
Vor me ssel zigge al to o;^e?^, na3t o del to onen and thet other del to 
anothren, vor god ne taketh none heda of ziiiche tales, — (Ibid. p. 175.) 

Hit is more zenne in one stede thane ine anothren. — [Ibid.) 

Thanne ssel he verst yzy the zeue dyadliche zennes, of Tiuychen 
Ave habbeth above yspeke, and yholHche of eclien him ssrive be than 
thet he him yvelth. gelty, no-thing to hele, nothing wyth-zigge, na3t 
him to defendi ne nenne othrenne wray. — [Ibid. p. 175.) 

Hy ne thencheth ne studieth bote ham zelve to avonci and othren 
to harmi. Thet w^t is the develes wyt ase zayth Saint Jacob, thet 
eche daye him vondeth othren to barmy. — [Ibid. p. 82.) 

For byre poer nys non3t y-lessed 
Ac toup alle othren hys y-blessed. 

{Shoreham, p. 127.) 

To nonen. — {Ayenbite, p. 121.) To echen. — {Ibid. p. 122.) 

To alien.— {Ibid. p. 145.) Be enne (by one).— {Ibid. p. 129.) 

He wile deme evrinne be his dedes. — {Ibid. p. 134.) 
In the herte of evrichen. — {Ibid. p. 146.) 

II. Inflected Article (Definite), 

In the Ormtdum the definite article is tininflected, the only 
remnant of the older inflexions being the i)hrase (still retained at the 



present day) ' for than anes ' = for the nonce. So, too, in the ISTorth- 
ern dialect during t]ie E. Eng. period the article remains the same 
for all genders and cases — but net in the Southern dialect, in which 
the masculine, feminine, and neuter forms, and some case endings, were 
preserved as late as the middle of the foiu'teenth century, if not much 

In the Nortliern dialect that is the demonstrative adjective ; in 
the Southern it is the neuter of the definite article. 



Noni. and Ace. j)o, feo, J)a. 




Zueche tyeares drivef ]iane dyevel uram fe herte as \et weter 
cachchef ]iane hond out of fe kechene. — {Aijenhlte, p. 171.) 

be fise virtue (pacience) fe guode overcome]) alle 

his vyendes, ]5a7^e dyevel, fe wordle and fe^vless. — {Ihid. p. 167.) 

Vor huanne man him berjj hate to J»e torment and f e zaule and 
\et bodi, zuo fet fe man ne may slepe ne non rest habbe, ofer huyl 
him benimf f««e mete and ^ane drinke and makef him valle inc ane 
fevre ofer ine zuiche zor3e fet he nimf \iane dyaf. — {Ihid. p. 31.) 

fos he lyest al his time and fe nijt and \iane day. — [Ihid. p. 52.) 

Loko f et fou hal3i Ipayie day of fe Sabat. — {Ihid. p. 7.) 

These forms are seldom used after 1300. 


serve fine sseppere fet him restede ^ane zevende 

day of workes jjet he hedde ymad ine \>e zix dayes bevore. 

(Ibid. p. 4.) 
Go we pene narewe wei & ])ene wei grene. 

(Moral Ode, p. 32.) 

Ri3t so hit farj) hi pcm iingode 

j)at no3t ne suf to none gode, 

And is so ful of uvele wrenche, 

Jjat him ne mai no man at-prenche, 

And can wei fawe fursstere wai 

And pane bri^te wei lat awai. — [Owl <^ N. p. 9.) 

Tho hit was Eve thane Sonedai the deueleu come blaste, 

{St Brandan, p. 27.) 

The thrid dai than aniorow grisful hit sal be to loke. 

{Early Eng. Poems, p. 9.) 

And so he lay al thulke tynie : and also thane friday. 
He let clipie the Saterday the freres bifore him alle 
And bed aUe godne day. — {Lives of Samts, p. 39, 1. 198.) 

Ofte heo gaf hem mede 
For to faste thane fridai : to watere and to brede. 

{Ibid. p. 71.) 

And God zayf ine his spelle Jiet huo fet zene-^e]) aye pane holy 
gost he ne ssel nevre habbe merci ine pise wordle ne ine pe ojjre. 

{Ayenbite, p. 28.) 
To quendride his lipere soster anon he gan Avende 
And tolde here al pe lijjere cas : fram bigynninge to pan ende. 

{Lives of Saints, p. 53, 1. 198.) 

He com of pan adel eye. — Oicl ^ N. p. 5, 1. 133.) 

Also hit is bi paji ungode 

jjat is icumen of fule brode. — {Ibid. p. 5, 1, 129.) 

Ine po manere and ine po vorbisne hep pe jjri states of Godes 
zone ine erjie, huiche pe holy gost let and conduejj, aze zay)) Sainte 
Tanel— {Ayenbite, p. 122.) 


Seynt Jame seythe that oreyson 

Of tlier holy byleve 

Of hiis siknesse helthe wynthe, 


That no fend schal reve the heljje. 

{Slioreham's Poems, p. 41.) 

Ich am that ly3t 

Of alle ther wordle rounde aboute. 

{lUd. p. 49.) 

. . . ther mot atter spousynge 
Be ry3t asent of hothe, 
Of man and of titer \yymman eke. — [Ibid. p. 57.) 

byternesse of mode 

That hiis tliare saide galle. — {Ibid. p. 92.) 

Therthe schok, the sonne dym bycom 
In thare tyde. — {Ibid. p. 86.) 

Therforc nas helle nau^t yschet, 

N'e develyn therinne naujt ydut, 

Ine thare crybbe. — [Ibid. p. 157.) 

j3o stod on old stoc far beside, 

]3ar Jio ule song hire tide, 

And was mid ivi al bi growd ; 

Hit was ]iare hide earding-stowe. — {Old Sf N. p. 2.) 

}5e ni3tingale hi isc3, 

And ]3U3te wel wl of ]iare hale. — {Ibid, p, 231.) 

Wostn to fan man was ibore 1 

To fare blisse of hovene riche. — {Ibid. p. 25.) 

]5e wranne, for heo cnfe singe, 

War com in fare more3eiing 

To helpe fare ni3tegale. — {Ibid. p. 59.) 

Of fisse riche (heaven) we f enchet oft 

& of fe;-e (helle) to selde. — {Moral Ode, p. 32.) 


To pere blisse us bringe god. f e rixlet abuten ende. 

(Moral Ode, p. 34.) 

Ill Slioreliam's poems we have an example of the pi. dative pane. 

For ase \vymman com of the ryb 
Of the maiiiies ry^t syde, 
So holyche spouse of God 
Sprange of tha7ie "vvondeii wyde. 

{ShoreJ/can, p. 80.) 

III. Many of the older forms of this, wholly unknown in the 
Northern dialect, are preserved in tlie Southern until a very late 
period. It appears to have been declined as follows. 


'Masc. Fern. Neut. 

feos, fios, 

( PCOS, pOS, ^ 

Norn. ]jes,']pis, [y^^^x J P« 

Gen. Jjises, jjisse, fises. 


Dat. '^. ' [ Jiisse, fise 

. bisne, besne, \ . 

Ace. [ bisse, bis. 

berne/'^ ; 

ISTom. peos, fes, fos, J)is, jjise. 

Gen. jjise, jjisse. 
Dat. fise, J)isen. 

Ace. jjes, f)ise. 


])es bo3 he]) monie tuygges. — {AyenMte, p. 41.) 

& wiJ)}Tine a lytel stounde pes man fat semede so coldc & a fylo 
mesel werj) whyt & fayx & sty^ up in to pe aer. 

(Cotton MS. Vesp. D vii, fol. 145 a.) 

])es "William regnede fryttene 3er a monf) lasse. 

(Ihkl. fol. 145 a.) 

\)es Odo wastede & destruyede jje kyng hys rentes and escheytes. 

J3es Edward was veyr of body. — (Ihid. fol. 291 h.) 

J3es (= this man, i.e. Lotharius) was a lettrede man. 

(Ihid. fol. 280 h.) 

' Retained as late as 1387. ^ Eetaiuedas late as 1340. 


In hys vurde jer fes (Honorius) cliangedo 
Jje coj)es of freres carmes. 

{Cotton MS. Vesp. D vii, fol. 288 h.) 

]5es seyJe Jiat he was Ihesus Crist. — {Ihkl. fol. 283 h.) 

peas Corsa liadde a hole. — {Ibid. fol. 28 h.) 

pues niayde was ywedded to Robert de Brui3. — {Ibid. fol. 284.) 

He lay by Ipues mayde. — {Ibid. fol. 272 a.) 

}?areuore jje kyng caste to wedde ])2(es wynche. — {Ibid.) 

peos (tliese) fre lawes. — {Ibid. fol. 45.) 

pues (tliese) uorsede men .... chese J)e uorsede Edward ]je 
eldere to be here lord.— {Ibid. fol. 289 b.) 

pues voure breddes (birds) quajj fe kyng help my vonre sones. 

{Ibid. 270 b.) 

On helle is unger & Jierst, vuele tiio ifere 

pos pine poliede fo J)e were mete nithinges here, 

{3Ioral Ode, p. 29.) 

Sculde liini elc man Jje wile he mai of \)0S helle pine. — {Ibid. p. 31.) 

peos hule abod fort (until) hit was eve. — {Owl ^ N. p. 2.) 

Ac lete Ave awei fo-s clieste. — {Ibid. p. 7.) 

Heo bigan to sike sore : and in tho3te stod 

Alias heo seide that ich scholde tliisne day evere abide. 

{Lives of Saints, p. 51.) 

Wend he seide whan thu horn coniest to Edward 3oure kyng 
And sai him that he for was love he 3af tliisne ring 
Him sende here his ring a3en and thonkede him also. 

{Ibid. p. 106.) 

Mid graate wille Ich habbe \erne paske yvvylned, jjet is to zigge 
^erne dyaj), Jjise' ssame, yise wendinge. — {Ayenbite, p. 133.) 

perne = \esne, is peculiar to the Kentish dialect, and occui's in the 
poems of Shoreliam.2 

' \}ise shows that ssame and wendinge are feminine nouns. 
- For thou areredst theme storm. — (Sliorcham, p. 161.) 


Of pisen we habbef yajre vorbysne. — {AyenUte, p. 218.) 

In ])ise bene (fern.) fet we dof to godc we bezeclie]) ane yef fe of 
fe holy gost—{rbid. p. 89.) 

Tldssere (gen. and dat. sing, fern.), A.S. \issere ; Tlussere (gen. 
and dat. pi.), A.S. J)/6'.i^era occur in Shorehani's poems. 

To thyssere joyen (joys) scholle be y-leyd (placed) alle the 
joyen that mo^e (may) be yseyd (named). — {Slioreham, p. 126.) 

To thyssere joye longye (belong) scholle aUe the joyen that 
hyre (to her) folle (may befall) of hyre chylde God. — {Ihid. p. 123.') 

6. The plural of Adjectives (mostly of Eomance origin) in -es^ as 
loateres principales, is unknown to the liorthern dialect. 

IV. Degrees of Comioarison. 

Adjectives ending in -lich (sing.), -liclie (pi.), often form the com- 
parative in -Inker or -loker (Kentish -laker). This inflexion is 
unknown in the N^orthern dialect, in which the affix -lich becomes -Ilk 
(-like) -ly, and the distinctions between the singular and plural forms, 
as well as that between the adjective in -llcli and the adverbial in 
-liche, are lost sight of. 

The afiix -lich has not given us the more modern -ly. It is pro- 
bable that this latter form has arisen from -li'r/ (thus barley, originally 
herlic, is corrupted into herlig and herley). 

Traces of this corruption occur in the Ormulum, in which we meet 
with the double endings of adjectives and adverbs in -like and -Z/3. 

V. Numerals, 

Some Southern numerals (ordinals) end in -the, as seofetlie (sevethe), 
seventh ; ei'^tethe, eighth ; neo^ethe (nithe), ninth ; tethe (tethe), 

The corresponding Northern numerals end in -nde, -nd, as sevend, 
arJdande, negliend, tend, and are doubtless of Danish origin. 

The Kentish dialect, like the old Frisian, prefers -nde to -tlie. 

1 See pp. 53, 96, 121, 127 of Shorehara's poems, 
* The forms in -nth are Midland varieties. 


1. Dropping of the final. -n. 

Seoven (seven), neo-^en (nine), in the Southern dialect, frequently 
drop the final -?i, as seove (sove) ; neo-^e, neje. 

VI. Adjectives 2^Gadlar to the Soidhern dialect. 

\)ilJc, ])ilke, ])u,lk, ])ulke (older forms, pellich, jiellicJie) = this, 
these, such-like, are not employed by Northern writers. They are 
still retained in the modern provincial dialect under the form thick, 
thuck, thicky. 

Bather, bathers (of both), same, twin (two), thrin (three), 
slike, silk, sic (such), ])ir, ])er, pere (these), are luiknown to Southern 


Our pronouns are substantially N'orthern ones. The Southern 
dialect had many pronominal forms which never occur in any 
Northern writer. 

The following table exhibits most of the Southern forms, in use 
during the xiiith and xivth centuries : — 

I. The personal pronouns are : Ich (I), jitt, ])0U (thou), he (he), 
heo (she), hit (it). 





Ich, uch, 

fU, J30U. 





min, mi, 

J)in,' J)i. 



ure, ur. 


! me, 



' unc, \ 

unk, j 

\ hunke, ) 

ous, us. 


Norn. get, git, 36, ye. 

gunker, ( eower, 

inker, I 3ure, youre. 

Dat. gunk, f eow, ow, ou. 

Ace. ink, ( 30U, yow. 

' min and j^m are used before words beginning with a vowel i'mi and pi before 
a consonant. They follow the declension of the adjective, making in the oblique 
cases mine, ]>ine'; minen, \>lHen, &c. 







Masc. Fern. Ncut. 
|-lieo, 1 

'^^^' I hit, 

i^y' ht. 

he, I 
-hue, J 

ha, \ 

his, liire, his. 

him, hire, him. 

i( hire, n , . 
hme, ( ^^ hit. 
^"™'(his, )''• 

Xom. hi, hii, heo, hue. 

( liire, here, heore, 
( huere, hor. 
Dat. heom, huem, hem, horn. 

Aoc. lii, his, hise. 

Icli^ or Ucli is still retained in the modern Southern dialects 
under the forms Uch and utclnj, and occasionally contracted into cli 
(as cliam =: I am, cliell, chill, I will). Eohert of Gloucester fre- 
quently writes Icholle = Icli wolle, I will ; Ichot = Icli wot, I know. 
Ic,^ Ik, I^ are corresponding Northern forms. 

/ occasionally occurs in the Southern dialect: (1.) before verbs 
commencing with a dental or nasal, as / nam, I am not ;' / not, I 
know not ; (2.) after verbs, as most!, I must ; icollij, I will. 

Thritti wynter and thridde half yer 
Havy woned in londe her. 

{Harrowing of Hell, p. 15.) 

Thou miht Avyten in thy lay 

That mine icollii have away. — (Ibid.) 

Thah men to me han onde, 

To love 7iidi/ noht wonde 

Ne lete for non of tho. — (Lyric Poems, p. 29.) 

Yhere thou me nou, hendest in lielde 

Navy the none harmes to hethe. — (Ibid. p. 37.) 

' lu the earlier periods of the language, Ic is the ordinary form. 

' Many editors have incorrectly printed ie instead of ich for the contraction 1' 


Mosti rydeii by Eyljbesdale 
Wilde wynimen forte wale. 

{Lyric Poems, p. 33.) 

Ne sixtu wel ieham aliue, icholle segge liou it is. 

{R. of Gl. fol. 51 a.) 

Hii verde ichot as gydie men mid loan no red nas. — (Ibid.) 

Icholle sulle min (lif) dere ynou. — {Ibid. fol. 67 b.) 

Thulke Woden adde a wyf that ycluped was Dame Frye 
A Latin Dame Venus as ichabhe ysed nou tuye. 

{Ibid. fol. 69 a.) 

An liendy hap ichabbe y-hent 
IcJiot from lienene it is me sent. 

{Lyric Poems, p. 28.) 
See Lyric Poems, p. 94. 

Vor icham mid min fon in eche half biset 

& 3if ichom may ouercome. thorn 30U the bet 

Ich 3on woUe mid me at-holde and in gret richesse 30U do. 

{R. of Gl. fol. 39.) 

For 'wohiy, mdni, hi sul fle and that in-to the pine of helle. 

{Early Ear/. Poems, p. 12.) 

II. A or Ha =: He. 

This form is very common in aU the Southern dialects, but never 
occurs in any ISTorthern writer. It is still preserved in the modern 
provincial dialects of the South of England. 

Moi belovad be loik a raw or a yoong hart : Zee ! a' stand'th 
behind our wall a' look'th voath at th' winders, zhowing hiszel droo 
th' lattice. — {Song of Solomon, Somersetshire version.) 

Tha voice uv ma beluvid ! behold lia com'th laipin apin tha 
mowntins. — {Song of Solomon, Devonshire version.) 

Every body kneows owld Barnzo, as wears his yead 0' one zide. 
One night a was coming whoame vrom market, and veil off's lios into 
the road, a was zo .dr^ink. — {Akermanh Wilfsliire Tales.) 


Trevisa uses a as an indefinite of the 3rd pers. pro. = he, she, 
it, tliey. 

Hy (tliey) habhejj no wodes Jjerfore a makeji ham fuyr of tomes. 

{Cott. MS., Vesp. D vii, fol. 28.) 

j?ar buj) also cicade bryddes fat synggejj atto beste & habbej) a 
pipe opon onder Jje jjrote & synggejj betre whane fe heiied is offe pan 
whyle hyt ys on & betre whanne a hep deed fan whyle pay bu]j 
alyve.— (//>«/. fol. 29 h.) 

He ran home to uore & prayede hys wyf fat hue wolde helpe for to 
saue hym fat as moche as hue my^te hue scholde make here self uoul, 
bote a dude fe contrary, &c. — (Ibid. fol. 222.) 

Yn f is ylond growef a ston fat hatte gagates ; . . . . a ys ablak 

as gemmes buf a brennef yn water, &c. — (Trevisa, quoted in 

Morris' Specimens of Early Evglisli, p. 334.) 

Also for ys yn f e cop of an hul a buryel ; everych man fat comef 
& metef fat buriel a schal fynde hyt evene ry3t of hys onne meete & 
^ef a pylgrym of er eny wery man kneolef f erto, anon a schal be al 
fersch & of werynes schal he feele non nuy. — {Ihid. p. 337.) 

This pronoun is used by Robert of Gloucester and Shoreham. 
King Arthure a^en f e brest is felawe verst ahitte, 
A^en f e brust fat a vul & ne mi3te no leng sitte. 

(R. of GL, Cott MS., C(dig. A xi, fol. 57 /^.) 

Ac a deythe (dies) and he not (knows not) wanne (Avhen). 

(Shoreham' s Poems, p. 3.) 

In the foreheved the crouche a set (setteth). — (Ibid. p. 15.) 

Ha (Crist) grade 'hely' to hys fader. — (Ibid. p. 86.) 

Dan Michael uses only the older form fla ' = he. 

Ha beat (beats) and smit and (both) wyf and children ase ha 
were out of his wytte. — (Ayenbite, p. 30.) 

1. Hine (ace). Him. 
In the Southern dialect hine is found as late as 1340. It still 

' In the older stage of the language, called Semi-Saxon, ha = she and tlicy. 


exists in the modern provincial dialects of the South of England 
under the forms -en or -U)i. ^o trace of this accusative is to be found 
in any I^orthern writers ; nor is it used in the Ormulum, one of the 
earliest of Midland productions, "where its place is supplied by the 
dative hhn. 


A kni3t wyth one scharpe spere 

Stang hi/ne i the ry3t syde. — (SJioreham^s Poems, p. 86.) 

})G dyevel Jjerto proprelich uondej) fane man : fet he Mne my3te 
wyjjdra^e uram po loue of God. — (Aijenhife, p. IIG.) 

j)e Avrechche ne j^engj) of him jjet Jiiiie halt. — (Ibid. p. 128.) 

Third Personal Pronoun, Feminine. 

The Southern personal pronoun of the 3rd person is Heo, which 
occasionally takes other forms, as Hi (Kentish), as hue (South 
Western). Heo, He, Hue, is used as late as 1387. See extracts, p.xlix. 

The corresj)onding ISTorthern form is See or Sho (Midland Sche), 
which seems to have arisen out of the older (or A.S.) Seo or Sio,^ 
and gradually to have crept into the Southern dialect towards the 
end of the xivth century, for we find it once or twice in Trevisa's 
translation of Higden's Polychronicon (1387), where heo or hue is the 
ordinary form.^ 

" Siborea made gret mone to-fore Judas of here wrechehede lyf & 
sorouful ; how heo hadde yput here yonge sone in to fe stremes, how 
heo lost here hosbond sodeynliche & how shee was ymaryed ajenes 
here wylle."— ((7o«o?^ MS., Vesp. D vii, fol. 137 a.) 

Hi or hy, her, ace, is used as late as 1327-77. 

The ni3tingale hi ise3 (the owl) 
And hi bihold and over-sej. 
An thu3te wel wl of thare hule 
For me hi halt lodlich and fule. — {Owl ^ N. p. 2.) 

1 .Ze = she, occurs once in the Ayenbite, p. 102. In the story of Genesis and 
Exodus (E. Midland dialect) sye [sge) occurs several times. 

2 1 do not find an earlier instance of the use of she in any pure Southern writer. 
It should be noticed, perhaps, that such a form as seo or sio would not become she 
but se i^iQ) or si (zi) ; but she arises out of a form like sceo or sea. 


And [thu] lerdest hi. to don sliome 

An unri3t of hire liconie. — [Owl tj- N. p. 36.) 

Senne (= fern.) hys swete and lyketh, 
Wanne a man hi deth 
And also soure hy bryketh (= brooketli) 
Wane lie venjaunce y-setli. 

(Shoreh aril's Poems, p. 102.) 
To liealde Jii/ (erthe) op hyt nys no ned. — (Ibid. p. 13G.) 

Personal Pronoun, 3nl Person Plural. 

Hit, Hi, Heo^ = they ; heore, hure, huere, hor, hare = their, heoni 
(liuem, hem, horn, ham) =them, are Southern forms (retained as late 
as 1387), the corresponding Xorthern ones being Thai (tha), thai)' 
(thar), thaim (tham).^ 

Hi, them, is retained as late as 1327-77 by Shoreham. 


Ac he that ine sanle is Strang, 

That he with-stent hi alle, 
And hardeliche hert othre men, 

Adoun that hi ne falle. 

ac stonde. — (Shoreham's Poems, p. 14.) 

Anon J)e foend fondeth hi/ so, 

And he ne spareth nanne. — (Ihid. p. 16.) 

See also pp. 92, 94, 97, 112. 

The forms hor and hom are, perhaps. Western and South-western 
forms. The Kentish dialect employs hare (hire) and ham. 

Hise (His, is), (ace.) = them. 

Until I saw the Midland version of Genesis and Exodus, I was 
under the impression that hise (is) = them, was pecidiar to the South- 
ern dialect. But though it makes its appearance in some of the Mid- 

^ He ^ they (East Midland) seems to have arisen out of Hia or ITie. 

2 Their, Theim (them), are Midland varieties. \>e^, ]pe]^r, occur in the Ormulum. 
\>ci occurs in an East Midland MS., Trin. Col., Camb. (xiiith cent.), and in the 
Story of Genesis and Exodus. \)ni/ is used occasionally by Trevisa. 

e 2 


land dialects, having Southern tendencies, it is never employed by 
any I^orthern writer. 

Dr Guest has shown that this pronoun answers to the Gothic ins, 
ace. of eis. The oldest form of the pronoun in English appears to 
have been lies. 


\)o\\ zayst jjet J)ou hest zixti year, f»e dyaji h ise he]) and neuremo 
Ills nele fie yelde. — [Aijenblte, p. 71.) 

God ne hejj hede of kueade yeffes ac he his louej? trewe and guode. 

{Ihkl p. 192.) 

Alast thanne that he [God] is vader be kende and be rijte, he 
loveth thet he heth ymad, ase zayth the boc of Wysdome, and is 
zuete and milde and zuo loveth and dra3th vorth his children, and 
ham deth hare prou, and betere thanne hi conne devisi ; and he h is 
byat and Ms chasteth hnanne hi misdoth, vor hare prou ase guod 
vader and bletheliche he his ondervangth huanne hi cometh to hym. 

{Ihid. p. 100.) 

Of France & of ojire londes fat we wonne mid ure mi3te. 
We mowe segge fat we nabbeth to ansuerye no3t mid ri3te. 
Whan hii vorsoke is & vor slewj»e & to none defense ne come 
j)o Ave Jjoru chiualerie out of hor poer is nome. 

(R. of Gl. fol. 60 h.) 

Tho caste this gode molde hire mantel of anon 
& gurde aboute hire middel a vair linne scete 
& wess the meseles vet . echone ar heo lete 
& wipede is nessce afterward . & custe is wel suete. 

{Ihid. fol. 123 h.) 

3ef he hys (Godes hestes) breketh and so byloefth, 

Hys saule schal he spylle. 

3ef thou hys halst man, God the seith, 

Ha wole be the so kende, 

He wole be fo to thyne fon. 

And frend to thyne frende. — (Shoreham's Poems, p. 90.) 

Ten hestes haueth yhote God, 


He liys wrot (and) Moyses by-toke. 

In ston ich Avot that he hys wrot, 
In tokne of sykernesse. 

{Shoreliam^ s Puems, p. 92.) 

Hise (hys, is), (ace.) = her. 

Tlie Gotliic Si = she, makes gen. izos, dat. izai ; a cognate root is 
probably preserved in the Southern form Jits =z her. 

}5ulke soide (fern.) nyme]? his (■=: herself) in and bilevej) iwis 
In Jje childes brayn anhe3 fat is fe sonle fat hext is. 

{Pojndar Science, p. 140.) 

And 3yf man halt ase hys wyf 

After the gelt [as] hys spouse, 
Tha3 he by hyre ne ligge noii3t. 
Other halt hys ine hys house, 
In tome, 
N'e schal liy nau3t departed be 
Pram hyni for hordome. 

{Shm^eham! s Poems, p. 77.) 

Ho (who) halt ys (erthe) o^l.—ilhid. p. 136.) 

Josephes llievdy, tho hy vand alone him, Td wold do him zene3i 
mid hire, ac he him vledde ase wys and hise vorlet. 

{Ayenhite, p. 206.) 

The guode man mid the rede of his wyue yeaf his cou to the 
preste thet wes riche. the prest hi nom blethliche and hise zente to 
the othren thet he hedde. — (Ibid. p. 191.) 

Mochel is defouled, mid the vet of voUeres, the robe (fern.) of 
scarlet, er-than thet the kuen his do an. — (Ibid. j). 167.) 

Thervore the dyevel playth ofte mid the zene3ere ase deth the cat 
mid the mouse (fern.), thanne he his heth ynome, and huanne he heth 
mid hire longe yplayed thanne he his eth (eateth). — (Ibid. p. 179.) 

And of Alisondre me ret thet he yaf ane cite (fern.) to onen of his 
sergons an huanne the ilke hise wolde forzake, vor thet grat thing him 


tho3te to nime zuych yefthe ; Alisondre answerede and zayde ' Icli ne 

loky najt thet "belongeth the to nimene ac nie to yeue.' 

(Ayenhite, p. 195.) 
See also p. 203. 

He wende him worJ» to chirche, & hivore the rod com, 

& mid mek herto pitosliche is kinges croime {=■ fern.) nom 

& sette is vpe fe rode (fern.) lieved (head of the Cross). 

{R. of Gl fol. 93 fl.) 

Possessive Pronouns. 

The forms urs (ours), yhures (yours), hirs (hers), thairs (theirs), 
appear frequently in Northern works written during the earlier part 
of the xivth century ; and from the fact that the Ormulum, whose 
tendencies are ^Northern, uses ])e'^'^rs (theirs),^ we may reasonahly 
suppose that these forms were in use much earlier. The Southern 
corresponding forms wore tire, eoicere, yire, hire, here. The I^orthern 
dialect has also such forms as alliy's and bathers = Southern aire (or 
alder), of all, and heire, of both. 

In the Lord's Prayer in the Northern version of the Cursor 
Mundi we have the phrase ' fader wes.^ In a Southern Avork of about 
the same date we have the corresponding phrase ' fader oitre.^ 

The following examples will illustrate the use of the possessive 
pronouns in the two dialects. 

On of hem wile fi^te 
A3en [other] thre kni3tes 
3ef other thre slen ure 
Al this lond beo :^oure ; 
3ef we ure on ouercometh ■^oure'^ three 
Al this lond schal ure beo. — (King Horn, p. 3, E. E. T. S.) 

A man of thair gains an of ur 
If urs mai him win in stiu', 
That thai be urs & thair airs (heirs) ; 
If thai Avin U7's that we be thairs. 
(Northern version of Cursor Mundi, Cott. MS. fol. 42.) 

' In some Midland writers we find heres and horcs = theirs. 
2 A Northumbrian could say youn three. 


Some few JMiclland dialects employ the forms ouren, youren, 
heren. This seems to have arisen from the adjectival use of these 
forms. (In the Ayenbite we find thinen and Tdren in the dative case.) 

Demonstrative and Relative Pronouns. 

The nominative jje is seldom used in the Southern dialect after 
1250, \et or ])at being the ordinary relative in all dialects. Shoreham 
uses fe occasionally/ and many other Southern writers preserve the 
dative and accusative forms, thane, than (that), whan, wan (which, 
what), never employed by iSTorthern Avriters. 


Therefore thys tale rymetli 
Hon men in senne beth, 
And hou senne ly-ljnneth 
Than that to senne hym deth. 

(Shoreham^s Poems, p. 104.) 

To wyte (know) thanne wat God ha3t (=: hot = bids) 
Is eche man wel y-halde (bound). — (Ibid. p. 91.) 

And 3et for al ])an bi is dale, thoru hor Infer mode 
Hii bro3te oure louerd Ihesa Crist to defe on the rode. 

(R. of Gl., Cotton MS. fol. 2'^ h.) 

An hwanne heo habbeth me of-slahe, 

Heo hongeth me on heore hahe 

Thar ich a-schewele pie an crewe 

From than, the thar is i-some. — [Owl 4" N. p. 55.) 

The thridde condicion thet ssel by in elmesse is, thet me (one) 
ssel yeue largeliche he than (according to that) thet me heth huerof 

1 The sixte heste scheweth wel 
The sothe to al mankenne, 
The dede y-do in lechery 
Ilys ry^t a dedleche senne. 
And elles ncre hy^' nau^". 
Forbode amange the hestes tenne ; 
TJie that seggeth hys nys naujt, 
So hare wyt is al to thenne. 

(Shoreham' s Poems, p. 99.) 


the wyse zaytli ' Yef to God he than thet he heth the y-ycue.' 

(Ayenblte, p. 195.) 

The ilke thet is zuo he3e arise ine prosperite thength in his herte 
verst to the dignete, efterward to his prosperite, efter than to his 
richesse efterward to his lostes thet his body heth, efter than to the 
greate ve]a3rede thet him vol3eth. — (Ibid. p. 24.) 

The thridde werre thet the wrethvolle heth is to than thet byeth 
onderhim, thet is, to his Avyve and to his mayne. — (Ibid. p. 30.) 

Hit is a perilous ziknesse thet ne may na^t tholye thet me liira 
take, and to than thet alle medicines went in to venim. — (Ibid. p. 22.) 

ISTou ich the habbe ssortliche yssewed huyche byeth the lyttle 
guodes and the midel guodes ; nou icli the wylle ssewy huet ys the 
zotlie guod ari3t, thet maketh tha7i thet hise heth guod ; and -vvyth- 
oute ham non ne wes nevre ari3t guod. — (Ibid. p. 79.) 

Saynt Ion ase we habbeth yzed toparteth zeue overcomeingges 
and zeue crounes, thet is to zigge, zeue maneres of medes thet God 
behat to tha7i thet ouercometh. — (Ibid. p. 170.) 

Two kuynden he (Crist) haf, wo witen bi J?o« 

)5at he is sof God and sof mon. — (Castel of Love, p. 60.) 

Tho hule one wile hi bi-tho3te 
And after than this word uj)-bro3te. 

(Owl ^ N. p. 8.) 
Telstu bi me tlie wurs for than 
That ich bute anne craft ne kan. — (Ibid. p. 28.) 

Ich not hu mai eni freo man 

For hire sechen after than 
3ef he biwencth bi htcan he lai 

Al mai the luve gan awai. — (Ibid. p. 52.) 

Ac after than the he haved idon . he seal ther beon idemed. 
Blithe mai he thanne buen . the god haved iquemed. 

(Moral Ode, p. 27.) 
Efterward thench hou velezithe thou best yby onbo3sam to thine 


vadcr and to thine nioder and to than to huam thou ssoldest bou3e 
and here hoiioiire. — (Ayenlite, p. 21.) 

This zenne [of prede] is yhounde ine tJian thet be his o;ene 
mouthe him yeljith other of his wytte, other of his kenne, other of his 
workes, other of his prouesse, &c. — (Ihid. p. 22.) 

An sum sot mon hit tihth thar-to 

Mid alle than that he mai do.— {Owl ^ N. p. 49.) 

Wostu to tlian man was ibore 

To thare bHsse of hovene-riche. — [Ihid. p. 25.) 

Evre-ilc man mid than the he haved mai biggen heuene-riche. 

{Moral Ode, p. 24.) 

. . bi than 36 wite than ende. 

{Lives of Saints, p, 72.) 

Anon so hi se3e the monekes come, hi gonne to singe ymone, 
A3en hem with gret melodie, as hit were for tlian one. 

{St Bixmdan, p. 17.) 
This holi man makede loudere song as hit for tlian one were. 

{Ihid. p. 21.) 

Thyse byeth the tuelf articles of the Cristene Byleve thet ech man 
Cristen ssel yleve stedevestliche (vor otherlaker he ne may by ybor3e) 
liuanne he heth wyt and scele ; and ther-of byeth tuelf by the tale 
of the tuelf Apostles thet hise zette to hyealde and to loky to alle 
thon ' thet wyleth by ybore. — {Ayenhite, j). 11.) 

The vifte article zuo is, thet ha wente into helle efter his dyathe 
vor to dra3e thannes and to delivri tlie zaules of the hoH vaderes and 
of alle thon thet vram the gininnge wordle storve in zoth and guode 
byleave, and ine hope thet hi ssolden by ybor3e. — {Ihid. p. 12.) 

And thet he is ase the ymaymed ate porche of the cherche thet 
ne heth none ssame vor to sseawy alle liis maimes to alle thon thet 
ther guoth vor thet me ssolde habbe of him j^ite. — {Ihid. p. 135.) 

He naveth bute one woning 
That his bischopen much el scheme, 
1 \>on is plural. 


All alle than tliat of his nome 

Habbeth i-hert and of his dede.— (OwZ S,- N. p. Gl.) 

The stone upe whan ich sitte that maketh me sitte above 
In a wei ich him fond ligge, ther no neod nas to ston. 

{St Brandan, p. 27.) 

IchoUe the make of this lond kyiig thou ssalt yse 
. & this lond al be thin : & the othre bruteine be 
Vor honour of bruteyne to ^oan thou addest kunde. 

{R. of Gl. foL 34.) 

Ac a3en somer the emperour tho he adde al an lioiide 
Wende hom towards Eome and mid gret love 
Nom with liim the erl of Kent thorn loane he was above. 

[Ibid. fol. 23.) 

He let at Eome an stronge dich make al aboute 

& deop ajen Constantin & a3en is route 

Vor to holde hom ther, thorn wanne hii come with oute. 

{Ibid. fol. 31 b.) 

Tho adde he al is wille vor tvanne it was al ido. 

(Ibid. fol. 38.) 

This were lo ure faderes of ivcm we beth siiththe yconie 
That with such treyson abbeth this lond thus ynome. 

(Ibid. fol. 42 b.) 

Hwat senile we beren biforen us. 
mid ivan senile we him iquemen. 

(Morcd Ode, p. 25, 1. 48.) 

To ivcm were lii i-borene 

The scuUe ben to dethe idemd & evre mo forlorene. 

(Ibid. p. 25, 1. 53.) 

Ac heo nas no^t ahwar : to whan hire hurte drou^. 

(Seinte Margarete, p. 25.) 

By iy3te toknynge thou ert the hel 

Of ^oan spellede D any el. 
Thou ei't Emaus, the ryche castel, 


Tliar restetli alle werye ; 
Ine the restede Emanuel, 

Oi tvany^ speketh Ysaye. — (Shoreham, p. 133.) 

Seint Dunstan com liom a3en ; & faire was iinderfonge 
Ladde his abbey al in ptees, fram whcm he was so longe, 

(Lives of Saints, p. 37.) 
"We scolden alle us bi-thenche oft and wel ilome 
hwet we beth and to than we senile & of loan we come. 

(Moral Ode, p. 32.) 


Present Tense, Indicative Mood. 

For the various dialectical forms in the present tense of the 

Indicative Mood, the reader is referred to Early Eng. Allit. Poems, 

Introduction, pp. xx.-xxi. ; Genesis and Exodus, Introduction, pp. 

xvii., xxvii. 

Third Person Singidar in -th. 

Jennings, in his Observations on the Dialects of the West of 
England, notices the fondness for the inflexion -th (not -eth), instead 
of -es, in the 3rd per. sing, indie. This may be illustrated in the 
following passage from the Song of Solomon in the Devonshire 
version : 

A comHh jumpin upon the mountains. He stan'th behaine our 
woll. He leukHh voath vrem the kezment an' shoici'th his zel ta th' 
lattice.— (Ch. ii. 8, 9.) 

In the Southern dialect of the Early Eng. period we find the 
same fondness for the inflexion -th. In many cases it distinguishes 
the singular from the plural, as ])lnh'^ =a2:)I)ears, ]>inlve]i = appear. 

Ac thanne he (the dronke) heth yslepe, and comth to him zelue 
thanne he yvelth his kuead and Ttnauth his folye and him playneth ' 
of his harm. 

Aten onde the zenejere, ase zayth Salamon is ase the ilke thet 
depth amide tlie ze and thet ssip spilth and he ne najt hit iie-velth 
ne none drede ne lieth. — (Ayenhite, p. 128.) 

' For tvanc ? ~ Tlaynetli has p^nyny for the infinitive, and therefore does 

not suiter contradiction ; its plural would be playnieth. 


Preterite Tense, Singular Number, Indicative Mood. 

The preterite tense ^ (first and third persons singular) of regular 
verhs terminates in -de, as lovede, hopede, &c. There is no final -e in 
the singular of vrregxdar verbs, e. g. slow (= slew), smot (= smote). 
In ]N"orthern writers we often meet with such forms as sloglie (slew), 
snuite (smote), which in the Southern dialect would be considered as 

Second Person Singular, Preterite Indicative of Irregidar Verhs. 

In the oldest English or A.S. period the second person of irregular 
verbs ended in -e, as lieolde = heldest, droge ■=■ drcAvest. Those that 
change the vowel of the preterite plural, admit of vowel change in 
the 2nd pers. sing., as hu7ide (boundest), drife (drovest), clufe 
(cleavedst or clovest). 

The Southern dialect of the Early English jDcriod has numerous 
examples of this final -e in the 2nd pers. sing., but it is exceedingly- 
rare in ISTorthern writers. Dr Guest has already pointed out that the 
author of the Ormulum exhibits a tendency to omit this -e, as badd 
= baddest. 

Enes thu sunge, ic wod wel ware 

Bi one boure, and woldest lere 

The lefti to an iivel luve 

An sunge bothe lo^e and buve 

An lerdest hi to don shome. — (Ow;Z ^ N. y>- 36.) 

Thar-to jjou stele in a day 

And leidest thar-on thy fole ey. — (^Ihid. p. 104.) 

Sloice thu the holi prophete : to wrothere hele dudestu so. 

{Pilate, p. IIG.) 

Ihesu for loue thou stehe on rode. 
For loue thou se-^e thin lieorte blod. 

{Lyric Poems, p. 69.) 

Thu i^eue vis weole and wunne 
Thu brohtest dai, and Eve nijt. 

{Relig. Songs, p. 65.) 
' It is thus distinguished from the past participle which ends in -ed. 


Ich wille speke toAvard. the 

Also thu sjjeke toward me. — {Owl ^- N. p. 20.) 

And levedy, the was wel wors, 
Tho (when) that thou se^e in dede 
Thy leue childe reulyche y-nome 
And ase a thef forth e lede. 

(Shoreham's Poems, p. 83.) 

Preterite Tense, Plural Number, Indicative Mood of Regidar Verbs. 

The plural of the preterite in the Southern and Midland dialects 
terminates in -en.^ 

The -n is, however, frequently dropped, as in the following 
examples : — - 

& alle the men that hiifounde hii slowe as hii come. 

{R. of Gl. fol. 34.) 
And the peces floiue ahoute 

And smyte on this lithere men . wel harde to the grounde. 

{St Katherine, p. 96.) 

Hi norae ken hokes of ire : and hire flesche to-gnowe. — {Ibid.) 

In norjjhumberland hi bigonne & ther hi slo:}e to grounde. 

{Ibid. p. 87.) 

& hi seje hire (the cou) sitte a dai in the valeye ther-doune. 

{St Kenelm, p. 54.) 

Voioel change in the Plural Preterite of Irregular Verbs. 

The Southern dialect, as in the older stages of the language, 
changes the vowel of the preterite pi. of that class of verbs repre- 
sented by binden (to bind), driven (to drive), eleven (to cleave), in 
which the vowel of the pret. pi. is the same as the past participle. 
The Northern dialect does not furnish us with any examples of this 
vowel change. 

And (hi) yeueth ham to sterue vor the loue of him (Crist) thet 

1 The Northern dialect has no inflexion in the sing, or pi. pret. 



starf VOX* ham, other ine the londe beyende the ze other ine anothre 
stede. — {Ayenhlte, p. 1G5.) 

Ha wente into helle .... to delivri the zaules of the holi vaderes 
and of alle thon thet vrani the giningge of the wordle starve in zoth 
and gnode byleaue, &c. — (Ihid. p. 12.) 

Alle hi storuen in zor^e ine the desert. — {^Ihid. p. G7.) 

And hor either a^en other gaderede hor ost vaste 
So that hii come and smite an bataile atte laste. 

{R. of Gloucester, Cott. MS., Calig. A xi, fcl. 29.) 

For meni men yjve oure louerd god : that were of gode thojt 
To susteynie his apostles.— (/wtfas Iscartot, p. 110.) 

Preterite forms of Regular Verbs pemiliar to the Southern dialect. 

1. Some few verbs in the Southern (and in some of the Midland 
dialects) ending in -die or -ge often make their preterites and past 
participles in -nte (-nde) and -nt (-nd). 



Past VavK 

clenche (fasten) 

^ cleinte 
( clente 


drenche (drown) 



menge (mix) 

/■ meinde 
( meynde 


quenche (quencli) 



senge (singe, toast) 



sinke (sink) 



springe (sprinkle) 

( spreynte 
( spreynde 


2. The preterites of such verbs as drede, lede, sprede, &c., were in 
the Northern dialect dredde, ledde, spredde, forms which are also 
found in the Southern idioms, but in the latter dialects avo often 
find a change of vowel, as 

Inf. Pret. 

clothe I 

clethe ) 

drede (dread) dradde 

grede (cry) graddc 


Past Part, 






Past Part. 

ledo (lead) 



leve (leave) 



reve (bereave) 



schede (shed) 



sprede (spread) 



swelte (die) 



threte (threaten) 



Infinitive Mood in -en ; Gerund in -enne or -ene. 

The JSTorthern dialect drops the -en^ of the infinitive, which is 
retained by the Southern and Midland dialects. The -n is mostly 
dropped, and the final -e strongly sounded represents the older 
inflexion -an, as hreoiye, to creep, Tjeue, to give.^ 

The gerundial infinitive in -enne or -erie (originally in -anne or 
enne) survived as late as 1340. It more often takes the inflexion -e 
of the infinitive.' 

Ich ne loky na3t Jjet belongej) fe to nimene ac me to yeue. 

{Ayenhite, p. 195.) 

He ous yef Jj his blod to drinke and his vless to etene. 

(Ibid. p. 146.) 

The inflexion -enne of the gerundial infinitive being pronounced 
very much like the present participle in -inde or -ejide, is very often 
confounded with it, and before the date at which La3amon's Brut 
was written we find the participle in -inde or -ende doing duty as 
the gerund ; thus, to helpinde :=. to lielpenne, to help. 

When the -inde or -ende became -inge or -ing the mistake still held 
its ground, as we find late in the xivth century such forms as to 
Icepynge ■=zto kepene =to keep, &c. 

1 In the Northern dialect we meet with many verhs ending in -en, but they are 
not to be regarded as infinitives, but rather the earliest examples of such forms as 
light en, darken (= to make liglit, to make dark), &c. 

* This full form -en is frequently used by poetical writers as a conyenient rhym- 
ing syllable. 

^ What some writers have called the long forms of the infinitive used by 
Chaucer, as to done, to slcme, are in reality gerundial infinitives. 


Damascus ys to menyiig schedyng blod, 

(Trevisa, 1387 Cotton MS., Tib. D vii, fol. 9 a.) 

Hy (they) tau^te ham to hontijng and to sclietyng. 

(Ibid. fol. 15 a.) 

Also he hadde sum tyme yuonge to kepynge his dou3ter of 
Frauns, vor a scholde marye here to his sone. — [Ibid. fol. 272 a.) 

Jpues men wonede under fe hulles of Jude .... and wente 
(turned) to robbyngc & reuynge. — (Ibid. fol. 281 b.) 

Infinitives in -ie or -y. 

Infinitives in -ie, -ye, or -y^ (from older forms in i-an), are exceed- 
ingly common in the Southern dialect as late as 1387. N^o trace 
whatever of this inflexion is to be found in any Northern work, and 
though met with in the West Midland are of rare occurrence in the 
East Midland dialect of the xivth century. They are still retained in 
some of the modern dialects of the South of England.^ 

" Chell whistley and zing and capery vor oil yow cheesen." 

(Ex/mour dialed.') 
Present Participles. 

The present participle in the Soutlfern dialect terminates in -inde, 
in the Northern in -ande (-and) : as Southern lovinde, Northern 
lovande (lovand). 

As early as the beginning of the xivth century we find a tendency 
in some of the Southern and Midland dialects to use the form in 
•inge (-ing) instead of -inde or ende.^ 

In Trevisa's translation of Higden's Polychronicon, written 1387 
(Cotton MS., Tib. D vii), there are no examples of particij)les in 
-ende ; all end in -inge or ing. 

In the Northern dialect the -and was employed as late as the 
xviith century. 

1 Many verbs adopted from the Romance dialects took this inflexion, as chasty 
= chastise ; crouny, to crown; sovy, to save, &c. 

2 Dr Baraes has shown that they still exist in Dorsetshire, as viowy, to mow ; 
zawy, to sow. 

* -end is a Midland form, and is frequently used by Gower ; -ande (-and) was 
adopted in some of the Midland dialects, and is most frequently employed by East 
and West Midland writers. The participial form in -ing is no doubt a corruption 


Past Part/'ci2)les. 

1. In the Southern dialect up to a very late period the i- or y- 
(A.S. ge) was retained as the prefix of the past participle : as idemd, 
judged ; iJwte, called. 

iS"o instances of this prefixal element is to be found in any 
!N"orthern writers. In Midland works with Northern tendencies, like 
the Ormulum, the ^'-' is frequently dropped. 

The modern Southern dialects have corrupted this prefix into 
a, as ayete =^ eaten ; abroke, broken. 

2. Past Participles of Strong or Irregular Verbs originally ended 
in -eti : as ihroTcen, broke ; icorven, cut; ifaren, gone. Southern writers 
frequently omit the -??,, as in the following passages.^ 

pe tyding to fe contasse sone was ycome, 
]pat hire louerd was aslawe & fe castel ynome. 

(R. of a., Cotton MS., Calig., A xl, fol. 51 «.) 

ycome = yeomen (come) ; ynome = ynomen (taken). 

But when the participle is used adjectivally in the plural, the 
full form is often retained, as yhoundene (bound), yhrokene (broken) . 

Northern writers never omit the -n, and instead of ycome, 
ynome, &c., write comen. nomen, &c. 

Negative Verbal Forms. 

The Northern dialect makes but little use of negative forms, 
which are very common in Southern writers. 

nam, am not ; nis, is not. 
«es,was not ; nere, were not. 

of -inde, and not of -ende or -ande. As before observed, there is good evidence for 
supposing that the sounds of -2«(^e and -i)ige (and -en; see G.nesis and Exodus, 
p. xxxviii.) were closely related ; in fact, we find kervynge (= Jccrvinde == cutting) 
rhyming with/y«rfe. 

" He hath in his front strong. 
An horn foure feet long, 
So as Y in 'bo'k.QS fynde 

No rasour is so kervynge." —[K. Alys., 11. 6551-2.) 
' This y or i is frequently found : 1. in other parts of the verb, as yleve, to believe ; 
yknau]}, knows {Aycnbiic). 2. In nouns, as y-flon, arrows; yvon, foes; ihede 
(prayers). 3. In adjectives, ?&yredy, ready; ywer, wary {Ayenbite). 4. In ad- 
verbs, as ylome, frequently; ymene (in common). 

- All Trevisa's past participles of strong verbs end in -e. 




nabhe, have not ; neth, hath not. 
nade, had not ; not, knows not. 
nost, knowest not ; niiste, knew not. 
mile, nile, will not. 

Verbal prefixes peculiar to the Southern dialect. 

1. An (a), as anginne [anginne), to begin. Angrise {agrise), to 
terrify. Anhete, to inflame, kindle. Anhitte, to strike. Anlwnge 
to hang. Anlikng, to compare.^ 

2. Of : (a.) for (negative), ofyinche = for think, repent ; of-guo = 
forgo ; of-holde, withhold.'^ (b.) for, as in ofseche, seek for ; ofsende, 
send for, 

3. At (A.S. cet), as ot-herste, burst from ; at-ioite, English at-wit, 
reproach; 3 at-route, to advance, 

A d verbs. 

The Southern dialect retains numerous adverbial forms un- 
known to the Northern speech. 

1. Adverbs in -e : as («.) longe (for a long time) ; unrl'^te, wickedly 
(b.) ene, tide, thrie* (Northern anes, f ivies, thries^) = Semi-Saxon 
enen, tiveien, thrien, A.S, cene, twiwa, thryiva. (c.) henne, hence; 
thenne, thence ; whenne, Avhance ; = hennene (lieonene, heonnen) ; 
whanene {ivliannen, wannen) ; thanene (tliennen) s= A.S. henn-an, 
thanon, hwanon.^ 

2. Adverbs in -es, as alles, altogether ; willes, willingly ; thonkes, 
willingly (as his thonkes == he being willing) ; unthonkes, un- 

3. Adverbs in -en, ferren, selden, whilen (= also ferre, selde, 
loliile). The Northern forms end in -nm or -am, as ferrum, selduin, 

1 In the Soutlicrn dialect, such verbs as ago, awake, arise, are exceedingly 
common, but scarcely ever occur in any Northern works. 

2 of-serve occurs in Southern writers for deserve. 

3 Chaucer uses at-renne and at-rede (to run from, out-run ; get rid of, out-wit). 
* neode, uede, occurs for nedes = needs, of necessity. 

5 These forms are not unknown to the Southern dialect. 

« Towards the middle of the 14th century these forms became hennes, thennes, 
whennes {whannes). The corresponding Northern forms are hethen, thethen, 
vhethen {quetJien). 


4. Adverbs in -vxif, as alwat, alhnef, until, neirmt, nearly.* 

5. Ac (but) ; el- (also) ; so — so (as — as) ; forte {for to), until.^ 

6. Dropping of e, as 03^?, aije, again ; siththe, sethtJie, since, 


The following forms are peculiar to the Southern dialect. 

1. A7i,^ on, in (before a vowel) ; a (before a consonant) : e. g. An 
erfie, in earth ; an-ende, lastly ; a7i-he^, on high ; a-It/ve, alivo • 
a-slepe, asleep.'* 

The JS'orthern dialect prefixes on : as on-live, alive ; on-loft, aloft ; 
on-slepe, asleep ; on-slante, aslant, &c. 

The preference for on explains the curious IS'orthern forms, 
obove (above) ; omang (among) ; olike (alike) ; onan (anon). 

2. Fram, from (Xorthern /ra ; Midland /ro). 

3. 3Iid, mide (Northern witli). 

4. Top>pe (Kentish), above.^ 

' -gate, as in algate (algates), thusgafe, swagafe, is unknown to the Southern 

2 Sum, as ; tvarne, unless ; utwith, without ; imvith, M'ith ; fonoith, before, are 
not used by Southern writers. 

3 An is used by Southern writers as a separate word, as well as a prefix. It is 
still known in Sussex, where the peasants say, "Put your hat any 

* The a is still preserved in anon = in one (minute), a-htmting, a-building, &c. 
5 a< =: to ; til, to, are not found in the Southern dialect. 

f 2 



A.D. 1250—1340. 





Hw, Wh 



Specimens of E. 
English, p. xvi 















U (or E) 



Eg (le, Ue) 



Ea (Ya, Ye) 

E or 







Large number of plurals 

in -671 (-n) 

Plurals in -Ten 

Plurals in -e 

Genitive singular of 

feminine nouns in -e 
Genitive plural of nouns 

in -ene and -e 
Adjectives retain many 

of the older inflexions 

j)a, })o (fem.), the 

J5es (masc), Ipeos, ])iies 

(fem.), this 
Beye, both, gen. jjI. heire 


Very few plurals in -eji 

Brether, childer, ky, 



Adjectives drop all the 
older inflexions, ex- 
cept a7<?er and hailier 













p"J, j)et, neuter of the 

\)at, a demonstrative 




Atten, Attan, Atte 




After (fern.), at the 




])er, ]iir, Ipere, their 



})as (those) 



Slik (sic), such 


Idi, Uch, I 

Unknown. Ik and / 
used instead 


A, Ha, he 


xlviii, xlix 

Hi, He, Heo, Hue, she 

Unkno'wai. Sco, sclio, 
sho, used instead 


Hine (ace.), him 



Hi, Hit, Heo, Hue, 

Unknown, pa, ^ ay, used 

K • 



Heo, Here, Hire, Hor, 

Unknown. ])air, par, 


Heore, Huere, their 

used instead 

Hetn, Horn, Ham, Heom, 

Unknown. ])am, paim, 



used instead 

His, Hise, Is, them 



His, Is (ace), her 



Ure (Owe), eower 

Unknown. Urs, yhoures. 


(i/oure), here (hire). 

\aires {\iairs), used 

ours, yours, thehs 


Wan (wliich) 



-ejj in all persons of the 

-es in all persons of the 


pi. pres. indie. 

pi. pres. indie. 

-e, -est, -e\ (-}»), the in- 

-es in all persons of the 

See Early Eng. 

flexion of the sing. 

sing. pres. indie. 

Allit, Poems, 

pres. indie. 

pp. XX, xxi 

-ede, -edest, -ede, the in- 

Xo inflexion in the 

See Ibid. 

flexion of the sing. 

sing, past indie, of 

past indie, of regular 

strong verbs 

or weak verhs 

-e, the ending of the 2nd 

No inflexion in the 2nd 


pers. past of irregular 

sing, past indie, of 

or strong verbs 

irregular verbs 

Change of vowel in 



pret. pi. of strong 


Infinitives in -en, -e 

Infinitive ending drop- 


Gerundial Infinitives 

)> 5> 


in -ene 

Gerundial Infinitives 

5> J) 


in -ing 




Infinitives in y or ei or {-inge) the end- 
ing of the present 

y- prefix of the past 

-n dropped in past par- 

Schal (ssel), ssolde, 

par/ (need), \erfte, 
perste (needed) 

\)onkes, willing ; trn- 
\)07ikes, unwilling 

Henne, pewie, liwanne, 
hence, thence, whence 



Adverbs in -e, as ene, 
twie, thrie, neode, nede, 
once, twice, thrice, 

Adverbs with prefix an- 




Infinitive ending drop- 

-ande {-and), the ending 
of the present parti- 

y- omitted as the sign 
of the past participle 

-n never dropped in 
past participles 

Sal (shall), sw/tZ (should) 

\)ar, per, purt 

Hepen, pepen, tvhepen, 
(quepen), used instead 

Mtm, mon (shall) 

Ha (have), ma (make), 
ta (take) 



Sum (as), fra (from), til 
(to), at (to, sign of 
infinitive), at (that), 
warne (unless) 

Affixes, -gate, -linges 



See Hampole's P. 
of Consc. p. xxiv. 



See Hampole's P. 
of Consc. p. xxiv. 




The differences in the vocabularies of the Northern and Southern 
dialects may be discussed at a future j)eriod under the following heads : 

I. Words peculiar to the Southern dialect, e.g., dene, a dean, 
valley ; more, a root ; zuoIt,, a plough,' &c. 

II. Words peculiar to the Northern dialect, e.g., hrathe, "vvrath ; 
fel, a hill ; wll, astray, &c. 

III. Double forms, one of which is found in the Southern dialect 
and the other in the iJ^orthern, e.g., 







1WC, looke 

tcaylve (weake) 


snaipe'^ (snub) 



1 Flowjh does not occur in A.S. writers ; and Southern authors of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries employ it only in compound terms, as plovj-land, &c. 

2 Snaipe and wayke are evidently Norse forms. 


(a.d. 1327—1340.) 


1. Gender. The genders of Nouns are the same as in the older 
stages of the language. 

2. Declension. Nouns may he divided into four declensions. 


Nouns of the n declension, containing masculine, feminine, and 
neuter suhstantives ending in -en or -e (originally in -a or -e) and 
forming the plural in -en (originally in -an). 


Class i. Nouns (originally feminine) ending in a consonant and 
forming the plural in -en (originally in -a). 

Class ii. Nouns (originally feminine) ending in -e (originally in -u) 
and forming the plural in -en (originally in -a). 


Class i. Nouns (originally neuter) ending in a consonant and 
having the singular and plural alike. 

Class ii. Nouns (originally neuter) ending in a vowel (originally 
in -w, -e, or -u), together with some few ending in a consonant and 
forming the plural in -en (originally in -u). 


Class i. Nouns (originally masculine) ending in a consonant and 
forming the phiral in -es (originally in -as). 

Class ii. Nouns (originally masculine) entiing in a vowel and 
forming the plural in -en (originally in -%i). 




Masc. Ft-m. Keid. 

jS'om. Sterre (star), tonge (tongue), e^e (eye). 






Dat. \ 
Ace. ] 












63 en. 









In like manner are declined : — bee, pi. been; cliircJie, pi. chirchen; 
eare, ere (ear), pi. earen, even; Jlo (arrow), pi. Jlo7i; fo (enemy), pi. 
fo)i; gome, game (man), pi. gomen; to (toe), pi. ton; ivise (manner), 
pi. icisen; icoA'e, loulce (week), pi. icolien. 



Nom, Zauel (soul). 
Gen. Zaule. 




I^om. Zaulen. 
Gen. Zaulene. 



Tlius are declined : — ben (prayer), pi. benen; edder (adder), pi. 
eddren; zgn (sin), pi. zynnen. Nl'^t (night), ic^t (wight). 


ISTom. Dore (door). 
Gen. Dore. 

Ace. j 


^N'om. Doren. 
Gen. Dorene. 


To this declension belonged originally cu, con (cow), pi. kun, keri 




Nom. and Ace, Hors (horse). 
Gen. Horses. 

Dat. Horse. 



iSTom. and Ace. Hors. 
Gen. Horse. 

Dat. Horse. 

After the same manner are declined : — Jms (house) ; der (deer) ; ba-ii 
(child) ; spel (story) ; ssejj (sheep) ; 2vif (woman, wife) ; yer (year). 


Nom. and Ace. Ssip (slii])), 

Gen. Ssipes, 

Dat. \ 

Ace. ^'^'' 








Nom. and Ace. Ssipen, 









In the same way are declined : — dyevel (devil) ; vet (vat) ; heved, 
heaved (head) ; Uin (limb) ; riehe (kingdom) ; token (sign) ; so7-we 
(sorrow) ; iconder (marvel) ; werre (war). Calf, child, ey (egg), lamb, 
form their plural in -ren (originally -rii), as — Calvren (A.S. cealfru) ; 
children, childern (A.S. cildni) ; eyren (A.S. cegni) ; lambren (A.S. 






N'om. and Ace. 

Del (part). 







Dat. \ 
Ace. ) 


Ace. ) 





Thus also are declined : — day ; engel (angel) ; veld (field) ; moutli 
(mouth) ; Mncj ; ston (stone) ; icey (way). Viend (enemy), vriend 
(friend), are used as plurals, the older forms being fynd or feond, 
frynd ov freond. Winter has the pi. winter and ivinters; got, gayt 
(goat), makes the pi. geet. Vader drops the -es in the genitive case. 


!N'om. and Ace. Sone, Sune (son). 
Gen. Sone, Sune. 

Dat. ^ 

Sone, Sune. 



Nom. Sonen, Sunen (Sune, 

Gen. Sonene, Sunene. 
Dat. Sonen, Sunen. 
Ace. Sone, Sune (Sonen). 

In the same manner are declined : — dorter (daughter), pi. do^tren; 
vioder (mother), pi. modren; r other (ox), pi. rotheren; zoster (sister), 
pi. zostren. Brother, moder, dorter, are indeclinable in the genitive 
singular. Brother makes the plural brothren. 

Case endings. — a. The dative singular of all the declensions is 
denoted by a final e. Words ending in / change it into v before 
adding e. N"om. wyf ; Dat. wyve. ISTouns having a short vowel 
before d, t, double these letters, as — IS'om. bed; Dat. bedde. 

b. The A.S. dative pi. -um, in some few cases, is denoted by -e; 
in the majority of instances it is the same as the nomuiative. 


For declension of Adjectives see p. xxxvi. 



The personal pronouns are : Ich (I), \)0U (thou), he (he), hi (she), 
hit (it). 


Nom. Ich.i pn, fou. 

Gen. min, mi. pin, Jji. 


Dat. \ 
Ace. j 



we. ye. 

oure. yoiire. 
ous, us. you. 

' This pronoun is still preserved in the South-Western dialects under the forms 
Uch and Utchy. 











\ hit. 







i hire, 
( hare. 



I hine, 
( him. 

/ hire, 

' his. 

) hit. 
i it. 







hi, his, hise, ham. 

The personal pronouns are frequently used reflectively ; as, Ich 
vie 7'este, I rest myself. 

Self is declined like an adjective (in the oblique cases, selve sing. 
and pi.) ; so that we easily understand such forms as IcJi slJf = I 
myself; \iu silf = thou thyself; (Ich) me sijlf ■= I myself, where 
self is placed after the dative of the personal pronoun. Cp. Fr. moi- 
meme, lui-meme, &c. 


The possessive pronouns are identical in form with the genitive 
case, e.g. oure = our, ours, of us ; youre = your, yours, of you ; 
hare = their, theirs, of them. 


Ilasc. and Fein. Keut. 

Nom. hua. huet. 

Gen. huas. huas. 

Dat. huam. huam. 

Ace. huan, wan. huet. 


Moods. — There are four moods : Indicative, Subjunctive, Impera- 
tive, and Infinitive. Besides the ordinary infinitive there is a gerund 
(used after to) ; infin. comen, to come ; ger. to comene. This dis- 
tinction between the two forms is not always preserved. 

Tenses. — Only two tenses are formed by inflection — the present 
and the past. 


Participles. — ^The present participle ends in -inde; the past 
participle has the prefix i- or y- (unless the verb commences with 
one of tlie follomng prefixes : a-, at-, hi-, he-, for-, vor-, of-, to-, un-, 

There are two conjugations of verbs, the Strong (or irregular), 
and the "Weak (or regular) . 


INFINITIVE MOOD — Lovien, loven, to love. 



Singular. Plural. 

1. Lovie, love Lovieth, loveth 

2. Lovest Lovieth, loveth 

3. Loveth Lovieth, loveth 


Singular. Flitral. 

1. Lovede Loveden 

2. Lovedest Loveden 

3. Lovede Loveden 


Singular. Plural. 

Lovie, love Lovien, loven 

Singular. Plural. 

Lovede Loveden 


Sing. Love. Plural, (a.) Lovie]?, love|) ; (h.) Lovie, love 

(followed by the pronoun). 

Gerund. To lovienne, lovene. 

Pres. Part. Lovdnde. 

Past Part. Lloved, Y-loved. 

Like lovie, to love, are conjugated clepie, to call; herie, to praise; 
Iwpie, to hope; makie, to make ; scliunie, to shun; tholie, to suffer. 



MOOD — Hyere, to hear. 








1. Hyere 


1. Hyerde 


2. Hyerst 

Hyere Jj 

2. Hyerdest 


3. Hyerj) 


3. Hyerde 







Singular. Tlural. 

Singular. Plural. 

Hyere Hyeren 

Hyerde Hyerden 


Sing. Hyer. PJural. (a.) Hyerejj ; (h.) Hyere (followed by 

the pronoim). 
Gerund. Hyerene. 

Pres. Part. Hyerinde. 
Past Part. Yhyerd. 

1. In the 3rd pers. smg. indie, of verbs having t or d for the last 
syllable, t is often used for -teth or -deth, as gret, cries ; let, liinders ; 
let, leads ; zent, sends ; ireiit, turns, &c. 

2. If the root of the verb ends in d or t doubled, or preceded by 
another consonant, the de or te of the past tense, and -d or -t of the 
past participle, are omitted : e. g., loende, to turn ; pret. wende, pp. 
wend ; lette, to hinder ; pret. lette, pp. ylet. 

The following verbs, among many others, belong to this class : — 




Calle, to call 



Deme, to judge 



Deppen, to dip 



Hede, to hide 



Kefe, to show 



Lende, to lend 



Ssrede, to clothe 



Some verbs of this 

class have double forms 

for the preterite and 

past participle. 




Glebe, ) 

„, [to clothe 

Glofe, ) 

\ cledde 
' cladde 

■ yclad 
, ycled 

Dele, to deal 

j delte 
1 dalte 

( ydelt 
\ ydalt 

Grede, to cry 

/ gredde 
1 gradde 

( ygi'ed 
( ygrad 



-r, 1 , T . ( redde yred 

Kede, to advise < '' 

. ( radde ATad 

c , , , ( spredde yspred 

feprede, to spread In 

( spradde sprad 

e , , . ( swelte yswet 

oweten, to sweat ' 

( swalte . ysAvat 

Cacclie (catch) and techen (teacli) make tlie preterites cai^fe 
and ta-^te. 

Hahhe, to have, is thus conjugated : 

Indie. Pres. Sing. 1. hahhe ; 2. hest ; 3. he]). 

„ „ PI. 1. hahbep ; 2. hahhe]); 3. hahhe]). 

Indie. Pret. Sing. 1. hedde ; 2. heddest ; 3. hedde. 

„ ,, PL 1. 2. 3. hedde (lieddeii). 


INDICATIVE MOOD — TelUn (A.S. tellan), to tell. 


Singular. Plural. 

1. telle telle]) 

2. telst telle]} 

3. teljj telle]) 

Singular. Plural. 

1. tealde tealden 

2. tealdest tealden 

3. tealde tealden 


Sing, telle Plur. tellen 


Sing, tealde Plur. tealden 


Sing, telle. Plur. (a.) telle]) ; (h.) telle. 

Gerund. to tellene. 

Pres. Part. tellinde. 
Past Part. y-teald, ytald. 

To this class belong the following verhs : 

Begge, buy bojte ybojt 

Brenge, bring bro3te ybro3t 



Seclie, seek 
Zelle, sell 

sojte ysojt 

( zealde yzeald 

^ ' zaldft yzald 

Werclien, work ^10316 ywrojt 

Jpenclien, seem pojte j]>o^^ 

Z'lgge {zegge), to say, makes 2nd per. sing. pres. indie, zayst 
(zeayst) ; 3rd, zayde {zef:Lyde). 
Wille, will, makes pres. indie. 

1. wille 2. ^ollt 3. idle (sing.) 

1. 2. 3. idlle]! (plural). 

Preterite 1. wolde 2. iDoldest 3. uiolde (sing.) 

1. 2. 3. vjolden or loolde (plural). 


(j^o change of vowel in the preterite plural.) 
Infinitive, HeaUW (to hold). 


Singular. Plural. 

1. Healde Healde]) 

2. Healdest (Halst) Healde]? 

3. Halt HealdeJ) 



1. Hield 

2. Hielde 

3. Hield 


Singular. Plural. 

Healde Healden (Healde) 






Hielden (Hielde) 

Sino;. Heald. 


Plural, {a.) Healde]) ; (b.) Healde. 

Gerund. Healdene. 

Prest Part. Healdinde. 

] Yhealde. 
) Yhyealde. 

Verhs of this division fall under three classes : 
' Also written ITyealde. 







(a.) Bere, bear 



Bidden, bid, ask 



Bihote, promise 



Breke, break 



Ete, eat 


yyete (= y-yeate) 

Fonge, take 



Voryete, forget 



Zitte (sit) 

( zet 1 


Speke (speak) 



Wreke (thrust out) 


/ ywreke 
( ywroke 

(b.) Come 



Xeme, take • 




Bete, beat 



Cnowe, know 



YaUe, fall 



Lhepe, leap 

/• hliep \ 
Uilip i 


yhlope ' 

Dra3e, draw 



A^'are, go 



Hleje, laugh 



Vorzake, forsake 



Slea, sle, slay 



Ssape, create 



Stonde, stand 




(Change of vowel in pret. plural.) 
Infinitive. Binde, to bind ; Drive, to drive. 

' Does not occur. 










2. Binst, Drifst ,' Bindejj, Drive]) 

3. Bint, Driijj ) 

1. Bond, Drof >, _, , , 

/ Bounden' 

2. Bounde/ Drive > ^^ • 

I Driven 

3. Bond, Drof ) 


Singular. Flural. Singular. Plural. 

Binde, Drive. Bounden, Driven | Bounde, Drive. Bounden, Driven 


Sing. Bind, Drif. Plural, (a.) Bindejj, Drive]) ; (h.) Binde, Drive. 

Gerund. Bindene, Drivene. 

Present Part. Bindinde, Drivinde. 
Past Part. Ybounde, Ydrive. 

The following verbs belong to this division : 



, PRET. 


(a.) Binde, bind 



Biginne, begin 



Delve, dig 



Drinke, drink 



Terne, (= eorne) 

( orn 1 
( yarn ) 

y yerne (= iurne) 

Vinde, find 

f vond \ 
V vand ) 


Vijte, fight 



Helpe, help 



Zinge, sing 

' zang \ 
zong ) 


(&.) Berje, protect 



Kerve, cut 


ycorve ' 

Sterve, starve, 




Yelpe, boast 



' 1 The older fonns are: 2nd sing, hunde ; 1. 2. 3. pi. hmiden ; zinge, to sing, 
makes 2nd pers. pret. zunge ; 1. 2. 3. pi. zungen. 













Ssrive, shriue 













Bede, offer 

byead (= bead) 


Cliyese, choose 



Cyepe, creep 



Vly, flee, fly 



Lyese, lose 

[ lyeas 
( leas . 


Schete, shoot 

( ssat \ 
\ sseat 1 


Lute, \ 
Lote, ) 



Le^en, lie 


( ilo3en 
' ilowen 

Ssete, shut 



Zi, see 


/ iso3e 

( ize3e 


Sethen, seethe, boil 


Buwen, ; 


t ibo3en 
( ibowen 

Lute, \ 
Lote, j 



Loken, lock 



Stigen, ) 

„,. ascend 





General Remarks on the Strong {or Irregular) Conjugation. 

1. If the base of a verb ends in -e or -ie the -e or -ie is the -e of 
the inflexions in the present indicative and imperative, as vW^ = 
flees ; zep = sees. 

2. Verbs having -d or -t as the final letter of the root-syllable, 
take -t instead of -de^ or -tei, as the personal inflexion, as bint = 
bindeth, binds ; grint =: grindeth, grinds ; halt = holdeth, holds ; 
rit =1 rideth, rides ; stont, stent = standeth, stands. 

3. The 2nd and 3rd pers. are frequently contracted thus : est = 
eatest ; hinst =z bindest ; drinkp = drinks ; drifp =z drives. 

4. Verbs whose base originally terminated in g often retain it 
under the form 3 in the 2nd and 3rd pers. sing, indie. : as dra^en, to 
draw ; dra^st, drawest ; dra-^]), draws ; i^li, to fly ; vli-^st, fliest ; vli-^'\p, 
flies ; wri, to cover ; ivri'^]), covers. 

5. In some verbs the vowel is changed in the 3rd sing. pres. 
indie, as healden, to hold; halt, holds; hoten, to command; hat, 
commands ; stonden, to stand ; stant, stands. 


1. 03e?^, owen, to own; 1st and 3rd sing. pres. indie. 03; oyn ; 
pret. 03^6. 

2. Am is tlie 1st pers. sing, of the old infinitive wesan, to be. 
The other persons are as follows : — 2nd pers. pres. indie, art ; 3rd, 
is ; pret. 1st, ives ; 2nd, luere ; pi. weren, were. 

3. Bi, to be ; ger. hyenne. 1st pers. pres. indie, hi ; 2nd, best ; 
3rd, heth ; 1st, 2nd, and 3rd pers. pi. beth ; imper. pi. beth. 

4. Canne, to be able, to know; 1st sing. pres. indie, con ; 2nd, 
const ; 3rd, con ; pi. connen ; pret. cidlie, couthe. 

5. Daren, to dare. 1st sing. pres. indie, dor, der ; 2nd, darst ; 
3rd, dar ; pi. dorren, dorre ; pret. sing, dorste. 

6. Do, to do; ger. doenne. 1st sing. pres. indie, do ; 2n^,dest; 
3rd, deth ; pi. doth ; pret. dede ; imp. doth. 

7. Guo, to go; ger. guonne. 1st sing. pres. indie, go ; 2nd, gest ; 
3rd, geth (pi. guoth) ; pret. yede ; imp. guotli ; pp. iguo. 

8. Mowen, to be able, may; 1st sing. pres. indie. may{mai) ; 2nd, 
mi'^t ; 3rd, may {mat) ; pi. mo%en ; pret. mio^te. 


9. 1st sing. pres. indie, mot, may, must; 2nd, most ; 3rd, mot, 
mut ; pi. moten ; pret. moste. 

10. 1st sing. pres. indie, ssel, sliall ; 2nd, sselt ; 3rd, ssel ; 
pi. ssollen, ssolle ; pret. ssolde. 

11. Wlteri, to know. 1st sing. pres. indie, wot; 2nd, wast; 3rd, 
wot ; pi. witetli ; pret. loistc ; imp. sing, ivite ; pi. witeth. 

Negative Forms. — Am, have, ivllle, loiten (know), take negative 
forms, as nam, am not ; n!s, is not ; nes, was not ; nedde, had not ; 
nele, will not ; 7iot, knows not ; neste, knew not. 

Many adverbs with the prefix y are preserved, as yvere, together > 
Home, iholliclie, entirely ; ymone, together ; yrnene, together. 


Atte, Atten (dat. masc), at the = at Ipayi, at ]>erie ; Atter (dat. fern.), 
at the = at pere ; Mytter (dat. fem.), with the = myd pere, — are used 
by Shoreham (see pp. 34, 57, 64). 


Author's Preface 
Table of Contents 
Prologue (Yore-speche) . . 

The Ten Commandments. 

The first Commandment. . 

,, second „ 

„ third „ (Mosaic 4th). 

„ fourth „ „ 5th . 

„ fifth „ ,, 6 th . 

„ sixth „ „ 7th . 

„ seventh „ ,, 8th . 

„ eighth „ „ 9th . 

„ ninth „ (1st half of 10th) 

„ tenth „ (2nd half of 10th) 

The Creed. 

The twelve Articles of the Christian belief 
1st Article : written by St Peter . . 
,, St John . . 



St Jacob, brother of John 

St Andrew 

St Philip 

St Thomas 

St Bartholomew 

St Matthew 

St Jacob, brother of Simon and 

St Simon 
St Jude . . 
St Matthias 







The Seven Deadly Sins. 

Of the vision that Saint John the Evangelist saw . . . . 14, 15 
(Of the beast that came out of the sea with seven heads 

and ten horns) . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 15 



The tokens of the Heads of the Beast . . 

(The seven heads = seven deadly sins, and the ten horns 
= breaking of the ten behests) . . 
The First Head of the Beast — Pride and its Seven Boughs 
The First Head of the Beast is Pride . . 
(Pride caused the fall of Lucifer) 

The Might of Pride 

(Pride is the devil's own daughter) . . 
How one shall classify the seven boughs of Pride . . 
The First Bough of Pride — Untruth ; its three twigs are 
Foulness (crime), madness, apostasy . . 
Second — Despite (contempt) 
(Three kinds of Despite : a. Not praising those deserving 
it ; h. [N'ot gi^ang honour to whom it is due ; c. Dis- 
obedience to those to whom obedience should be given) 
The Third Bough of Pride — Arrogance or Overweening 
This sin shows itself in six ways — in, 1. Singularity; 2 
Prodigality (extravagance) ; 3. False strife ; 4. Boast- 
ing (yelping) ; 5. Scorn ; 6. Opposition 
The Fourth Bough of Pride — Foul Desire (Ambition) 

Ambition is the devil's frying-pan . . 
The Fifth Bough of Pride — Idle Bliss (Vain glory) . 
Idle Bliss is the dcAdl's penny 
It has three small boughs 

God's gifts — 1. of nature; 2. of fortune ; 3. of grace 
The devil tries man in three ways . . 
The Sixth Bough of Pride — Hypocrisy . . 

Three kinds of Hypocrisy : 1. foul ; 2. foolish ; 3. subtle 
The Seventh Bough of Pride — Foul Dread and Shame 
The Second Head of the Beast — Envy . . 
Envy is a poisonous adder 
It poisons heart, mouth, and works of man 
The envious man sins in a threefold manner 
Three states of the envious . . 
The Siiis against the Holy Ghost 

(Overweening, Despair, Obstinacy, Impenitence, Strife. 

Opposing truth) 

The Third Head of the Beast — Hatred 

The four wars of the Hater . . 

The seven t\vigs of Hate : Chiding, Wrath, Hate, Strife, 

Vengeance, Murder, Deadly War . . 
The horrors of war 
The Fourth Head of the Beast — Sloth . , 
The devil's advice to the slothful 
The six vices of Sloth prevent good beginning and good 






21, 22 



31, 32 



9. Wicked Craft ; 10. Wicked 

2. Covert 



33, 34 

Forgetfulness springs from Sloth 
The peril of Slackness 
The six joints of Sloth that bring a man to his end . . 

1. Disobedience; 2. Impatience ; 3. Miirmuring ; 4. Sorrow 

5. Desire of Death ; 6. Despair 
The Fifth Head of the Beast — Avarice 

Avarice, a great schoolmistress . . . . ; , 

The Eoots of Avarice : 1. Usury ; 2. Theft ; 3. Robbery 
(witli violence) ; 4. False Claim ; 5. Sacrilege 

6. Simony . . 
■ 7. Fraud ; 8. Chaffer 

Usury and Usurers (seven kinds of) . . 

The Second Bough of Avarice — Theft . . 

Four kinds of thieves (1. The open thief; 
3. Privy ; 4. Accessory) 
Tlie Third Bough of Avarice — Robbery . . 

The roots of Avarice : 1. Evd. executors ; 2. Unfaithful 
3. Harbouring of robbers ; 4. Dishonest debtors ^ 
5. Robbery of underlings by prelates ; 6. Oppression 
of the poor by provosts and beadles . . 
TheFourtli Bough, of Avarice — False Claim (or False Accusation) 

Seven kinds of false challengers 
The Fifth Bo^lgh of Avarice — Sacrilege . . 

Seven kinds of sacrilege 
The Sixth Bough of Avarice — Simony . . 

The six twigs of Simony 

How lewd (lay) men may be guilty of Simony 
The Seventh Bough of Avarice — Depravity , . 

To tlris sin belong Heresy, Witchcraft, &c. 
The Eighth Bough of Avarice — Chaffer . . 

Seven kinds of Chaffering 
The Ninth Bough of Avarice — -Unlawful Traffic (Wicked Craft) 

This sin is practised by foolish women, heralds, and soldiers 
The Tenth Bough of Avarice — Gambling (Wicked Games) . . 
A Tale: 1. Of a knight who swore by God's eyes ; 2. Of 
an archer who shot at God 
The Sixth Head of the Beast — Lechery 

The devil tempts man to this sin in five modes : 1 . Foolish 
sight ; 2. Foolish words ; 3. Foolish handling ; 4. 
Foolish kissing ; 5. Foolish deed . . . . . . 46 

Two kinds of Lechery : a. of heart (its four steps). . . . 46, 47 

I). Lechery of body (five sorts) . . . . . . . . 47 

Fourteen kinds of Adultery . , . , . . . . . . 48, 49 

The Seventh Head of the Beast — Sins of the Mouth and 

Tongue . . . . . . . . . , . . . . 50 




35, 36 


37, 38 



39, 40 

41, 42 

44, 45 

45, 46 




1. The sin of gluttony '. 50 

The glutton often comes to the gallows . . . . . . 51 

Five kinds of gluttony . . . . . . . . . , 51, 52 

1. Eating before time . . . . . . . . . . 51 

2. Immoderate eating and drinking . . . . . . . . 52 

Gluttony like the kite . . . . . . . . . . 53 

Hypocrites are the devil's martyrs . . . . . . . . 53 

Dispute between the belly and purse of the glutton . . 53 

The tricks of the devil . . . ; . . . . . . 54 

3. A hasty running to meat, like the hound after the hare 55 

4. Extravagance (three kinds of) . . . . . . . . 55 

5. Undue auxiety about eating (three kinds of) . . . . 55 

Jests and jokes form the glutton's entrees . . . . . . 56 

The tavern is the devil's chapel . . . . . . . . 56 

The devil's miracles . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 

The tavern is the devil's castle . . . . . . . . 57 

The Si)is of the Tongue (ten kinds of) . . . . . . . . 67 

In idle words man may sin in five ways . . . . . . 58 

Of the Sin of Boastmg . . . . . . . . . ^ . . 58 

The boaster is God's thief . . . . . . . . . . 59 

Five kinds of boasting . . . . . . . . . . 59 

The boaster is like the cuckoo, he can only sing of liimself 59 
Affected humility — Many folk make themselves devils 

so that they may be esteemed angels . . . . . . 59 

Of Flattery 60 

Flatterers the devil's nurses . . . . . . . . . . 60 

The Five Boughs of Flattery . . . . . . . . 60 

1. Inconsiderate praise; 2. Exaggeration; 3. Assumption 

of virtues ; 4. Singing placebo . . . . . . . . 60 

5. Excusing another's faults . . . . . . . . . . 61 

Flatterers like, 1. Mermaids ; 2. The adder Serayn ; 3. The 

hygena ; 4. The farrowed sow ; 5. Dimg beetles . . 61 
Five Boughs of Evil-speaking .. .. .. ..61, 62 

Leasings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 

The liar is like, 1. Chaff among corn ; 2. The devil ; 3. The 

chameleon (that hath wind only in his guts) . . . . 62 

Three small twigs of leasing . . . . . . . . . . 62, 63 

Of the Sin of Lying . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 

Swearing and forswearing (perjury) . . . . . . 63 

Seven modes of swearing . . . . . . . . . . 63-65 

Strife 65 

Strife like the devil's works . . . . . . . . . . 65 

Seven boughs of Strife . . . . . . . . . . 65, 66 

The cliider is like, 1. A hedgehog; 2. A snarling dog . . 66 

Slandering and slanderers . . . . . . . . . . 66 

Of Murmuring, that is, of him that dare not be answered (be 

reprimanded) . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 



For this sin the Israelites lost the Land of Promise 

Two boughs of Murmuring . . 

The Songs of Heaven and the Songs of Hell 
Of Opposition (withstanding) . . 

Four boughs of Opposition . . 
Of Blasphemy 

Blasphemers are like mad hounds 


Death is a separation and departure . . 

Man's life but a point compared with Eternity 

The Songs of Hell 

We have not our years — death has them, and will not give 

them up . . 
Death a separation of soul and body 
Three kinds of death . . 

What is death 1 

Go out of thyself into the other worlds (heaA^en, hell, and 

The Torments of Hell 
Of Purgatory . . 
The Bliss of Paradise . . 
The holy man is like the greyhound 


The beginning of good life is to seek virtue 
Of Temporal Goods (gifts) 

(The small goods, the goods of time, the goods of fortune) 
Of the Lesser Goods 

The middle goods are the gifts of nature and of teaching 

{a. beauty, strength, &c. ; h. learning, good manners) 

Of the True Goods . . . . 

Grace, virtue, and charity . . 

What the old philosophers thought to be the greatest good 

Dame Charity the queen of virtues . . 
Of three kinds of Good . . 

(Honourable, desirable, and profitable) . . 

True Virtue combines all three 
Of Virtue 

Six things are desired because they are honourable 

The Lynx can see through a wall 

Beauty soon fades 

Beauty of the Soul 
Of Wit (wisdom) and of Clergy {learning) . . 

Those who love this world think the moon to be the sun. 
and mistake a glass for a sapphire ; they are like, 1 
children ; 2. like a pregnant woman avIio prefers i 
sour apple to a wlieateu loaf 



68, 69 

69, 70 




73, 74 



76, 77 

78, 79 

79, 80 

80, 81 




Tlieir wit is the devil's wit . . 

True Vii'tue and True Prowess 

Foolish Undertaking . . 

He that is without virtue hath no courage ; like a child he 
prefers a mirror to a kingdom . . 

Virtue makes a man as bold as a lion 

Man's lordship . . 

Virtue makes a man to be master of himself . . 

Freedom . . 

Three sorts of freedom (of nature, of grace, and of bliss) 

1. Free will . . 
Deadly sin bereaves man of this freedom . . 

2. Freedom of grace — Those who possess this care not a 

button for the world . . 

3. Freedom of bliss is possessed by those who have 

passed from this world 
NohlUty : 

True nobility springs from the gentle heart . . 

It does not spring from the body 

For all are descended from one mother, i. e. earth and mud 

Our true Father is God 

True nobility consists in being like God 

It begins in grace and is completed in bliss . . 

jSTone need be prond of earthly nobility, for the earth 

nourishes hogs as well as kings 
Gentle Good 

ISTo good (gifts) truly honourable but virtue and charity, 

that is, the love of God . . 
Charity is good chalfer — never loses but ever wins 
Charity is God's penny 
Of two kistfid (desirable) goods 
The five wits (senses) 
Spiritual gifts the best (peace of heart, mastery of devils 

bliss of conscience) 

The Oil of Bliss 

Of Virtue more esjyeckdlij 

The soul of a good man like a fair garden, of wliich God is 

the gardener 
Of three things needful to the Earth 
1. Good mould ; 2. moisture ; 3. heat 
The Tree of Life 
The root — the love of God ; the wood — the flesh of Christ ; 

the rind — Christ's fair conversation ; the saj) — His 

tears, sweat, and blood ; the leaves — His holy words ; 

the flowers — His holy thoughts ; the fruit — His twelve 

apostles ; the boughs — the whole elect 

















95, 96 


The Sermon on the Momit specifies the seven boughs of 

the Tree of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 

In it we find the sum of the JS^ew Law . . . . . , 97 

The Well of God's grace and its seven streams . . . . 97 

In the Lord's Prayer we pray for the seven gifts of the 

Holy Ghost 98 

The Prologue of the Holy Pater Noster 98 

The Lord's Prayer, the first thing we teach a child . . 98 

It is short in words, and long in meaning . . . . . . 99 

God cares not for sleek and smooth words . . . . . . 99 

Here heginneth the Pater Noster . . . . . . . . 99 

' Our Father,' &c 99 

Of the sweet name of Father. . . . . . . . . . 99-101 

Why we say 'Father our,' and not ' Father mine' . . 101 

Of adoption 101-3 

Of the word 'our' 102-3 

'That art in Heaven' 103 

'That art' asserts God's existence, . . . . . . . . 103 

God alone is everlasting . . . . . . . . . . 104 

Of the words Father, our, art, Heaven . . . . . . 104-5 

T/w First Petition of the Holy Pater Noster . . . . . . 105 

The preface is as the ingoing (prelude) of the fiddle . . 105 

There are seven notes in this song of the Pater Foster . . 105 
The seven petitions obtain the seven gifts of the Holy 

Ghost 105 

The three first make man holy ; the other four make him to 

abide in righteousness . . . . . . . . . . 105 

Man's holiness like the Trinity (for there are three things 

in the soul — thought, understanding, and will) . . 105 

'Hallowed be thy :N'ame' 106 

In this petition we ask the gift of wisdom . . . . . . 106-7 

The Second Petition of the Holy Pater Noster . . . . 107 

'Thy kingdom come' . . . . . . . . . . 108 

In this petition we ask for the gift of understanding, 

whereby man may see and correct his faults . . . . 108-9 

The Third Petition of the Holy Pater Noster 109 

' Thy wiU be done,' &c 109 

In this petition we ask for the gift of good counsel . . 109-10 

The Fourth Petition of the Holy Pater Noster . . . . 110 

' Give us this day,' &c. 110 

What may the son ask of father better than bread? . . 110 
In this petition we ask for the everlasting bread — the food 

of the soul 110 

The bread of the altar is to be eaten ravenously, and with- 
out chewing, for it is the true body of Christ . . Ill 
Christ left us this bread as his last bequest . . . . . . 112 



It is more nutritious than all other bread . . 

The Fifth Petition of the Holy Pater Roster . . 

' Forgive us our trespasses,' &c. 

Our debts are our sins — the interest is Hell-pain . . 

The Court of Mercy and the Court of Doom (Justice 

In this petition we ask the gift of knowledge . . 
The Sixth Petition of the Holy Pater Noster . . 

' And lead us not into temptation ' . . 

The devil — the tempter 

The devil's temptations are like the blows on the back of a 
knight, whereby he is ennobled and honoured 

In this petition we ask for help and pity . . 

"We do not seek to be delivered from temptation, but only 
to be aided 
The Seventh Petition of the Holy Pater Noster 

' But deliver us from evil,' i.e. Deliver us from the devil and 
his sleights 

In this petition we pray for tlie gift of fear 
The Seven Gifts of the Holy Ghost 

Seven spirits and seven gifts received in baptism 
Wherefore they are called Gifts. . 

They are called gifts for three reasons : 1. for their dignity 
and worth 

2. They remain with us for ever ; 3. They are given through 
Wherefore they are called Gifts of the Holy Ghost . . 

Works of might are the works of God the Father . . 

Works of Avisdom belong to the Son 

Works of goodness belong to the Holy Ghost . . 

The Holy Ghost is the well, the gifts are the stream 
JVherefore Man is Saved- 

1. Man is saved ; 2. by eschewing evil and doing good 

The gift of dread causes us to flee from evil, and the other 
six gifts enable us to do good . . 

Dread is the door-keeper, the watch of the castle or the 
weed-hook of the gardener . . 

Three stages of people in heaven . . 

Of the gifts peculiar to these states . . 
Of the Three First Virtues 

Belief, hope, charity are called godly virtues 

Three things cause a man to love another . 
Of the Four Cardinal Virtties . . 

Prudence, Temperance, Strength, Equity . 

These virtues are the four toAvers in the four corners of the 
good man's house 
Of the Office of the Four Virtues . . 

Prudence (three offices of) 

















Temjjerance (three offices of) 
Strength (three offices of) 
Rigldfulness {Equity) . . 
Philosophy the love of wisdom 

The old philosophers put false Christians to shame 
The four cardinal virtues are four kinds of loves . . 

Of the Gift of Dread . . . . 

Dread rouses the sinner 

The sinner is like, 1. a drunkard ; 2. one bound in irons and 

fetters, who dreams of feasts and weddings instead of 

the gibbet 

The Holy Ghost is the Good Physician 

The tliree questions the Angel asked Hagar in the wilderness 

Pour questions put to the sinner by the Holy Ghost are like 

four strokes of thunder 
How Mildness (Meehiess) waxeth in the heart 

Pear strips the heart of its pride and confidence . . 
The tree of meekness is set beside the well of the fear of God 
Of the Steps of Meekness 

1. To know one's defects ; 2. to bewail one's sins ; 3. to 
confess and slirive our sins ; 4. to acknowledge our 
unworthiness ; 5. to hear willingly of our imperfec- 
tions ; 6. to endure reproach willingly ; 7. to desire to 
be accounted vile 
Of the Seven Boughs of Meekness 

The Pirst Bough of Meekness is to honour God as a child 
doth its master . . 
The Second Bough of Meekness 

Is to praise others (for three reasons) 

Of Meek HeaH 

The meek keep their virtues behind their back, their defects 

before their face 
Of an holy courteousness 

The meek man blames himself in three ways . . 

The Fourth Bough of Meekness 

Is to love poverty (for three reasons) 
This is shown in three ways 
The Fifth Bough of Meekness 
Is to serve others joyfully 

Meekness is the mother of obedience 
Of Obedience {Biixonmess) 

Of the seven ornaments of obedience 
Holy simplicity is the good daughter of meekness 
The meek man is like, 1. the star Saturn ; 2. the mill-ass ; 
3. the sun 
The Sixth Bough of Meekness 

Is to avoid praise and flattery . . 























The meek man despises the Avorld — but loves solitude. 

He is like a modest virgin . . . . . . . . 142 

The Seventh Bough of Aleelmess 

Is steadfast belief . . . . . , . . . . . . 143 

Belief is like a grain of miistard seed . . . . . . 143 

Four kinds of love . . , . . . . . , . 144 

Of the Virtue of Love . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 

Pity is an antidote to envy . . . . . . . . . . 144 

"Why Christians should be united . . . . . . . . 145-6 

TheBoucjhs of Love . . . . . , . . . . . . 146 

Love shows itself in seven different ways . . . . . . 146-7 

Nature teaches us to seek " the common profit " . . . . 147 

On the right mode of administering correction . . . . 148 

The friendship and teaching of Christ . . . . . . 149 

The First Sfej) of Equity {Right fidness) 

Is to know one's seK . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 

The gift of Avisdom is the Prior in the cloister of the soul 151 
The two sides of the heart (1. Understanding and Will; 

2. Eeason and Affection) . . . . . . . 151 

The four offices of Eeason . . . . . . . . . . 151-2 

The faculties of the Will . . . . ..... . . 153 

The union of Eeason and Will . . 153 

The Second Step of Equity 

Is to hold the body in subjection . , . . . . . . 154 

The five wits (senses) should be under the authority of the 

Eeason . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 

The Third Step of Equity 

Is to observe discretion in the use of temporal things . . 154 
The Fourth Step of Equity 

Is to follow the example of good men . . . . . . 155 

Novices like young greyhounds . . . . . . . . 155 

^sop's fable of the Hound and the Ass . . . . . . 155-6 

The Fifth Bough of Meekness 

Is to avoid the follies of the foolish 156 

Fools and Sinners are not to be derided, but to be pitied 156 

The bad man may be good to-morrow . . . . . . 157 

The Sixth Step of Eqidty 

Is to keep an eye upon the devil's snares and devices . . 157 

The spirits of men are like a mirror ' . . . . . . 158 

The devil puts thoughts into the heart . . . . . . 158 

The Seventh Step of Equity 

Is to keep God always before us 159 

Of the Boughs of Equity 159 

The Boughs of Equity are seven in number : 1. Obedience ; 
2. Love ; 3. Meekness ; 4. Prowess ; 5. Liberality ; 
6. Chastity ; 7. Sobriety 159-60 



This world is called the Vale of Tears . . . . . . 160 

Six kinds of tears are shed by good men . . . . . . 161 

Of the Gift of Strength 161 

Life of man may be compared to knighthood or to citizenship 161-2 

The gift of Strength enables a man to endure the hardships 

of this world . . . . . . . , . . . . 162 

Prowess strips man of sloth and idleness . . . . . . 163 

The Divisions of Virtue (Prowess) . . . . . . . . 164 

1. Magnanimity ; 2. Affiance ; 3. Security ; 4. Patience ; 
5. Steadfastness ; 6. Magnificence ; 7. Hunger and thirst 

of righteousness . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 

The First Step of Prowess 

To despise the world . . . . . . . . . . 164-5 

The Second Step of Proivess 

IsBeHef ." , 165 

The Third Step of Prowess 

Is Confidence (or Security) . . . . , . . . . . 166-7 
The Fourth Stej) of Prowess 

Is Patience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 

Patience is acquired by trial, just as the cup of gold has 
to undergo, the strokes of iron ere it is fit to place on 

the king's table . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 

The Fifth Step of Proioess 

Is Steadfastness or Constancy . . . . . . . . 167-8 

The Sixth Step of Proivess 

Is Perseverance or Magnificence . . . . . , , . 168 

The Boughs of Proivess . . . . . , .. .. 169 

Seven Boughs of Prowess ; for in seven battles seven 

crowns may be obtained . . , . . . . . 169-70 

The First Fight 170 

Is against deadly sin . . . . . . . . . . . . 170-1 

Of the Mejjentance of King David . . . . . . . . 171 

David repented in tears and sighs . . . . . . . . 171 

The sinner must so sorrow that his heart shall melt to tears 171 

The sinner is the murderer of his own soul . . . . 171 

The sinner's bed is the soul .. .. .. .. .. 171 

Of Shrift 172 

Of the six conditions of Shrift . . . . . . . . 172 

1. Let the sinner look, a. to the Shriver and seek a good 

confessor ; b. to his own sins before he comes to shrift 172 

2. Shrift must not be delayed . . . . 173 

3. Let shrift be made openly . . . . . . . . . . 174 

4. Let shrift be made without reservation . . . . . . 174 

Let the sinner tell first the deadly sins he has committed 175 
And how often he has fallen into sin, and with what 

members he has sinned ,. .. .. .. ., 176 



5. Let shrift be made meekly and timidly 

6. Shrift must be made often, for eight reasons 
Five things disturb shrift 

Of Penance 

Penance must be made by fasting, alms, and prayers 
The sinner's contest with, 1. sin; 2. with his own heart 

3. With his flesh ; 4. with the world ; 5. with Dame Fortune 

6. With the limbs of Antichrist 
Of the Gift of Counsel and of the Virtue of Mercy 

This gift bestows forethought and foresight 

Seek good advice 

Seven steps of the tree of Mercy — that is, the 

things that lead to mercy. 1 . I^ature 
2. Grace ; 3. Behests of Holy Scripture 
The devil a " shut-purse " 

4. The liberality of Christ ; 5. the honour of God (the Story 

of St Martin) ; 6. Dread of Doom 

7. The Seed of Mercy 
The Stories of St Germain, John the Almoner, and St 

The poor man who gave his one cow to the Priest 
Of the Goodness of Alms 

Three things to be considered in Almsgiving 

1. Give not of thy unlaAvful gains . . 

2. Give not to ribalds and minstrels . . 

3. Give, a. ungi'udgingly . . 
h. Without delay 
c. Liberally ; d. Willingly 

Despise not the poor . . 

Alms alone will not save a man 

Cursed are the unmerciful 
The Gift of Understanding and of the Virtue of Chastity 

1. Life Active, and, 2. Life Contemplative 
Martha a type of the first 
The Gift of Understanding is given by the Holy Ghost 

The Holy Ghost enlightens the soul . , 

He purifies the soul from the filth of lechery 

A lecher is no better than a beast . . 
Of the Seven Stejjs of Chastity . . 
L Have a clear conscience ; a. True Shrift 

Jordan signifies ' the Stream of Judgment ' 

h. A remembrance of Christ's passion 

The adder of brass betokens Christ . . 

II. Abstain from foul words 
Foul words denote a filthy heart . . 

III. Guard all the wits (senses) of the body 












The five senses are the five gates of the city of the heart, 

whereby the devil oft enters . . . . . . . . 204 

IV. Austerity of Life 204 

Lusts mar chastity . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 

Jeremiah's girdle denotes chastity . . . . . . , . 205 

Great meats nourish lechery .. .. .. .. ., 205 

V. Avoid the fellowship of the wicked . . . . . . 205 

VI. Be occupied with good Avorks . , . . . . . . 206 

Idleness the ruin of 8odom . . . . . . . . . . 206 

VII. Offer good prayers to God 207 

Prayer a shield against lust . . . . . . . . . . 207 

Prayers are shored uj) with four posts . . . . . . 207-8 

Ask not what is improper for thee to have . . , . . . 208 
Let the sinner take heed to the poor beggars that exhibit 

their infirmities before men in order to obtain alms . . 208 

God will not give thee a pear or apple as one doth a child 208 

Ask all things in the name of Christ . . . . . . 209 

Devotion of heart is necessary to prayer . . . . . . 210 

It is no use to move the lips while the heart is dumb . . 210 
Prayer without devotion is like a messenger without letters 

of recommendation ,. .. ,. .. .. 211 

Pray especially to God on Sunday . . . . . . . . 212 

The Sunday is more holy than the Saturday . . . . 213 

Of the great festivals . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 

An answer to those who say ' We cannot always be praying ' 213 
And ' if all days be mass days and holy days, how then 

should we sow, reap, mow,'? &c. . . . , . . 214 
Let great lords and ladies lay aside their dignity when in 

church . 215 

Ladies should take pattern of Queen Hester . . . . 216 
They should not be busy about decking their heads with 

gold and silver . . . . . . . . . . . . 216-17 

The two wings that bear prayer to God are fasting and alms 217 

Come not empty-handed before God . . . . . . 218 

The parable of the Ten Virgins . . . . . . . . 218 

Moses overcame Amalek by prayer . . . . . . . , 219 

The prayers of many are more effective than those of one 

man . . . . . , . . . . , . . . 219 
The Seven Boiiglis of Chastity are according to the states of 

men in this world . . . . . . . . , , 219 

1. Chastity of those who have preserved their maidenhood; 

2. Chastity of those who lost their maidenhood before 

marriage ..... . . . . . . . . . . 220 

3. Chastity of married folk . . . , . . . . . . 221 

The three cases in which the deed of spousehood may be 

sinless 222-23 



The proper times for abstaining from the deed of spousehood 224 
The elephant will not dwell with his wife while she is 

with child 224 

i. Chastity of widowhood .. .. .. .. .. 225 

Three things to be observed in this state . . . . . . 226 

). The Fifth Bough of Chastity is unmarried life . . . . 227 

The devil tries to steal the treasure of maidenhood . . 227 
"Why tlie life of maidens is to be praised . . . . . . 227-28 

Maidenhood like a white robe . . . . . . . . 228 

Three spots defile the white robe . . . . . . . . 228 

Eich robes often hide a poor and naked conscience . . 229 

Maidenhood like a lily 230 

The flower of maidenhood and its six leaves . . . . 230-32 

The tliree grains of the lily .. .. .. .. .. 233 

Virginity most fruitful in good works . . . . . . 234 

6. The Sixth State of Chastity is of Hooded Clerks . . . . 235 

The girdle of chastity 236 

The wickedness of the minister impairs not the efiicacy of 

the sacraments . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 

7. The Seventh State of Chastity is the State of Religion, i. e. 

of those who are dedicated to God . . . . . . 238 

The devil is most anxious to cause the ' religious ' to fall 
into sin, just as the fisherman has greater joy in taking 

a great fish than a little one . . . . . . . . 238 

Here lies a Tale of the devil-princes' reports of their evil 
deeds to a great devil who sat upon a folding stool ; 
and how one devil had, after forty years' trial, tempted 
a monk to commit fornication, for which he was 
hugged, kissed, and crowned by the ' great devil,' his 

master 238-39 

Eeligion is like a desert . . . . . . . . . . 240 

True poverty the hoard of the religious man . . . . 241 

The story of Lot's wife and its lesson . . . . . . 242 

' Religious folk ' that seek temporal riches put the plough 

before the oxen . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 

The pure of heart shall see God . . . . . . . . 243-44 

Of the Gift of Wisdom. Of the Virtue of Temperance and 

of Sobriety . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 

Wisdom, the last and greatest gift of the Holy Ghost, makes 

man to know God perfectly . . . . . . , . 245 

The glue of love . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 

The spirit drags down the flesh . . . . . . . . 247 

In the great tavern (heaven) one shall drink to the full of 

God's sweetness . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 

Sobriety springs from wisdom . . . . . . . . 248 

Death seizes the glutton suddenly, ' as one taketh a fish by 

the cheek' 248 



Wine drowns the glutton .. .. .. .. .. 248 

The mouth is the chief gate of the castle of the heart . . 249 

All creatures teach man sobriety . . . . . . . . 249 

Sobriety must be exercised in good deeds, as fasting, vigils, 

&c. 250 

Of the high rock (Christ) and the well of love . . . . 251 

Of the Seven Steps of Sobriety . . . . . . . . . . 252 

1. Measure (moderation) in the understanding . . . . 252 
Unbelievers overstep moderation — they seek a natural 

reason in what transcends the understanding. . . . 252 

The understanding should be subject to belief . . . . 253 

2. Moderation in the lusts and desires of the will . . . . 253 
Control the will with the bridle of sobriety . . . . 254 

3. Moderation in Avords . . . . • . . . . . 254-55 
Weigh thy words in the balance of discretion . . . . 255 

4. Moderation in hearing . . . . . . . . . . 256 

Flatterers and liars are plentiful, but there is great dearth 

of those who adhere to truth . . . . . . . . 256 

' Of the adder called in Latin Aspis ' . . . . . . 257 

5. Moderation in clothing and precious robes . . . . 258 

Excess is a sin . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 

The wearing of clothes comes of the sin of our first parents 258 
ISTature has given man no clothes of which to be proud, like 

the tail of the peacock and the comb of the cock ' . . 258 

6. Moderation in Conduct 259 

The child of a hundred years shall be accursed . . 259 

7. Moderation in Meat and Drink 260 

The virtue of sobriety is above all other virtues . . 260 

He who hath this virtue is joined to God by charity . . 260 

Of rest in God 260-61 

The Ayenbite of Inwyt is written in the English of Kent 262 

Date of its completion . . . . . . . . . . 262 

Pater Noster " 262 

Ave Maria 262 

Creed . . .. _ . . 262-3 

For to shake atvay heaviness and dread, and turn them into the 

love of God (Sermon on Matthew xxiv. 43) . . . . 263 

The Father of the House— the Will of Eeason . . . . 263 

The House — Conscience .. .. .. .. .. 263 

The Thief— the Devil 263 

Door-keeper — Prudence .. .. .. .. .. 263 

Dread, the messenger of death .. .. .. .. 264 

Dread's description of hell 264-5 

Love of Everlasting Life — a messenger from heaven . . 266 
Description of heaven . . . . . . . . . . 266-69 

Difference between Men and Beasts . . . . . . . . 270-71 



Aye Jje uondi[7i]gges of fe dyeule : zay Jjis fet uol^e]?. " Zuetc iesu 
jjin lioly blod / pet jjou sseddest ane Ipe rod / uor me and uor man- 
kende : Icli bidde fe hit by my sseld / aiioreye pe wycked uend : 
al to mi lyues ende . zuo by hit." 

pis boc is dan Michehs of jSTorthgate / y- write an enghs of his 
03ene hand. Jjet hatte : Ayenbyte of in^vyt. And is of Tpe boc- 
house of saynt Austines of Canterbeii . mid pc lettres : C : C : 

Holy archan[g]le Michael 

• l\/r f^ ■ f^ ■ Saynt gabriel . and Eaphael. 

• lf± • \J ■ \J • Ye brenge me to po castel. 

j)eY alle zaulen varefi wel. 

Lliord ihe^'u almi3ti kyng . jjet madest / and lokest alle Jiyng. 
Me jjet am jji makyng : to |)ine blisse me fon bryng. Amen. 

Blind . and dj^af . and alsuo domb. Of zeuenty yer al iiol rond. 
N"e ssolle by di'aje to pe grond : Vor peny / uor Mark / ne uor pond. 


|pise byej) pe capiteles of pe boc uol3inde / And hjep y--\viyte to 

vynde y-redHche / by pe tellynge of algorisme / ine huyche leave of pe 

boc ])et hy by. And ine huyche haK of pe lyeaue be tuaye lettres of 

pe abece. j)et is to wytene .A. and .b. .A. bctocnejj jjc ueiste 

half of . pe leave .b. pe ojserhalf. 



])e uore-speclie of \)ise boc uol- 

3ynde .1. a. 
pe xierste godes heste .1. a. 
pe ojjer godes heste .1. a. 
pe J^ridde godes heste .1. a. 
pe uevpe godes heste .1. b. 
pe vifte godes heste .Lb. 
Jpe zyxte godes heste .2. a. 
pe zeuende godes heste .2. a. 
pe e3teiide godes heste .2. a. 
Jje ne3ende godes heste .2. b. 
pe teiide godes heste . 2. b. 
pe tuelf articles of pe cristene 

beleaue .2. b. 
Of pe sseawynge jjet sayn Ion pe 

godspellere yze3 .3. b. 
}?e^toknen of pe heaueden of pe 

beste .3. b. 
)3etuerste heaued of pe beste .4. a. 
Hon me ssel to dele / pe zeue bo3es 

of prede . 4. b. 
pe ofer bo3 of p/v'de .5. a. 
Jpe jjridde bo3 of prede .5. b. 
pe vevpe bo3 of prede . 6. a. 
pe vifte bo3 of prede . 6. a. 
pe zixte bo3 of pi-ede .7. a. 
pe zeuende bo3 of prede .7. a. 
J?et ojjer heaued of pe beste of 

helle .7. a. 
Jpct Jjridde heaued of pe queade 

beste .8. a. 
pe uerjje heaued of pe queade 

beste .8. b. 
pe vyfte heaued of pe queade 

beste .9. b. 
pe oJ)cr l!03 of riaiaitise .10. b. 

pe jjridde bo3 of ai;arice .10. b. 
pe verfe bo3 of auarice .11. a. 
pe Yjite bo3 of auarice .11. b. 
pe zixte bo3 of auarice .11. b. 
pe zeuende bo3 of auarice . 1 2. a. 
pe e^tinde bo3 of auarice . 1 2. b. 
pe ne3ende bo3 of auarice .12. b. 
pe tende bo3 of auarice .12. b. 
j?e zyxte heaued of pe beste . 1 3. a. 
pe zeuende heaued of pe queade 

beste .14. a. 
Of pe ze?«ie of yelpinge . 1 7. a. 
Leazinges .18. a. 
Of pe zenne of lye3ynge .18. b. 
Cheaste .19. a. 
Of grocliinge .19. b. 
Of wy])stondynge .20. a. 
Vor to lyerny sterue .20. b. 
Hou me ssel knawe guod and 

knead .22. b. 
Of tymlyche guodes .22. b. 
Of pe lesse guodes .23. a. 
Of pe zojje guodes .23. b. 
Of Jjri maneres of guode .23. b. 
Of uirtne.23. b. 
Of wyt / and of clergy e .24. a. 
My3te .25. a. 
Yrydom .25. b. 
Noblesse .26. a. 
Gentyl guod .26. b. 
Of tuo lostuolle guodes .27. a. 
Of vhtue more specialMche .28. a. 
Of jjri j)inges nyeduolle / to pe 

erjje .28. b. 
pe uore-spechc of pe holy pater 

nost(!r .29. 1). 


Hyer begyn]) jjet holy pate?' nos 

teri .30. a. 
\)e uerste bene of pe holy pate 

noste/- .31. b. 
}5e ojjre bene of jje holy pate 

noster .32. b. 
j)e Jjridde bene of pe holy pate 

noste?' .33. a. 
Jpe uerjje bene of jje holy pate 

noste?' .33. a. 
J3e vifte bene of jje holy pate 

noste?' .34. a. 
])G zixte bene of jje holy pate 

noste?' .35. a. 
]5e zeiiende bene of J^e holy pate, 

noste?' .35. b. 
\)e zeue yefjjes of pe holy gost 

.36. a. 
Htieniore hy bye]? y-cleped yef J)es 

.36. b. 
Hueruore hy bye]) y-cleped yef J)e 

of pe holy gost .36. b. 
Hueruore is man y-bor^e .37. a. 
Of J3e J)ri uerste uirtues .37. b. 
Of pe uour u/?-tues cardinales. 
Of pe office of pe uour u^?"tues 

.38. a. 
Temperance .38. a. 
Stre[n]g])e .38. a. 
Ei3[t]uobiesse .38. a. 
Of pe jefpe of di-ede .83. b. 
Hou niyldenesse "svext ine herte 

.39. b. 
Of Jie stapes of Myldenesse .40. a. 

Of pe zeue bo^es of Myldenesse 

.41. a. 
j)e o)5er boj of Mildenesse .41. b. 
Of mide herte .41. b. 
j)e uerjje boj of IVIildenesse .42. b. 
j)e vifte boj of IVIildenesse .42. b. 
Of bo3samnesse .43. a. 
\)e zixte boj of IMildenesse . 43. b. 
}5e zeuende boj of Jklildenesse 

.44. a. 
Of pe u/?-tue of loue .44. b. 
j)e bo3es of louerede .45. a. 
j)e uerste stape of ri3tuolnesse 

.46. b. 
j)e ofer stape of ri3tuoluesse .47. b. 
pe fridde stape of ri3tuolnesse 

.48. a. 
J5e uBTpe stape of ri3tuohiesse 

.48. a. 
pe vifte stape of rijtuohiesse 

.48. b. 
j)e zixte stape of ri3tuolnesse 

.48. b. 
\)e zeuende stape of ri3tuolnesse 

.49. a. 
Of pe bo3es of ri3tuolnesse .49. b. 
Of pe yefjje of stre[n]g]3e .50. a. 
Jje todelinge of u/?'tues .51. a. 
pe ofer stape of prouesse .51. b. 
pe fridde stape of prouesse .51. b. 
pe ver])e stape of prouesse .51. b. 
pe vifte stape of prouesse .52. a. 
pe zixte stape of prouesse .52. a. 
pe bo3es of prouesse .52. b. 

1 MS. nostwcr. 
1 * 


pe iierste vi3t .53. a. 

Of J)e iiorj3encliinge of Jje king 

daiiij) .53. a. 
Of ssiyfte.53. b. 
Of yno3'bote .56. a. 
Of Jje yef jje of red/ and of uw-tue 

of merci .97. a. 
Of Jje guodes of elmesse .60. a. 
J3e yef Jje of onderstondi[TC]ge . and 

of Jje uiVtue of chastete .62. a. 
Of ])e zeue stapes of chastete .63. a. 
)?e zeue bo3es of chastete .68. b. 

J?e vifte bo 3 of chastete .70. b. 

Hyer lyjj a tale .74. b. 

Of jje yeffe of -wysdome. Of 

jje UM-tue of te?;2perance. 

And of sobrete .76. b. 
Of pe stapes of sobrete .79. a. 
Pate/' nostej' . Aue maria . Credo 

.82. a. 
Vor to ssake a-way heiiinesse an 

drede .82. b. 
Huet is betuene man and best 

.84. b. 


J?E UORE-SPECHE. p^^,„^^ 

[Fol. 1. a.] 

Almi^ti god / yaf ten hestes / iiie ]>& la;e of iewes / God gave Moses 

J)et Moyses onderuing / ine fe lielle of Synay / ine tuo ten upon two ta- 

tables of ston / jjet were i- write / mid godes vingre . and *^ " ^ °"®' 
hini-zelf / efter Ms beri??ge / ine his spelle / het hise 

liealde / and loki / to ecli man / jjet wile by y-bor3e . and wiioso breaketh 

,. oni !• IP these behests let 

nuo jjet agelt / ine enie of jje like hestes ; him ssel jjerof lum repent theie- 
iior-]?enche / and him ssriiie / and bidde god merci / yef 
he vryle by yboi^e. 

bis boC is y write / ^ This book is wiit- 

" ten for Euglish- 

uor englisse men, jjet hi "vvyte / men, that they 

1 , . n 1 1 • may know how to 

noil hi SSOlle nam-zelue SSnue, shrive and cleanse 

1 T-r 11 /• >• T them in this life. 

and maki ham kiene / me bise hue. 

' . •' This book is 

]5is boC hatte huo ])et writ / named by its au- 

ATENBITE OF INWTT. Ayen-bite of 

auerst byeb / be hestes ten / inwyt (Remorse of 

•^ J I I I Conscience), 

fet loki SSolle alle men. First are the Ten 

Behests that all 
men should keep. 

be uerste heste bet god made / and het : is bis. " bou The First Com- 

' r n I r > mandment, 

ne sselt habbe / nele godes." ])et is to zigge / " ))0U ne 
sselt habbe god / bote me . ne worssipie / ne servd. And 
J)oii ne sselt do jjine hope / bote ine me." Vor jje ilke / 
J)et deji his hope / he3liche ine ssepjje : zene3ej) dyad- 
liche . and dej) aye J)ise heste. Zuiche byej? ]?e ilke / jjet 
^ The foUoiving lines are written coittimwtisly as prose in the MS. 


worssipejj jje momenes . and make]) hire god / of ssepj)e / 
huicli pet hit by. 

they"sh7who too "'^^'® i'^^® ^^^^^ / ^^^'^^3^]> f^ / ]>^^ *o nioche / louiej) 

much love their J^i^e "uod. gokl . obei zeluBi . ober obre binges erbhche. 
goods (wealth). ^ ?. r r r o r 

Huo jjet / ine jjise Jjinges ageltej? : zettej) zuo moche 

liire herte / and liire hope : Jjet hi noiyetej) / hire 

ssepere . an letej) hini / fet alle Jjise gnodes ham lenjj. 

And jjeriiore / hi ssolden him serui / and Jjonki / and 

toppe alle Jjinges / lonie / and worssipie / alzuo po tekj) / 

J)is uerste heste, 


The secomi Com- jje ofer lieste / ys jjelHch. " jjon ne sselt nime / godes 

mandment. • i t d • • 

name : m ydel. pet is to zigge : " fou ne sselt zuerie / 
nor na3t / and \vyJ)-oute gnode scele . " pet oure Ihord 
hmi-zelf / ous uorbyet / ine his spelle. pet me ne zuerie / 
ne by pe heuene / ne by pe erpe/ ne by oj?re ssepjje . 
Swear not except pa, les ine guode skele / me may zuerie / wyb-onte zenne . 

for judgment, or . i r -, i o ' 

other good cause, ase me dome / huer me oksej) / oJ)[erJ / oi zo|ie. ojjer out 
of dome / in ofre guode skele . and clenliche / and skel- 
uolHche. Ine non ojjre manyere / ne is no ri^t to 
zuerie. And feruore / huo ])et zuerejj wijj-oute skele / 
jjane name of om^e Ihorde / and nor na3t : yef he zuere]? 
uals / be his wytinde : he him uorzuerrj) . and de|) / to 
ayans / Jjise heste . and zuerjj dyadliche . uor he zuerj) / 
ayens inwyt . fet is to onderstonde / huanne he liim 

sweann:; lightly uorzuerj) / be Jjojte / aiid be longe fenchinge. Ac pe 
ilke Jiet zueref zo]) / be his A\'3'tinde / and alneway uor 
na^t . oper uor some skele kueade / najt kueadhche/ 
ake li^tliche / and ■vvyf-oute sclondre : zuere]) lijtliche . 
jjajles pe wone / is kueaduol / and may wel "wende / to 
zenne dyadliche / bote yef him ne loki. Ac pe ilke / 

swearing iiideous- ])et zuere]) hidousHcho be god / ojjer by his haljen / and 

ly is deatly sin. i.,i ,/ i , i • in / 

iiim to-bre3p / and zayp him sclondres / jjet ne ojep na3t 
to zigge : pe ilke zene3e]3 dyadliche. JSTe he ne may 


liabbc skele : fet he him 111036 excusi. And ]>& ilke j^et 
mest him woiiej) to zuerie : mest zene^elp. 

pE }3RIDDE GODES HBSTE. T^g Thinl Cum- 

, 1 1 ■ ; mandment. 

j)G frickle heste / is Jjelhch . " Loke / ]jet Jjou hal3i / 
pane day / of Jje sabat; [Zeterday]," jjet is to zigge. [Foi.i-b.] , 
J30u lie sselt do / ine pe daye / of fe sabat [Zeterday] / 
fine nyedes / ne fine workes / fet fou ini3t do / ine ofre 
dayes. Ac fon sselt fe resti / nor betere / fe yeine to Rest the seventh 

,.,,/ , .. / T . j_i/t. ^^y '" P™y to and 

bidde/ and to servi fine ssepere / f et him restede / pane serve God. 

zenende day / of workes / f et he hedde yniad ine f e zix 

dayes benore . ine hnichen he made the wordle / an 

ordaynede [di3te.]. fis heste / iioluelf gosthche / him 

fet lokef / be his mi3te : f e pays / of his inwyt / god uor 

to servi / more holylaker. ba/me bis word / zeterday / Saturday or Sab- 
bath means rest, 
fet f e inrie / clepef sabat . is ase moche worf : ase reste. 

)5is heste / ne may non loki gosthche : fet by ine 

in-wyt / of dyadhche ze?ine . Yor zuich inwyt / ne may 

by ine reste / ber hnyle / f et hi is / ine zuich state. And instead of it, Holy 

.-,,,, Church sets Sun- 

ine f e stede / of f e sabat / fet wes straytuche y-loked / day in tiie New 

ine fe yalde la3e : zet hoh cherche / fane sonday / to j^^jy .'" ^'^ ^^' 

loky / ine f e newe laje . vor onre lliord / aros / uram 

dyaf e to lyue / fane zonday. An f eruore / me ssel hine 

loky / and uref ie / zo holyliche / and by ine reste / of 

workes / ope f e woke . and more of workes / of se?me . 

and yeue him more / to gosthche workes / and to godes 

sernise /, and f enche / ane liis sseppere / and him bidde / 

and f onky / of his guode. And huo / f et brekf fane and whoso breaks 

, j_ J. 1 1 / Sunday and otlier 

zonday/ and f e of re 11630 lestes / f et byef y-zet to loky / higii feasts, sins 

ine holy cherche : Z8ne3ef dyadliche / uor he def / aye 

fe heste of god. to-uore yzed . and of hoH cherche/ 

bote yef hit by / uore zome nyede / f et holi cherche 

grantef . Ac more zene3ef / f e ilke / f et dispendef fane and worse if he 

zonday / and f e festes ine ze/nie / and ine hordom / and and whoredom. 

in of re zennes / aye god. )?ise f ri hestes / di3tef ous / to 

gode specialliche. 


The Fourth Com- Ug uERbE GODES HESTE. 

mandment. ^ 

[Foi. 1. b.] jjg uerjje heste / is fellicli . " Worfissipe jjine uader / 

and ])ine moder . nor ]ju sselt libbe ])e lenger ine yerjje." 

)?is heste / ous amoneste]? / Jjet we ous loky / jjet we / ne 

Wrath not thy Fa- Avrej?])! iiadei / lie iBoder / wytindeliche . And huo fet 

ther or Mother. . , -, -, ■ ■, /ii- • ^ i 

onwor])e]) / his uader / and his inoder / be his -wj'tinde / 

oJ)er ham missayf/ oJ?er wrejjej? / mid kueade : zenejetli 

dyadhche / an brekjj Jjise heste. 

We shouui honour Ine jjise ilke heste / is onderstonde / fe worjjssipe / 

thers and the over- fet we ssolle here / to oure uaderes / gosthche. jjet is to 

Church ° ^ \\&m. I Jjet habbej) / J)e lokingge / oiis to teche / and ous to 

chasti / ase byejj / fe ouerhnges / of holy cherche. And 

who have the care j,q j^g^^ habbejj / jje lokinge / of oure zaules / and of oure 

bodyes. And huo fet nele / bou3e to ham / Jjet habbejj 

Jje lokinge of him / huanne hi teche]) Jjet giiod. ))et me 

Disobedience to is y-liyaldo to douc : zenejcb kueadhche. and zuych 

them is a deadly i • • ; t m- i 

sin. may by / ]je onbo3samnesse : Jjet lut is / dyadiich zenne. 

Tlie Fifth Com- }5E VIFTE GODES HESTE. 


Thou Shalt slay no jje vifte heste / IS bellich / " bou ne sselt / slaje nenne 


man." )?is heste uorbyet / jjet non ne ssel / sla3e ojjren / 
neither for venge- x\.ov a wreldiige . ne uor his guodes . ober uor obre 

ance, nor for his 

goods, for this is "wyckede skele . uor Jjet is zenne dyadiich . fables uor to 

it'is right to slay 8^36 ])e iiiisdoeres / ri3t uor to done / and loki / and 

lis oers. ^^^^ ^^^^ gnode skele. hit is guod rijt / by ])e k^e / to 

[Foi. 2. a.] l^i^''^ \^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ I ^^^^ yhyealde is ferto. 
In this behest is 1^16 jjis lieste ys uorbodc / zenne of hate / and of 

forbidden the sin ,/ ir> ■• -ir 1 i/i •j.* 1 

ofhate,wrath,and ^rejjo / and of grat ire . Vor alse zayjj / fe Avriting . jje 
T^^'b^th r-h r ^^^® / J"^^ hate]) his brojier : he is / niansla3])e / ase to 
is a man-slayer, hig wylle / and zene^Q]) dyadhche . and ])e ilke / fet 
To bear long here til lo??ge ■\\Te])e / ay ens o])ren . vor zuicli wre])e / 

wrath against . , . . in-ii •• / 

others is a deadly lo?^ge yhyealde / and bjniealde me herte : is me "\vre})e / 
and ine hate : })et is dyadiich zenne. and aye ])ise 
heste. And yet zene3e]) he more / f>et de]) / o])er por- 
chacc]) / ssame / o])er harm / to o]>ren : wrongliche. ofior 



is ine rede / and ine lielpe / uor to do liarmi o]?ren / liim 

to a-\vreke . jja^les \Yre])e / ofer onworjjnesse / fet gejj Harm done nn- 

, .. , willingly to others 

li^tliclie / ^v}'■j30l^te greate wille / an -wiliinge / nor to is not a 'deadly sin. 
liarnii oj?ren : ne is na3t dyadlicli ze?me. 

[Fol. 2. a.] 
j)E ZIXTE CODES HESTE. The Sixth Com- 


r; be zixte lieste / is bellicli. " bou ne sselt do / '^^ou shait do no 

' I J J I whoredom, nor de- 

non hordom." bet is to zisjoe / jjou ne sselt nait "wylni sire fleshly feiiow- 
uelajrede ulessKch / wjlp olpve ma/nie wjt men's wives. 

Ine bise lieste / ons is uorbode / alle ze«ne of ulesse / ^his behest for- 

r I I I biddeth lechery, 

fet me clepeb generalliche / lecherie. J)et is on / of J?e which is one of the 

deadly sins, 

zeiien dyadliclie zennes. pa^ jjer by zonie bronches / fet 
ne bye]) na3t dyadlicb ze??ne. ase bye]) manie arizinges 
of vlesse / ])et me ne may na3t al[/]e bevly. and ])o me 
ssel najti / and wylidraje / ase moche / ase me may. some branches of 

which, as arisings 

na^t uor to norici his / ne porchaci / o})er be to moche of the flesh, are 

not deadly sins. 

mete / ofer drinke / o])er be euele fortes, to longe y- 
hyealde. olpev be kueade takinges. Vor ine sniche ])inges / 
me may habbe / harm of zaule. Ine ])ise heste is in this behest are 

forbidden all sins 

uorbode / alle zennen a-ye kende / ine huet manere / hy against kind (na- 
bye]) y-do / o])er ine his bodie : ofer ine o])ren. 



The Seventh 

j)e zeuende heste / is feUich. " j)oii ne sselt do / Thou shait do no 
none ])ief])e." )?is heste ous uorbyet / to nimene / and 
of-hyealde / o])re ma?me fiing / huet Ipet hit by / be 
Avj^ckede skele / aye Ipe wyl of lii???- / ])et hit 03]). 

Ine bise heste is uorbode / roberie / biefbe / stale / This behest for- 

•» ' I r T I I bidfietli robbery, 

and gauel / and bargayn -wyb obren / uor liis 03011 to theft, stealing, 

usury, bargain. 

habbe. And fe ilke / J)et de]) / aye fis heste : is yhyalde 
to yelde. ])et he hep / of ojire ma«ne kueadhche / yef 
he wot to liuam. And yef he not :' he is yhyalde / to 
yeue hit uor godes loue. ober / to done by be rede of 

. He withhold- 

holi cherche. Vor he pet wyfhalt / o])re ma??ne Jung eth other men's 
mid wrong / be kueade skele : zene3e]) dyadliche : bote deacnj-r""*^ ' 

The Eighth Com- 


yef he hit yelde / per ha ssel / yef he hit wot / and 111036 
hit do. ojjer yef he ne dejj / by J)e rede of holy cherche. 


Thou Shalt bear J5e e3teiide heste / is felHch. " J^ou ne sselt zigge / 

no false witness , , , , . . , „ 

asjainst thine even- none iialse wytnesse / aye pine emcristen. 

TMs" beiiest for- "^^^^ f^^® ^^^^^ I °^^^ ^^ iioibode / jjet we ne lye3e / ne 

biddeth lying and Q■^^^ norziierie : ne ine dome / ne Avyboute dome / uor to 

lorswearing. i o j i 

do harmi j?ine emc/'/sten . and Jjet me ne lede nenne 

in wytnesse / nor to anipayri his guode los. ofer liis 

grace / pet he hejj / nor Jjet is dyadhch ze??ne. To-ayens 

Against this be- jjise heste doj) J)o / pet miszigge]) guode men / behinde 

who are guilty of ham / be hire wytinde. and by kueadnesse. Jjet me 

the sins of " de- , /. i , • i i / i • , 

traction," clepejj / pG zGHJie 01 dctraccion . and jjo also / fet heriep 

pe kueade / and hire dedes / of hire kueadnesse / and of 
hire folies ywyte f'opev yzo^e / ojser yherd . fet is zenne 
of blondi[«.]gge / o|)er of lozengerie / hua/me me hit zayj) 

and of flattery and to uore ham. ojier ualsliede / ojjer lyesinges / hua??.ne he 

of treachery. t p ; • 

fet me spekj? oi / ne is na3t p^-esent. vor alle J)0S byep 

[Fol. 2. b.] 

ualse wytnesses. 

The Ninth Com- Jpg NE3ENDE GODES HESTE. 


Thou Shalt not IftQ ne3eiide heste / is fellich. ")3ou ne sselt na3t 

covet thy neigh- i-/i- i 1 n i- !•/• i- 

bour'swife. Avyiui / jjiue ney3bores wyl. ne his Avylni / me fine 

Thou Shalt not liertc . " J5et is to zigge / J)ou ne sselt iia3t co??senti / to do 

consent to do sin / • 1 , • i i 

with tiiy body. ze^ne / mid Jjine bodye. 

])is heste uorbyet / to Avylni mid wyl of herte / to 
liabbe uela3rede ulesslich/ mid alle wyfmen / ^ out of 
spoushod. And pe kueade tocnen wijjoute / jjet hjep 
ymad / uor to dra3e ze«ne / ase byejj / kueade wordes / of 
zuyche manere. ojjer yef Jjes / ojier kueade takinges. 

The difference be- Aiid be difference of bise heste / mid be zixte / aboue 

tween the ninth 

and sixth Com- yzcd : zuo is/])et pG zixtc hestc uorbyet/ fie dede wyjj-oute. 
ac bis uorbyet / be grantinge wybinne. Vor be g/'ant- 

The sixth forbids ^ J I r o ojr r » 

the outward deed, inge / to liablDC uelatredc ulesslich / mid wyfmen / jjet ne 

the ninth forbids . i-n itti/t 

the inward con- IS na3t liis be spouse : ys zenne dyadhch / bo pe dome / 
"■ 1 MS. nci'/bores. 2 ]yfg_ loyfwem. 


of godes spelle / fet zayjj. " Huo fet zi3]5 ane \^^fman / 
and Avylne]) Ms ine lierte : he hejj y-zeiie5ed / ine hyre : 
ine Ms herte ." pet is to zigge : wjp aperte wTrliii[H]gge / 
and inid Jjo^te. 


be tende heste / is bellich. " bou ne sselt na^t ^vyMi Thou shait not de- 

■• I r 1 J. / 1 X sire the thing that 

ping / pet is pine nixte." pis heste iiorbyet / ^Tyl to is thy neighbour's. 
hahhe opre nianne ping / hy w}^ckede scele. 

Ine pis heste /is uorbode enuie / of opre manne ;^.,SL':;r;, S 
cuode. ober of obre mawne grace . Vor pe ilke enuie / which comes co- 

b r J o J vetousness.adoad- 

comp of kneade couaytise / nor to habbe pet giiod / oper ly sin. 

pe ilke g?-ace . pet he y-zi3p ine opren. And pe ilke 

couaytise / huawne pe cowsenteme«t / and pe p03tes per- 

to : is dyadlich ze7?ne. and aye pise heste. J3a3les / 

li3te couaytise / to habbe opre nla?^ne ping / by ^ 

guode scele : ne is no ze?me . and yef per is / em kuead Any evil arising 

arizinge / wyp-oute w}dle / and ^vyp-oute grantinge /to Tin/but inhere be 

harmi opren : hit ne is no ze/me. and yef per is ze^zne : iy"{,j'^t 'figj,"' 

hit is li3t ze??ne. 

j)is byep pe ten hestes / huer-of pe pri uerste / ous These are the Ten 

. . Behests, whereof 

di3t wel to god . j)e opre zeuen / ous di3t to oure nixte. the tiiree first di- 
Jjise ten hestes / byep to echen / pet hep scele / and elde / ti,e otherseven to 
yhyealde to conne / and to done . Vor huo pet dep per- °"' "''"°' ""'' 
teyens / be his wytinde : zen3ep dyadliche. 


cles of the Chris- 

byse byeb be tuelf articles / of be cnstene byleue / tian Belief, 
pet ech man c?'?'sten / ssel yleue stedeuestHche. iior articles of the 

. Christian belief, 

cperlaker / he ne may by ybor3e / huanne he hep ^v5't / 

and scele. And berof byeth tuelf by pe tale / of pe "bythetaieofthe 

^ -^ "^ ■* ' ' twelve apostles." 

tuelf apostles / pet hise zette to hyealde / and to loky / to 
alle pon/ pet wylep by ybor3e. Jpa/nie pe uerste / be- The first belongs 
longep to pe uader. pe zeuende : to pe zone, the uerpe / the seven loiiow- 
to pehon gost. uor pet is pe bygmnmge/ oi the beleaue: and the remaining 
yleue ine pe holy tr/nite. pet is ine pe uader / and ine ^j^^gj" *'"^ ""^ ^ 
^ wi/ in MS. 


fie zone / and ine J>e holj^ gost. on god / an pvi persones. 
Alle Jjise articles / byejj ycontyened ine pe credo. / Jjet 
pe tueK apostles made . / ech zette his. 
The first article be uerste article, ys bellich. " Iclr heleue ine god / 

(of the Father) . . , , . 

was set by St J)e iiader almi3ti / sseppere / of heuene / and of erjje." j?is 

article zette sapite peter. 
The second article he ober article / belongeb to be zone / aze to his 

(of the Son's God- \ . ' , . was set by godliede / j)et is to zigge / Jiet he is god . and is pellich . 

■ " Ich beleue ine yesu crist / oiire Ihord / godes zone pe 

Tiader / in alle j^inges / pet helongej? to pe godhede / an 

is onlepi Jjing / mid pe uader : bote of pe persone / jjet is 

ojjer / panne pe persone of pe uader ; Jpis article zette / 

[Foi. 3. a.] sayn Ion pe godspellere. 

The third article he bridde article / and the vifte / bet uobeb efter / 

and the fifth treat ' ' ( ^ 

of the Sou's man- beloiigejj to pe zone / ase to pe mawhode ; Jset is to 

zigge / ase fet he is man dyadlich . panne mid pe Jjridde 

of his conception article / is ycontened / j^et he Aves y-kend / of pe holi 

and birth. / ■, ■, 'n -> -%r ■ i ■ 

gost / and y-bore of fie mayde Mane, pet is to onder- 
stonde / fiet he wes y-kend / ine fie Mayde Marie / be f5e 
dede / and by fie uirtii / of fie holi gost / and nofiing / of 
dede / of man. And the mayde Marie / blefte eure 
Tiiis article was mayde / an yhol Ije-uore / and efter. J?is article zette 

set by Jacob, t i i t t , 

St James' brother, zayn lacoD / sayii ionnes brofier. 

The fourth article Ift^ uerfie article / belowgefi to his passion . fiet is to 

sSn^''"'""^^'' zigge / fet he folede djap onder pouns pilate / f)et Aves 
paen / and demere / ine fio time / ine ierusalem : by fie 
romayns. Onder fo demere / wes lesu crist y-demd / 
wjp A\Tong / to fie biddinge / of fjri kueade ieus/and y- 

and was set by St do a rodc / and dyad / and y-do in-to lierieles. )?is 

Andrew. . ^ 

article zette saynt andreu. 

Tiie fifth arti- j)e vifte article / zuo is / fjet ha wente into lielle / 

" Harrowing of efter liis dyafie / iior to dra^e fia?aies / and to deliuri fie 

"^''" zaules / of pe holi naderes . and of alle fion / ])et uram fie 

ginni[w]gge/of fie Avordle storue /in zofi & guode byleaue/ 

and ine hope / f et hi ssolden by y-bor3e / be him / uor pe 

zenne / of the nerste manne. Hit behouede / f et alle 


■\venten / i/ito helle and jjere abyde pe guode / ine in heii abode the 

zikere hope, jjet iesu crist / godes zone / ssolde come / his of de'uverance. 

to deliiiri / be fet he hedde behote / be his prophetis. 

And uor J30 scele / wolde he / efter his dyaj)e / wende in to 

helle . bet is to onderstonde, / ine bo half / bet were be The wicked were 

^ ' / J- I r -^ left in hell, there 

haljen . N^ajt ine Jio half : pet were ]je uorlorene. j^et to abide for ever. 
weren dyade / ine hire ze/me / and in hire niisbileiie. 
And ]jo ne droj he na3t . nor hi byej) uorlore / uor 
enremo. jpis article / zette saynt phihppe. This article set st 

pe sixte article is / of his arizinge . bet is to wytene . The sixth is of 

Christ's resurrec- 

pet jjanne jjridde day / efter his dyajje . uor to uoluelle J?e tion, 

writinges : he aros urani dyajje / to Hue . and sseawede 

him / to his deciples. and ham prouede / his arizinge : 

ine uele nianeres / be uourti dajes. bis article / zette ^"'^ "'^^^ set by st 

' 7 i I Thomas. 

saynt tliomas. 

)?e zeuende article is. J3et fane uourta3te day / efter his The seventh arti- 

arizinge / huanne he hedde y-yete / mid his deciples, to- after^Ms rising"'*'^ 

uore ham/al apertehche /steaj into heuene / pet is aboue / into heaven?*^'^'* 
alle ssepjje / jjet ys ine heuene / al to godes ri3t half / jje 

uader / huer he him made. j)is article / zette seynt This article set st 

, ,11 Bartholomew. 


j)e e3tende article is. pet he ssel come / ate daj^e of The eighth article 
dome / to deme jje dyade / and pe libbinde . pe guode / co'me'at dooms, 
ande pe kueade . and yelde to echen / be Jjet he hef of-guo S S*!"' ''''''^ 
I ine jjise wordle. }?ise byeth pe artikles / jjet belongejj 
to be zone, bis article zette seynt Matheu be godsspeUere. ^' Matthew set 

'^ _ -^ r fo 1 this article. 

pie ne^ende article / and pe jjri laste : belongeb / to be The ninth article 

... . 1 1 . 1 ^""i the three last 

hoh gost. and is fellich. " Ich beleue / ine pe hoU belong to the Hoiy 

gost." Jjis article aksejj / pet me leue / pet pe hoh gost / 

is pe yefpe / and pe loue / of pe uader / and of pe zone / 

huerof comp / alpe guod of grace . and pet he is / onlepi The Holy Ghost is 

, ,- .... tlie sift and love 

god / an onlepi ping/ mid pe uader / and pe zone / bote of the Father and 

, , . , Son. 

pe persone / pet is, oper / pa/nie pe persone of pe uader / 

and / of pe zone. }5is article sette / saynt lacob / zaynte '^■"s ='""''« ^^^ ^' 
Simones and saynte ludes broper. ^ ^^ 

\>e tende article is pelhch. " Ich y-leue holy The tenth article 

14 ST John's vision of the beast. 

treats of the fei- cherch geiieralliclie / and be mennesse of liabeii"/ bet is to 

lowship of saints. ° ' -> j i i 

zigge : \q uelajrede of alle fe lial;en / and of alle fie 

guode men Jjet byejj / and ssolle "by. al to Jjb ende of J)e 

wordle / and weren zejjjje ])e giniii[«]gge, to gidere / ine \q, 

III this article are byleaue of lesu crist. And ine bise article/ byeb onder- 

uiiderstood the 

seven sacraments, stonde / J)e zevB sac^'emeiis / jjet byejj ine holy clierche . 
Jjet is to "wytene. cristninge . (:o?iferniinge. Jje sacrament 
of Jte wyefde. ordre. spoushod. jje holy ssrifte. and \q 

This article set St Jaste : aiioylinge. bis article zette sayn simoun. 


The eleventh arti- J5e enlefte is. to loue : J)e lesnesse of zenne. J)et god 
iiessof sins. yef]) be J3e viVtne / of liis holi sac7'(?mens / fet byef ine 

St Jude set this j^qJj clierche. j?is article zette sayn lude. 


The twelfth article Jje tuelfte article is . to leue / be general arizinge of 

is to believe the 

general rising of bodye. and fct lif / ■vvyjj-oute ende. ]?et is )je bhsse of 

the body, and life , i-iii,p 

without end, paradis. fet god ssel yeve to ham / fet hit habbep oi- 

gno / be guode beleaue : and be guode workes. )?is 

and everlasting article / yofb to onderstonde / his confravie. bet is / be 

liunishment pre- i ^ j i j j 

pared for the for- pine / wj])-oute ende / jjet god he]) agrayjjed / to J?e uorlo- 

rene. )?is article / ssel by onderstonde / ine zuyche 

By it we under- niaiiere : bet ech / by he guod / by he kued / ssel by ate 

stand that both ^ I J o I J . . 

good and bad shall daye of dome / arered uram dyajje / to lyue / ine his 
ward in the body ojene bodye / huer he ssel habbe an. and onderuonge 
have deserved in liis medc / ine bodye / and ine zaule / be |)et he he]) of- 
*' '^ ®' guo / ine J)ise hue. an fieruore / ssolle fe guode / at fo 

daye / ine bodye / and ine zaule / by in hf / Avyf-oute 
ende. and the kueade : uoiiore eiu'emo / ine bodye and 
This article was j-^-^g zaule. bis article zette saynt Mabbi. 

set by St Mat- •' J rr 


Of the vision of St Of )3E SSEAWYNGE ]3ET SEINT IoN }pE 



St John saw a Mi Ihord sanyn Ion / ine ])e boc / of his -sseawyinges. 

beast come out of - -, i , t , i ■, , -i 

the sea, J^et IS y-cleped / pe apocanjjse : zuo zayp / pet he yze^ a 

best / ])et com out of the ze . wonderliche ydi3t. and to 

i-.aving a leopard's moche dreduol. Vor jjet bodi of lie beste : wes ase 

body, a bear's feet, 

a lion's throat, lipard. ])e uct / wcren of here. ]ie ])rote / of lioun. 
heads and ten and hit hedde / zeve heauedes . and ten homes . and 



by ten crowns. 

opc the ten homes, ten corounes. And jzej saint Ion. ^^^y', 

fet jje ilke kueade best / hedde mijte / of him-zelve / to J^' JjJ'Jf J';'^' 

vhte / wyb be hahen / an his to ouercome / and to oner- ^eif to figiit with 

? I <' t f -^ I I and overcome the 

maistri. J5is ilke best / zuo wonderuol / and zuo y-coun- saints, 
trefeted / and dreduol : betocneb / bane dyenel / bet com This beast be- 

' ' ' ' /IP tokeneth the devil, 

out of J3e ze / of helle / Jjet is uol/ of alle zor3e / and oi whocomethoutof 
alle biternesse. Jpet bodi of Jje beste / ase zayjj saynt j^jg ^,^11^3 are de- 
Ion . zuo wes ylich / to fe lipard . nor Jjet ase Jje lipard / ^^^^^^ spots* ms 
hejj diners coliirs : zuo hejj ))e dyenel diverse maneres / ^ear'f ftet ^^ "^'^ 
of waytinges / and of contac / nor to gily / an nor to 
uondi fe uolk. Jje weren ilich / jje u^et of here, vor 
alse J3e bere / jjet hej) fe stre[n]g])e ine fe net / and ine 
Jje arnies / halt strangUche. and bint / j^et he hejj / onder 
his net / and pet he beclepj) : alsuo dej? |)e dyevel ham / 
fet he hejj beclept / and ouerjjrawe be zenne. )3e j^rote '"s cruelty by the 
Aves of Uon . nor his greate cruelete / pet al wyle uor- for the devil win 

for-swallovv all. 


bE TOKNEN OF bE HBAVEDEN OF IjE BESTE. The tokens of the 

' •* heads of the beast, 

J3e zeue heauedes / of pe beste of helle : byej) pe ,^^^ ^^[.^^ 'j'^^^,^ 
zeuen hauedliche zennes. be huichen / be dyeuel dra^b are the seven dead- 

I > '' ■" ly sins. 

to him / ase al be wordle. Vor onneabe yualb / bet me i^^ery one fails in- 

ne ualp / in-to pe prote / of zome : of pe zeue heauedes. some of the seven 
And peruore / zayji wel saynt Ion : pet hit hedde mi3te / 

ave be hal en. vor in erbe / ne ys zuo hoU man : bet ^^^0"° '« ^o holy as 

"^ ' r I J ■'to avoid all sins. 

ni03e / parfitHche beuly / alle pe maneres of zenne. pet 
of pise heuedes zeue comep / A^yp-oute special praiilege 
of grace / alse hit wes / ine pe mayde Marie / oper ine 
zome obren / be special grace / bet he hedde of god. be '^^^ i" ''o'""^ be- 

r I r t^ G I r 01 tokeneth the guilts 

ten homes of pe beste / betoknep / pe geltes of pe ten of the 10 behests. 

hestes / of our Ihorde / pet pe dieuel purchacep / also 

moche ase may / by pe zeuen / beuore yzed zennen. )5e The 10 crowns are 

the 10 victories he 

ten corounes aboue / betoknep / pe ouercomi«ge / pet hit hath over sinners, 
hep aboue / alle| zenuoUe / uor pet / he dep his agelte / ine 
pe ten hestes. 


The first head of Uj,,j, uerste HEAUED OF bE BESTE. 

the Beast. •* ' 

The first head is Jpet uei'ste lieaiied / of jje beste of lielle : ys prede. fet 

2nd Envy, oJiGT / is enuie. ])e jjridde / wrejie. Jje iierjje / sleau]je / 

4th Sloth,' f et me clepe); / ine clergie : accidye. jje vifte / icinge. in 

6th Giuttonj'r^^' cle[r]gie / auarice. ojjer couaytise. Jje zixte / glotounye. 

7th Lechery. j^g zeuende leclierie / ojjer luxurie. Of jjise zeue heauedes / 

com]) ech manere zenne. and fernore / hi bye]? y-cleped / 

These are all head- liaved-zennes. noT Jjet hi hye]) / heaued / of alle kueade / 

ning of all wicked" ^1^*-^ of ^^^ zennes. and ginni?/ge / of alle kueade. he 

"*^^- hy dyadliche / he hy nenial. Jeanne / ech of fe ilke 

And first we will zeuen him to-delj? / ine uele halues. And iierst / we 

talk of pride, the .„ , . / p , n ^ i v . ,. 

first sin, willej) ziggc / 01 ])e zeiinc oi prede / nor J»et wes pe 

uerste zenne / and jje aginni??ge / of alle kueade. vor 

which was com- prede / hrek uerst uelar^ede / and ordre / huanne lit^here 

mitted by Lucifer, -^ ' , . 

Jje angel / vor his greate uayrhede / an liis greate "svyt : 
"vvolde hy ahoue / j^e ojjre angeles / and hi?« wolde emni / 
to god / J3et hine zo uayr / an zuo guod : hedde y-mad. 

wherefore he and And Jjeruore / he vil uraiu hevienc : and hecom dyeuel. 

heaven. and lie / and al his uela^rede. Hym anliknej) / alle 

proude / fet uelajrede / and ordre of men / onde]? / and 

Like him are all hrekj) / hua?aie hi wylle]) / by aboue ojjren. and more 

themselves above by alozcd / and y-preyzed / Jeanne eni o]ier / Jiet betere 


byejj "worj). 

The Might of bfi MYJTE OF PREDE. 

Pride. -^ 

Pride biindeih big zeune of prede / ys to dreduol. nor hi ablent 


men. zuo j?et hi ham-zelve / ne knawejj / ne ne zye]5. 
so that they are Jiet is jje wel Strang / and Jje wel special aid / to jjc 

beguiled by the 

devil wiiethertiiey dyculc / huer-of he be-gjdejj / fe heje men / and Jje 

wise, hardy.' or ' uayrc / and Jje riche / and ]je wyse / and J^e hardi / and ])e 

but"especiaiiy worjjuoUe. And generalliche / ecli manere of uolk. ac 

great lords, specialliche / jje greate Ihordes / zuo jjet hy ham zelue / 

ne knawyjj / ne yzej? / liire niisdedes / ne liire fohes / ne 

hire "vvyttes. J)anne is. hit / fe meste periluse ziknesse / 

J)et is of oj^ren. Vor-zo))e / he is ine grat j^erii / to huam / 


alle t/v'acle / went in to venyni. Also deb techinge / and to whom teaching 

' and chastisement 

chastisement / to ]?e proude. Vor fe more / fet me him profitetu not. 
wyQjJiiunJj / and hlamej) / and chaste J3 : jje more / he him 
AYreJjejj. and jje more him were]?. 

Prede / is be dyeulesoje dojter / bet he J) / grat del/ Pride is the devil's 

own daughter, and 

ine his kende. Prede werrejj "wyjj god / of his guode. wars against God. 

, 111 ... It is king of 

and god / Jirau]) doiin prede / and werrejj wij) mm. wicked practices. 
Prede / is king / of wyckede jjeawes. Hy is jje lioiin / (jevourg aii°" 
pet al iiorziielj). Prede astrujj / alle ])e guodes / an alle [FoI. 4. b.] 
))e graces / and alle j^e gnode workes / fet hyejj ine 
manne. Vor prede / makej) of elmesse / zenne. and of 
iitrtues / vices, and of guode workes / hiier-of me ssolde 
begge heuene : make]) wynne helle. 

Jjis zenne / is Jje nerste / ])et asaylej) / j^ane kni3t / oure This sin is the 
Lhord / and hua?^' last let. Vor huanne he he]) / alle our Lord, and was 

, . 1,1/ the last to abandon 

o})re kuedes ouercome : fanne hvii asaylep prede / pe him. 


-^ of Pride. 

J3is zenne liim to-del]) / and spret / ine zno nele 
deles / ])et onnea])e"/ me may hise telle. Ac zeuen 
pn'ncipals doles / fer bye)), pet bye]) / ase zeue bo5es / 
Jiet guo]) out / and bye]) y-bore / of ane wyckede rote. 

jjanne / pe uerste bo3 of prede : is / ontreu])e. pe i. untmth, 

. -, ^ ■ o ^^- I^espite, 

ojier : onwor])hede. pe fridde : ouerwem??,ge. fet we "^ m. presumption, 
clepeb / presumcion. pe uerjie folebajTie. ])et we^ clepie]) / iv. Ambition, 

. , , T . . . V. Idle-bliss, 

ambicion. pe vifte : ydele basse, pe zixte : ypocrisie. vi. Hypocrisy, 
pe zeuende : wyckede drede. To fiise zeue di3tinges / ^^ead. 
belonge]) alle pe zennes / fet by]) y-bore of prede. 
Ac ech of ])ise zeue bo3es / he]) uele smale tuyegges. 
p)e uerste bo3 of prede / pet is / ontreu])e. he him to- 
del]) / in pv\ Httle bo3es. huer-of pe uerste / is kuead. The three twigs of 
bo ober : worse, be bridde / allierworst. be on is voul- i. Fouihood, 

■'■^ . II- Foolislmess, 

hede. pe ofer : wodhede. pe J)ridde : renoyrye. Voul- iii. Apostasy. 
hede : generaUiche / is ine eche zenne. vor no zenne / i- Fouihood 
ne is / Avy])-oute uoulhede. and zuo beginne]) / alle 

1 lni;u/( r - me ? 



zennes / be voulliede. Ac Jse uoulhede / pet we spekej? 

of hier specialiche / fet com]? of prede. and is a man- 

yere / of ontreupe : is a vice / pet is y-cleped / ine clergie : 

or Ingratitude is ingratitude / Ipet is uoryeti[??]go of god / and of liis guodes. 

to forget God and 

Ills gifts. pet me ne jjonkej) mm najt / ase me ssolde do. ne him 

ne yeldejj jjonkes / of his guodes / pet he ous he]) ydo. 
He is a great Vor-zobe he is wel vileyn / and ontrewe / au.oreye his 

vilain that never ._,, i;i-i t it- 

returns thanks for Ihord / jjet alio guod / him hej) y-do. and Mm ne 

kindness received. , -, , , , Tiii-zi i i 

jjonkej) / ac uoryet : and yeit mm / Jviiead nor guod. 
Such viiany do and vileynye / uor corteysye. pe ilke vileynye / dej) 

those who do not , , , n ; i i • i i p 

thank God, man to god / huaiine he / ne befengj) him najt / oi pe 

guodes / fet God liim hej) y-do / and him deJ) ahieway. 
and na^t him ])onke]) / ac raj)re him / ofte werre]) / ine 
fet / fet he use]) kueadHche / and aye godes wil. 

but use iiis gifts jpet is wel grat vileynie / ase me fingj) / ])et grat guod- 
nesse / onderua[w]gJ) / and ne dayne]) 1133 1 / to zigge : grat 
fank. And yet liit is more grat : huanne / me him 
uorza3]) / o])er huanne / me him uoryet. ac pe ilke / is 

and each day re- to grat : huauiie echedaye / onderuangj) pe guodnesses : 

turn evil for good. 

and echedaye / yelt kuead / uor guod. 
We have no gifts J)e ilke / ])et j)anne wel fengj) / and ofte lokede / to 
gitn^us, bfthey fe guodcs / fct god him hej) ido / and dej) alneway : and 

of nature, of for- , ^^ ^^^ ^^^ / |^g ^^ j^^i, . j,g^ ^^^ ^^ J^gj, / J^^ J^^^^ 
tune, or of grace. ' a i j > ^-i j / 

y-yeve. ne guodes of kende : ase uayi'hede. and \\e\pe. 
an strengfe of hodye. ari sle3J)e. and natm-el wyt / 
auoreye pe zaule. ne guodes of auenture. ase richesses. 
worssipe. and he3nesse. ne guodes of grace, ase hyj) 
Let us thank God ii/?'tues. and guode woi'kes. wel ssolde he jjonki god : 

for all his gifts to 

us. of alle his guode. vor guodnesse : oj)er aksej). 

II. Folly or mad- jje oj)er / outreujie. j)et com]) of prede : is wodhede. 
The man is out of Hie halt auc man wod. J)et is out of his wytte / ine 
Ins wits, huam : skele is miswent. j)anne wext ari^t / pe ilke fol. 

[Foi. 5. a.] ^^^ miswent. and wel yzed / wod. j)et ■v\^tindeliclie / 
who misuses his and hardilichc / pe guodes / pet ne hyej) na^t his. ake 
whereof behoveth hjep. his Ihordes guodes. huer-of / him heliouej) / 
him yield account, j,^j,f^j^yp]^p / yg^^^ rekeiiiiige / and f-cele. pet is to 


wytene / jje guodes / of suo grot pris / and pe timliche 

guodes / j?et he hejj / ine lokinge. pe mVtiies of pe bodie / 

and jje Jjojtes / pe consexiteme)is / and pe willes of pe 

zanies / waste]) / and despendejj / ine folyes / and ine 

outrages / to-uore Jje e3en / of his Ihorde, an hbn ne and thinketh not 

poruayjj / ol lus rekeninge. and wel wot / fet rekeni oning. 

him behouejj. an ne wot / liuanne. ne Jjane day. ne pe 

onre. Zuych folie / is wel y-cleped / onwythede. Of of suou vices the 

.-,.,, 11/ 1 great i)i-oud men 

zuicne vices / bye]5 nolle / pe greate proude men / J?et usejj are fuii. 
kueadhche / pe greate guodes / fet god ham heJj ylend. 

])e firidde ontreujje J)et com]? of prede : ys renayrie. m- Apostasy. 

He ys wel renay / Jjet / ]?et land Jjet he halt of his Ihorde / He is an apostate 

-dej) in-to pe hond of his uyende. and dej) him man- loid-s land to lus 

hode. Zuych ze?ine make]? ech fet zene'yep dyadliche. ^"^™^' 

nor jjanne alzo moche ase of him is he dejj manhode to as doetii he who 

,1 i; 11 ,1. -1 -,-■ P'^y^ homage to 

pe dyeule / and becomj) his J^rel. and hiin yelt al fet the devii. 

he halt of god / and bodi / and zaule. and ojjre guodes. 

Jjet he dej) to fe seruice of pe dyeule. And alba: he ^"<=i> a one is only 

...... . Clnistian in name 

by be his ziggmge cnsten : he renay jj be dede / and and not in deeds. 

ssewe]) Jjet he ne is na^t. Ac speciaUiche ine jjri man- 

eres is man ycleped reney. and uals cristen. ojjer nor False christians 

,,■, t 1 jyi I 1 J -I 11/ 1 -, ^''^ those who sin 

Jiet he ne belet J3 / Jjet he ssolde / ase dep pe bougre : and against their 

pe heretike / and pe apostate. J)et reneyejj hire bileaue. ^vtS^L*^! Ind 

0])er nor jjet he agelt pe byleaue fet he bylef ]?. Alsuo ^''"''®^- 

do]) pe uorzuorene. and pe le3ers of pe byleaue. 0])er 

belef ]) more ])anne he ssolde. ase do]j pe deuines / and 

pe wiclien / and pe charmeresses fet worke]) be pe 

dyeules crefte. and alle jjo ])et ine zuyche ]3inges suehmensin 

jlenep and do]) hire hope : zene^e]) dyadhche. Vor foT tlfe'y sin 

alle zuiche ]3inges hjep aye pe byleaue. and jjcruore as^i''^'^ 'i"' •^'^i'"''- 

his uorbyet holy cherche. ))ise bye]) pe manieres of 

on-treu])e / fet is pe uerste boj of prede. 


pe o])er boj / ])et com]? out / of be stocke / of prede : The second Bough 

_ of Pride is Despite 

zuo is onworfnesse [despit] / fet is / wel grat zenne. (Contempt). 

■2 « 


And ])a3 hit by zuo / Jjet no zenne dyadlicli / by wijj- 

oute onworJ)nesse / of god. alneway be jjet / Jiet we spekeji 

There are three gf onworbliede / hver specialliche / ine bri maneris / me 

sorts of this sin. j i o i. i j i 

I. Not praising j^^av zened / be bise zenne. Ober nor bet / me ne 

others as they de- "^ . . ■ 

serve. prayze]) / ojjren ari3t / ine berte / ase me ssolde. Ojjer 

II. Not to honour uor bet / me ne berb najt worssipe / and reuerence : fer 

and reverence r^ i -, 

where one siiouid. ])et me ssolde. 0))er nor jjet / fet me ne boujji na3t ari3t : 

obedience to those to ham / ])et me ssolde / ri3tuolliche bou^e. 

ThTnk\ow often ^^u ])ench ri3t wel / ine j^ine herte / hou ofte / j^e 

Traise'd other's, l^est y-do / fe ilke zonne / >et Ipon best / ine >ine herte : 

])& illve / J)et more bye]) worji / jjanne j?ou / onAvorjjest. 

nor zome graces wy))onte / )jet god / J»e heji y-yeve. ojjer 

uor noblesse / ofer uor prowesse. ojjer uor richesse. 

ojjer uor wyt. ojjer uor uayi'hede. ojjer uor ojjre 

guodes / huet pet hi by : hueruore / fou ])e prayzest / 

more jjanne J)e ssoldest. and ojjren lesse. 

how thou hast fail- Efterward / bench hou uele zibe bou best / Htel ybore 

ed in givmg due 

honour to God, to worjjssipe / and reuerence / to ham / jjet Ipou ssoldest. 
saints, and His Auerst / to god. and to liis modcr. and to his hal en. 

and to J3e angles of heuene. Vor ]?er ne is non / to-yans 

huani / ]?et jioxi ne hest agelt / ine onwor[j5]nesse [des pit]. 

ojjer be onworjjnesse / fet ])ou hest / ofte zijjes / euele / 

and Avi'ojie / y-loked hire festes. 
and how many Efter fiaii Jjeiicli / liou uele zi])e / J)0u hest misserued 

badly seized ''om- oure Ihoi'd Jcsu crist. oJ5er ine fet / pet pou ne hest na3t 
Lord Jesus Christ, "blebeliclie / v-liyerd his seruise. ne y-zed his benes. ne 

in not hearing ser- j i -j <i 

mons, yhyerd sermons, and huanne pe ssoldest. yhere his 

and in jangling messe / ober his sermon / at cherche : jjou iangledest / 

and jesting at 

niass. and bourdedest / to-uor god. and ine pet / pu liere him / 

litel worpssipe. 
Think too how Eftcrward / hou pou hest uelezipe / htel ybore worp- 

little honour thou . ,,it i p ^ ■ j_ i ■, , t •, 

hast shown to the ssipe. to pe bodye / 01 J esu crist / pa^aie pou hit yzeje. 

whln°thou salest ^f^^' > ^"'^® / > °" ^^'^ oiideruinge. ine pet / pet pou nere 

or receivedst it, j^^-t / digneliche y-di;t / be ssrifpe. and by vorpen- 

"areSft"'"' t-hjiige. Opcr b.e auenture / pet wors is : pet pou hit 


[Fol. 5. b.] 


onde^ui?^ge ine dyadlich zewne / be bine wjiiinde / jjet is iief.nvi and by 

shrift and repent- 

grat oiiworjjnesse. [despit.] anee. 

Eft^rward / to pine zuete uela3e / and to fine / guode 
lokere / jjin angle. ]?et alneway / jje lokejj. hou nele 
ssanies / jjou hest him y-do / ine jjet / jjou dedest / jjine 
zemies / Leuore lii??i. 

Efterward jjench /hou uelezi]5e/j3ou hest y-by/on'bo3- Think how often 
sam to jjine nader / and to j?ine nioder. and to ]5an / to disobedient to tiiy 
hua;/i pou ssoldest hou5e : and here homir. Yef >ou ;f't7ou"ir«m's 
wylt / ine bise nianere / recordy bi lif : bou sselt ysi bet ^^'^"'^'^ ^^^ ^'''•^' 

' -^ _ ' •' ■" ^ J r thou Shalt see that 

J30u hest / more zibe y-zenead / ine zuyche manere / of t^ou hast sinned 

. . ■■ ' more times than 

prede / jjet is ycleped / onworjjnesse [despit] : pet jjou / thou canst num- 
ne kanst na^t telle. 

j)E iij BO3 OP PiJBDE. 

)?e bridde boj of prede : is / arrogance, bet me clei)eb / The third Bough 

' ' ' oi Pride is Arro- 

opwenmge / o])er opniminge. jjanne pe, man / wenj) ganee, or Upween- 
more / of him-zelue / fa/me he ssolde. )?et ys to zigge : a man is guiity of 
Jjet wenjj by / more worjj : f a?me he by. of er more thlniTetMoomuch 
may: fa/aie he mo3e. ofer more conne : J3a?me he ofothert^''*"'^'^^* 
can. ofer wenJ) by more worj?. ofer more mo3e. oJ?er 
more conne : J3a?me eny ofer. }5is ze??ne / is Jje strengfe / 
of pQ dyeule. vor he lokej? / and norissejj / alle pe, greate This sin nourish- 
gostHche ze?mes. jpis ze?jne hi???. sseaAvejj / ine iiele sptituai^lns^"^^^' 
maneres. ober be dede / ober be speche. ac nameliche / ^'"f, !'" showeth 

' 111. I itself m SIX ways. 

ine zix maneres. fet is to "wytene / ine onlepihede. uor pe i. singularity. 

, / , , , , , , The proud and tlie 

proude / and pe ouerwenere / wenef more by worjj / overweener win 

ofer conne : more panne enie ofre. and ne daynejj Hfotherf" ^° '^^ 
na3t do / ase ofre / pet more byejj worjj / ]5a??ne he by. ac 
rajjre / -wile by / onlepi ine his dedes. J?et is pe nerste 
ze?ine / be huam ouerweninge is ine dede. 

J?e ojjer is / fol niminge / of greate spendinge. fet me ii. Prodigality, 

clepej) p?'odigalite. huawne he dej) / to moche despense. spending' of ** 

ofer / of his 03en : ofer / of o>re ma??ne : uor to by / y- TSed and""'" 

praysed. and Jjeruore / jjet me hi??? hyalde / pe more large / I^iberaUnd"'" 

and pe more corteys. ^°^- 



III. False Strife. ])e jjriclde kuead / jjet comjj of ouerweninge : ys fole 

This is to support . . p i • n ; n i 

a thing we know opnimiiige 01 uals strii. ase zayf / balomon. pet is to 
"^■' zigge. huo jjet niimjj / a uals strif anliand / and wot wel / 
pet hit is uals. and hit uol ej). 

IV. Boasting j)q uerjje tuyg / of jje ilke bo3e / huer-by / pe proude / 
The boaster is the sseawejj piede / of his herte : is yelpingge. bet is / wel 

Cuckoo, lie can 

only sing of him- iioul ze??ne / and to god : an to Ipe wordle. j)e yelpere is 


[Foi. 6 a] P^ cockou. ])et ne kan / na^t zinge / bote of hi?H-zelue : 
This sin is seen in Vjig ze??ne is vbounde ine ban / bet be his o^ene nioube / 

those who yelpeth _ '' . 

of their own wit, him yelpb. ober of his wytte. ober of his ke??ne. ober 

descent, works, or . _ 

prowess. of his woi'kes. ojjer of his pronesse. Ac he hir», doble]) 

He sinneth ine ham / Jjet ])e yelpere / and jje lozenionr / zechejj / 

others tcTextoi '^^^ I'edej? / and yefj) ham of his / uor ham to praysi. 

him, and to lie and i ,- n •> t.xi-/ j i. • 

boast of his noble- ^nd uoi to zigge of ham : ])et hi / ne dorre na^t zigge. 


and uor to lye^e of ham : and te grede hare noblesse. 

V. Scorn. This is jje vifte out-kestiiige / of j)e like stocke / is scorn. 

the wont of the . r -\ i i ■ 

proud, who scorn V or jjct IS ]iQ woiie /of ))e proude : ouer-wen[erJe / )5et him 

those they see HG is na^t yno3 / to ouwor])! / iue his herte / jje ofre. 

= ang 1 . ^^^ ^^ habbej) na^t / jje graces / Jjet he wenj? habbe. 

ac make]) / his bisemers / and his scornes. and jjet 

wors is : bisemerejj and scorneji pe guode men. and of 

ham / Jiet he yzi^J) / wende to guode. jjet is wel grat 

By their evil zcMiie. and wel dreduol. Ac / uor hire eii^le tongen : 

tongues they pre- 

vent much folk hi miswcude]) / moche uolk / to done wel. 

from doing well. ; n i 

VI. Opposition )?e zixte kestinge out / of the illce bo^e : is wyjj- 
The proud'"over- stoiidinge. )5et is / hua?^ne jje man wy])stant / to alle 
eXrpi'Littn, ^^^ = fet guod / him wolde. Vor >e proude / ouer- 
chastening, or ad- ^eucrc : yef me him wijinimj) : he hi??^ defende]). yef 

me him chaste]) : he is wroj). yef me Yam wel ret. he 
This sin is a peril- j^g left) neiiue / bote his oaene wyt. Hit is a perilous 

ous sickness, si/ 

since all medicines zikuessc / ])et ue may ua^t ])olye : ])et me hi??i take, and 

turn into venom. 

to ])an / ])et alle medicines : went in to uenim. 

}2E iiij. BO3 OF PREDE. 

If'pn°dTl^ro?i )5e uerpe bo^ of prede / is fole Ti^dninge. \ei me 
Desire (Ambi- clcpef) / ine clcrgie : ambicion. ])et is / kuead Avilninge 


he-se to cliue. bis ze?me / is be dyeiiles pa«ne / of helle. This sin is the 

-' ' I r J i. I devil's pan of heU. 

huerinne / he makef liis sriinges. )?es bo3 him spret / Tiiis bough 

iiie uele nianyeres / arijtlialf / and alefthalf. Vor pe and left. 

ilke / jjet wylnej) / heje to cliue : to zome / ha wyle On the one side it 

. • ;•■ IP appears in flattei-y 

queme. and feroi wexep / uele zennes : ase ari3thaJi. and simulation, 

Jjet is to wytene : loze«gerie. simulacion. folliche yeiie : 

uor Jjet me ssel hxm hyealde / corteys / and large. To on the other in 

/ slander 

ojjren / ha wyle harniy. and jjerof com]? Jje ze?me / a- 

lefthalf. ase to niiszigge / to ham / jjet he wyle harmi : an^i evii win ; 

him uor to anhe^i. and him arerej) hlame / and w}"lnejj / 

Jjane dyaj) / of jjan / j^et halt / Jjet he wen]? come to / 

and bezuykynges. and eiiel red ; co?zspiracions. strif. •" deceit, treach- 

•^ -^ ^ . ery, bad advice, 

and uele ojjre ze?mes / Jiet Avexe]? / of ]?ise queade bo3e. conspiracy, and 


])B uifte bo3 of prede / is ydele bhsse. jjet is / fole / The Fifth Bough 
likinge / of fole heryinge. j3a?^ne he uelj) / ine liis herte "idie-bUs's) ^"' ^ 
wytindeliche / of jjet he is / ojjer wenj) by. yhered / of ^® that loves to 
zome j?inge / jjet he he]? ine him / ojier wen]) habbe. 
and wyle by yhered. j^erof / huerof / he ssolde herie robbeth God and 
god. And feruore / ydelebhsse / benim]) god / and Sh 'is^nts ; for 
steljj / ])et his is. Yor of alle oure guodes : he ssel °haiihaTth?"^ 
habbe be worbssipe / and be heryinge. and we / be worship and hon- 

AVynny[«]gge. »se of them. 

Ydelebhsse : is jje grete wynd / |)et JirauJ? doiui / idie-Wiss is a 
|)e greate tours / and Jje 11630 steples / and jie greate ^ig^down great 
beches / ine wodes / jjrau]? to grounde. an fe greate p^esfand greaf "^" 
halles / make]) to resye. ])et bye]) / ]3e he3e men / and ^^^<=^'' in woods. 
J)et bye]) / mest wor]>. jpet is J)e dyeules peni / huer- it is the deviVs 
mide he bay]) / aUe fe uayre pane-wor])es / ine the heTuyetii gooT 
markatte / of ])ise wordle / fet bye]) / Jie guode workes. ^^"^ ^" 
And uor J)et / ])er bye]) / \vi manere of guodes / J)et 
man he]) of god. and ])et J»e dyeuel / Avjde begge / mid 
his pans : Jieruore / hi??? to-del]) ])is bo3 / ine fri manere / it spreadeth inio 

three small 

smaie bo3es / huer-of wexe]) / ecli manere ze?nie / ]iet no boughs, 
clerek / ne kan telle. J3e ilke pri manere guodes / J)et 



Tiie goods that v.e ^611 heb of god. bveb / be giiodes of kende. be guodes 

have of God are r & J Y I r b r o 

1. goods of nature, of Iiap. jje giiodes of grace. )?e kendeliche guodes / 

2. goods of fortune, . 

3. goods of grace. Dye]) Jjo / J)et 1116 clepej? / by kende. o])er / aye pet 
The kindly goods i^^^j . ^j^gj, / t,g ^aule. Auorve bet bodi : ase belbe. 

are those pertain- d j i d r •/ r i 

ing to the body or uayrbede. stiengjie. prouesse. noblesse, guode tonge. 

Tiie bodily goods guode rearde. Auorye fe zanle : ase clier wyt. wel uor 

are heal til, beauty, i -i ; i i / 

strength, prowess, to niiderstoiide. and sotil wy^t / wel uor to vjaide / 

t'ongue'!'and"good gu.ode oiiderstondiiige : wel to ofhealde. And ]?e u/rtues 

TheTTrHuai ^^ kende / huerby / som ys kendeliclie : more j)a?me 

poods are clear ober. ober larger / ober milder / ober graciouser. ober 

and subtle wit and •* ' o i r / r o ^ j 

a good under- atempres. and wel y-ordayned. Of alle ])ise yefjies. 

standing. ii j? 

For all these gifts me ssel Jjonki god / and serui / nor jjet hi come]) alle oi 

wem,ghttotha„k j^^^^_ ^.^^^^g ^^ p^^^^^ I j^gg ^^^^ ^^ jg ^yg^^jg I ^^Q^ 

?r:;Sueththlm f'^^^e lialsne peny / of ydele^ blisse. and werre> ofte 

to the devil for the „q^ I ^f alle lus guodes. liuer-of / he ssolde bonki god. 

false penny of idle- & ' ° ' r o 

bliss. And liuo })et nim]) wel yeme / ine alle ])ise guodes of 

kende / ])et ich liabbe / ssortliche y-tald ; by liit zertne / 

be ydele bhsse / ine to uele maneres / fet / ech may 

betere y-zy / yiie hi»?--zelue / yef he wyle / wel studie : 

]3et o])re iie conne hi»i zigge. 

The goods of for- J?e guodes of hap : bye}) he^nesses. richesses. delices. 

h"ighnes^s^ riches, ^-ud prosperites. huerof me ]>engj) / in uele maneres. Vor 

dejights,' prosper: j^^^nne fe Iheuedi of hap / he]j hire hue3el y-went. to 

When the lady be manue / and arered. and yzet to be lieabe of hare 

of fortune turns > ' ^ x ji 

her wheel to man, huejel / ase [jje] ^ iiielle to })e wynde. and ])ere he^e y-cliue. 

him all the twelve jjere blawet) / alle Jje tuelf wyiides : of ydele blisse. Vor 

winds of Idle-bliss, 

huanne ])e ilke / }>et is zuo lie3e arise / iiie prosperite / 

and in his pros- ])eng]) in his herte / uerst / to Jje dignete. efterward / to 

his dignity, pros- his prosperite. efter])an / to his richesses. efterward / 

fustsf' fellowship, ^0 ^is lostes / fet his body he]>. efter]:an / to ]:e greate 

his '^'manners!' Ms «ela3rede / fct Mm uol3e]). efterward / to ]>& uayre 

ridings, and mayiie / bet lii??z serueb. efterban / to his uayre man- 

abundance of fair -j i i j j i ^ 

robes; eres. efterward / to his uaire ridinges. efte[r]ward / to 

to the decking of \iQ plente / of uayre robes, efterfan / to ]3e di3tinge / of 

his house, and to , . , , , p i , / t , i 

his ease; his house / wyp eyse oi loste / and opre manere har- 

1 MS. ycMele. 2 j, 

e is incorrectly erased in MS. 


neys / fet zuo moche is uajT / and noble, efterward / 

to be greate presens / and to be greate festes / fet me to great feasts, 

' and to his good 

him make)) oiieral. efterjjan / to Ms guode los / and to fame. 

his prayzinges / Jjet oueral ule]?. )?us him ioissef and J^?;",,^,' ;°„;£; 

hir/i glorifieb be wreche / ine his herte. zuo bet he not / "^at he knoweth 

° ■* ■• ' •' not where he is. 

huer he ys. Jjise byef pe yefjjes / fet comep of ydele 
bhase, Ipet is to wj^tene xij. maneres of nondinge of ydele 
blisse. fet habbej? ])0 : ine he3 stat. ojjer ine fe 
wordle. oJ)er ine religion, ojjer clerk, ofer lewed. 

be guodes of grace, byeb nirtues / and giiode workes. The goods of grace 

are virtues and 

iVnd aye Jjise giiodes / ofte blauj) fe strangiaker / ydele good works: 

blisse. and ofte neljj J?e gi-eatte traues / and fie he3este. 

J?et byej) / fe meste guode men. And sselt j-wyte / 

fet yne n/rtues / and ine guode workes : uonde]) fe tJIfg^ji^'lj^^jJl^gQ^ 

dyeuel / be ydele blisse / ine fri maneres. \)e on / zuo ^^ays. 

is / ine herte / wj^finne / hua?me me yherj? / oi Ipe l » • 7. a.] 

guodes / J)et me dej? / prmeliche. ase of benes. ojjer/ of man thii" wmseif 

priu6 workes. and wen]) fe man / by betere mid god : ^,^17^11';^°'^ 

banne he by. be ober / zuo ys / huawne he heb / ane ^nd. He causes 

T J i I I 'J I II him to be pleased 

fole bhsse ine lli?^^ / of bet / he yherb / ober y-zi^b / at hearing himself 

' •* J / J yi • praised as a good 

of his guode nameco])hede. and fet he is ypraysed. and man. 
y-hyealde uor guod man. ])e jjridde zuo is / hua«ne he ^^^ c^sj" ami 
wilneb / and zekb / and porchaceb los / and name- ^^^i' ^ soo^ name 

'I ' ' ^ ' ' not for God's sake, 

cou])hede. and in zuiche onderstondinge / de]) his butfortheworurs. 
guodes / na^t uor god properliche : ac uor \q wordle. 


be zixte bo: of prede : is -VT^ocr/sye. bet is a ze??ne / '"'^ ^^'^".i ^°"sh 
fet make)) to sse^n^y / jje guod wyf)-oute / Jjet ne is crisy. 
na3t / Avyf-inne. J2a«ne byef \o / ypocntes / fet StTsUopSnd 
make)) ham guode men / and ne bye]? na3t. ])et make]? *°g^^^°°J^"'"^^"* 
more strengfie / to habbe Jiane name of guod man : 
]ja?me ])e zo])nesse : and \q holinesse. And ]>is liire to- kindTof hypocrisy 
del]) / ine fry. Vor fer is / an ypocrisye / uoul. and subt'ie!^""''^**' ^" 
anofre / fole. and fe fridde / sotil. ])o bye]) / uoule ^^^^-f^^.^^^ho do 
Ypoo-rtes / bet dob / h\Te uoulhedes / ine halkes : And t^"'"- f""' ^^^^^ *" 

J 1 / r T I J I corners ; 


and such men our sseaAvejj ham giiocle / to-uore ]3e uolke. Zuiclie clepejj / 

Lord comiiaresto niT-i i ■, , -, i 

painted and gilded oui'e lliorcl : berieles ypeyiit. and y-gelt. ])o ojej) / 
TtefooUsh hypo- ^ole jpocn'tes / fiet 71103 ham lokejj klenhche / to J)e 
bodrcSe!''so as "b^dje / and do]? manie penoncea / an guode. prmci- 
men'-'«nrfhe°/ PalHche : uor ])e los / of pe wordle. nor ])et / me halt 
maice false money }^q^d;i I guode men. bo bveb wel foles. nor / of guod 

out of good metal. ' '^ r J r / c^ 

The subtle hypo- metal : hj make]) / nalse moneye. j)o hyeb ypocr/tes / 

crites aspire to 

dignities, and hide sotyls. Jiet sotilliche / "wyllej) hcjc cline. and stele]) / fe 

their evil disposi- i t -, ^ tti;i 

tion, dmgnetes / and Ipe baylyes. Hy do]? / al pet guod man 

gain their posi- ssel do : zuo pst no man / ne may his knawe / al-hnet 
ti^emsSir" >a»ne/],et lii by], uol wexe / and he3e yclme / ine 
their true colours, dyngnetes. And Ipatiiie j ssewej) hy ])e kneades / Jiet 
were / y-hole / and yroted / ine J^e herte. Jiet is to 
and exhibit their wytene : prede. anarice. malice, and o]jre kneade dedes. 

pride, avarice, and 

malice. huer-Dy me knan]) aperteliche : Jiet / ])et tran / nes 

nenre guod. and ])et hit wes / al fayntise / and ypocr^'sie : 
al ])et he hedde beuore y-ssewed. ]peruore / hit is zop 
yzed. " l^e sselt Jjou nenre y-Avyte / huet man ys : 
alhnet he ys / Jier he wyle by." 


The Seventh J)e zeuende bo3 / of prede / ys / fol drede / and fole 

Bough of Pride is 

foul dread and ssame / liuane me let / wel to done / nor Jje wordle / 
i.^e. when one f et me ne by / yhyealde ypocrite / ne papelard / huer 
woTw more timn "^6 dret more ])e wordle : ])a»ne god. ])e ilke ssame / 
^°^- com]5 of kneade kuemynge / fet me wyle kneme / 

This sin is the ijg kueade. And lieruore / is hy do3ter of prede. and 

daugliter of pride, ' r I >■' :> i- 

and maketh men be zcuende bo2 / hcjUche. and makel) ofte / lete liet 

to forsake God and ' J l } i i j 

please the world, guod to done : and do ]jet knead / uor to kueme kuead- 
liche to ]»e wordle. 

The Second Head , , / i. 

of the Beast of )?ET 0])ER HEAUED / OF )5E BESTE OF HELLE. 

The second head Jjet ojier lifiaued / of Jie IvueQ-de beste : is ennie. 

of the beast is i i ; t / -r' ■ / • 

Envy, an adder })et IS \e eddre / fet al / enuenyme]). Jinnie / is 

thalpoisonetli all. n;,,!-, i, ■ \ t- ■, -\ t 

Envy is death's uioder / to \% dyafe. vor by fe enuie / ol \q dyeule : 
thfdekri "e^nvy com dya]j / to ]?e wordle / ])et is \q ze»ne / >et mest 
fhe worir^ '"'° f^^i?* / i^ake]) man / iHch Jje dyeule : his uader. Yor 


pe dyeuel / ne hate]) / bote ojjres guod. and ne lone)) / ^^^^_ ^ ^ -| 
bote obres harm, and zno deb / be ennions. fe en- The envious man 

•' dislikes to see the 

iiions / ne may ysy / j)et gnod of ojjren / na??more / prosperity of other 
panne pe oule / ofer pe calouwe mous / pe bri3tnesse / just 'as the owi and 
of j)e zoniie. j)e ilke ze?me / hi?;?, to-delj? / ine j)ri brightness o^ the 
bo^es / he3Hche. A' or pe ilke ze??ne / anuenyme]) / ^^1"; sin is divided 
alberuerst / be herte / of be eniiious. and efterward / into three boughs. 

r I r I r /it poisons, l. the 

bane moub and efterward / be workes. be herte of be I'eart, 2. the 

^ ' ' ' _ ■• mouth, 3. the 

enuious / ys enuenymed / and suo miswent. ])et he ne works of man. 

, ,, I 1 • T • , ■ 1 I '^'^^ envious heart 

may/ ofre ma??ne guod / yzj^ / ))et hit hi??? ne uorJ)ing|) / cannot bear to look 

W}'j)inne Jie herte. and dem]) kueadHche. and j)et he mai^s'^hapifiness. 

yzi3J) / o]}er fiet / he yher|) : wimp hit to kueade "wytte / 

and of al / make]) liis harm, zuo moche / ])et to fie 

herte / of pQ enuious / ])03tes uenimouses / of uals 

dom / bet me ne hise may telle. Efterward ba??ne / be '"iien the envious 

If "^ X / X ynan heareth of 

enuious y-her]) / opev yz}']> / ofiremaj^ne kued / huet ])et ai'other-s misfor- 

hit by / o]>er kuead of bodye / ase dya]) / ojier ziloiesse. poverty, &c., 

o]>er kuead of auenture [hap], ase pouerte / ofer ad- 

uersite. opev kuead gosthch / ase hua??ne he yher]) / fet 

zome / ])et me hyelde guode men : ys y-blamed / of 

zome vice. Of fielliche Jjinges / hi??i glede]) ine his ^e rejoiceth in his 

herte. Efterward / hua??ne he yzi3]) / o])er yher]) / pe 

guod of of)ren. by hit / guod of kende / ofier guod of 

hap / o]ier guod of g?'ace / huerof Ave habbe]) / aboue y- ^° ™en's happ-- 

speke : ])a??ne him com]) / a zoi^e to pe herte / ])et he him to be sorrow- 

. , TIT / ful in lieart. 

ne may by me reste / ne maky glednesse / ne uayr 

se??iblant. K"ou bou mi3t ysy / bet be venimouse herte / Thus the envious 

heart sinneth in a 

of pe enuiouse / zeue-i^ep generalliche : ine fri maneres. threefold manner, 
ine ualse demynges. ine awai^ede glednesse. ine worse 1. in false deem- 
zor3es. alsuo he zene-t^ep by pe mou])e. Vor hit be- 2.''in wicked giad- 
houe]) / ])et zuich wjoi / yerne by >e teppe : ase pev ^n worse sor- 
is / ine be tonne. And uor bet / be herte / wes uol of ™"'-. 

I ' I I J I jle sinnetli also by 

uenym : hit behoueli / bet hit Iheape / out be pe \\\o\\pe. the mouth, 

. / . for his heart be- 

}5anne of fie mo[?<]fie / of fie enuious / comefi out / fin ing fuii of venom, 
manere wordes uenimouses. huerof spekf) dauifi / ine the the'^mouth,*\'n the 
sautere. pet " pe mou]) / of pe enuious : is uol of cor- 

form of eurslnj; 



tSe'ry'''""^ siiige / and of biterhede / an of bezuykynge." Of 
corsynge : nor Ipe gnodes of oj?ren / he niissay]) / and 
hise lessejj / alsemoclie / ase be may. Of byterbede : 
nor J)e kueades / of ojjren / be bise nioreji / and arerej? / 
be bis mi3te. Of bezuykyinge. vor al ])et be jz^]> / ojier 
yher]5 : lie went bit to Iviieade / and bit deiuft / ualslycbe. 

The envious hath Efterward / pe enuious / bejj fri mane?'es / of uenini 

tliree manners of. ,, it,/- it- ii 

venom in deeds, me clede : Rse be nep / me niouj^e / and me berte. 
uor kende / of Jje enuious : is to wij^dra^e / and uor to 
destrue / be bis mi3te : alle guod / by bit bte / by hit 

The envious man lesse / by bit uoldo. J?a?me is he / of fe kende / of Ipe 

is like the basi- -i t i i / t j ; i 

lisk, no greenness baseiycoc. uoT 110 greubede / ne may yleste / beuore 
J^_ as e ore liyjn^ ne ill gerse / ne in busse / ne in trauwe. J5a?uie 
Com has three ^J p^ godspelle : fet corn he]3 jjri stas.^ uor liit is uerst 
inThe'gra'ss after- ^^® ^'^® gerse / eftsiward : ine yere. efterward / is uol of 

ward it is'^fuu'of ^^^ I ^^^ ^^ ^"^P^" ^^^^° i'^'^ ^^'^J' ^°^^® / J'®* l^abbef 
fi'^i'^- guod ginninge / wel uor to Kbbe / and to profiti / and 

1. The envious bye]5 ase iue gerze. J)e ilke / hxm paynejj / jje enuious / 
quench the begin- uor te kueuche / yef he may. )pe ojjre bye)) / ase ine 
«mfhfse!st"''' yere / fet wel floure> / ine guode / and profitej). by bit 
°*^Hrtries to ^° ^^^ ' "^fe^ to ))e woidle. and J)o rebelej) / ]je enuyous / 
slander and to ^or to sseiide / and to destrue : be liys iiii^te. be obre 

destroy those ' J i > r 

flourishing in bye J) uol-mad / and ine grat stat / and do]? niocbe guod / 

goodness. i/i titt ii/ 

[Foi. 8. a.] to god / and to fe wordle. Vor jjet guode los / to 

r;w and bftlemess ^batye : and byi-e guodes to lo3y / J?e enuious agrayf ejj / 

rS^birefin '-^lle his gynnes. Yor fe more / f et J,e guodes bye> 

goodness. greate : be more zoraeb / be enuious. bis ze'rtne / is zuo 

Tliis sin is very . :> r I r i 

perUous, and perilous : jjet onneajje / me may / come / to ri3te uor- 

against the Holy . 

Ghost. Jjencbmge. v or fet hi ys coniraxiowa / to J)e holy goste / 

He who sinneth jjet is Avelle / of alle guode. And god zayb / ine his 

against the Holy n / i 

Ghost shall nei- spellc / Jjet buo Jjet zQwe^Q^p / aye fane holy gost : be ne 

ther have mercy in -. i, i i •/•!.• n / • i 

this world nor in ssel nsure habbe nierci / me pise wordle / ne me J)e 

tMstin"emnot"be ^f^'e. uor bs zBne^e]) j of his 03ene kueadnesse. and nie 

repented of. ggel ine Jjet / liollyche onderstonde. A^or J)er ne is / 

no zemie zuo grat : jjet god ne uoryef J? / ine Jjise 

1 stapes ? 


wordle / yef man him uor])ingJ) / and byt merci / nor There is no sin so 

fe zenne. fet werrej) / be his mi3te / Jie grace / of fe does not forgive 

holy gost. ine fet he werre]) / ojjreniawne guod gosthch / indse"ekfor'''''"* 

ase pe yewes / werrede Jesu crist / uor jje guodes / jjet ™ercy. 
he dede. 


And fou sselt pvyte / ))et fer bye J) zix zermes / j^et The six sins 

byejj speciaUiche / ayens pe holy gost. pet is to wy- Ghost. 

tene / ouerweninge. pet makep to moche sprede / pe merci i- Overweening. 
of our lliorde / and litel prayzep / his ri3tuolnesse. and 

peruore / zene3ep moche uolli / ine hope. j)e oper is / H- wanhope (de- 
wanhope. pet benimep god / his merci / as ouerweninge : 

his ri3[t]uolnesse. J5e pridde is / -wj'jjjjstojzdinge. pet is / m. Opposition 

harduesse of herte. hua?me man / is y-hert / ine his heart). 
kueadnesse / pet me ne may / him wende / and na3t ne 

wyle / hym amendi. ])e uerpe is / onworphede / of iv. Despite of 

. , penance (impeni- 

penonce. j)et is huarine man / ordaynep ine his herte / tenee). 

bet he / hi»i ne ssel najt uorbenche / his ze/me. be v. stri-sang 

^ ' I . against the Holy 

vifte is / to werri pe grace / of pe holy gost : me opren. Ghost in others. 

J)e zixte is / to werri zopnesse / be his wytinde / and vi. warring 

. . against truth, and 

speciaUiche / pe zopnesse / of pe cristuie beleaue. Alls especially against 

, r, 1 1 , the Christian he- 

pise ze/ines / byep aye pe guodnesse : oi pe holy gost. iief. 

and byep / zuo greate / pet onneape / comep to ri3te uor- against" the Hoiy 

T . , . I 1 t ^ I 1 Ghost, and are so 

penchmge. and peruore / byep hy / onneape uoryeue. great as not to be 

repented of. 

])Q pridde heaued / of pe beste / is hate. Ac pou The third head of 

. . the e\al beast is 

sselt ywyte / pet per is an hate / pet is uirtue. pet pe hate, 

guode man hep / aye pet kuead. An opre / pet is ze?7ne is virtuous, but^ 

wel grat. pet is felhede / of herte. huerof comep / uele ^ess) of heart'is a 

bo3es. and he3liche : uour. by pe uour werreres / pet ThTllter has 

pe feloun hep. )?e uerste is / to hi?«-zelue. uor huarane Theist'iilvur^' 

man / him berp hate / to pe torment / and pe zaule / hi™seif, as when 

for fear of tor- 



and pet body / zuo pet man / ne may slepe ne none menthekiiisbim- 
reste habbe. Operhuyl / him be-nimp pane mete / and 
pane drinke. and makep him ualle / ine ane feure / 


ojjer ine ziiiche zor^e : Ipet he nimj) / Jjane dyaj?. j)et is 

a ver / ])et waste]? / alle Jje guodes / of jje house. }3e 

The 2nd is with obre weiTe / bet be feloun heb : bet is to gode. Vor 

God, because of "^ I r r Y T o 

some sickness or ^vl'eJ3e / aiid felounje / op-berej) / and nimj) zuo / ojier- 
of friends^ &c. huyl / jje herte of jje felle / uor zome aduersite tinihch / 
ojjer uor ziknesse / ojjer uor dyaji / of urendes. oJ)e[r] uor 
zome misual / ))et his wyl / ne is na3t y-do : jjet ha 
grochej) / aye our Ihord. and euele jjonkej) god / and 
his hal3en / and zuerej? / and blasfemej) / aye god / and 
The 3rd is with his haben. be bridde werre / bet be wrebuolle heb. is 

tliosewhoare -^ ' . . 

under him,— his to jjau / pet hycj) ondcT him. Ipet is / to his wjme / and 

wifeandhishouse- , , . , / • , i i j_ i i- 

iioid. to his mayne. ;. Vor pe man / is ojjerhiiyi zuo out / oi 

He beatetii his ^^^ wytte : fet ha beat / and smit / and wyf / and cliil- 
rndbreake?hiots ^reu / and mayne. and brek)? potes / and coppes / ase 
and cups as if he ^i^ ^ere / out of his wvtte. and zuo he is. be uerbe / 

were out of his ' •' •< j / 

^"^- is werre / wyb-oute / to his nejybores / and to his 

Tlie4thiswar I J r I ?J I 

with his neigh- nixte / jjet bye]) alle / aboute him. And of ])ise bo^e / 
Of this bough wexeb zeuB smale bo2es. Vor huanne wrelie arist / be- 

springeth 7 small 

twigs: tuene tuay men : pev is uerst chidi??ge / and Jia/me 

2. Wrath. 3. Dis- wre]»e / ])et blef)) ine herte. effterward / wvelpe. efter- 

i. Sti 
of vengeance. 

Tsti-ife. 5. Desire Ward / com]) ofte strif. efter wylninge of wa-eche. efter- 

6 Mansiauo-hter. Ward / o])erhuil mansla3te. and efterward / ojjerhuil 

7. Deadly war. ^erre dyadhcli / be-tuene ])e urendes / huerof com]) / 

ofte / to moche kuead / and pe;ils / pet ne mo3e / iia3t 

War produces "by amended. Vor hua?«ie per is werre / betuene tuaye 

many horrors, as 

the death of many meii : hit yual]) ofte / ])et per bye]) moche uolke dyade / 

innocent folk, the 

destruction of bet ne habbeb ne?ine gelt, cherchen tobroke. tounes 

churches, the 

burning of towns, tiorbemd. abboyes. priories, bernes destrud / and 

the rain of barns, 

the disinheritance men / and wyfiiieu / aiid children deserited / and 

and exile of men, 

women, and y-exiled. aiid loudes destrud, and to moche / of obre 

children, lands 

destroyed, &c. hariiies / Jiet bye]) y-do / be pe encheyson / of fan / ])et 
hi bye]) yhealde / uor te amendi / ]iet / fis purchace]). 
and pe Ihord / and alle })o / ])et bye]) to ham helpinde. 
an ine zuyche nyede. and ])eruore hy bye]; / ine greate 
balance / of hyre hel])e / of zaule. uor hi ne mo3e 


amendi / ne jelde : pe harmes / jjet lii liabbej) ydo. and 
hit belioue)) yelde : opev hongy. 

j)E uer]3e heaued of ]je kueade beste of helle. 

)?et uerpe heaued / of ]je wyckede beste / is onhist- The fourth head 

,-., . of the wiclied 

hede. pet is onlosthede / and tyene to do wel. pis ze?ine / beastof heiiis 

his a to knead rote / Jjet kest / uele kneade bo3es. j)is do good, and a 

onlosthede / Jjet is sleujje / make]) fet man hej) / kneade p™"''"'*^^ *° ° 

aginnynge / and more kueade / amendi?^ge / and to ™ked"root that 

■wors endi?ige. Kueade anginnynge / he]? fe sleuuoUe : ^^^l^ ^'^^ "^'^ 

be zix ze?mes. j)e uerste is bonnehche. hua?zne be man '^lotii makes men 

liave bad begin- 

louej) hte / and Iheuchche oure lliord / Jiet he ssolde ning, bad ameud- 

1 /I -ITI 1 n I l-/ '"»' ^'"^ WOrSe 

louye / bernindekche. and jjeroi com}) / Jiet he is / lyeble ending. 

and. Iheuc / to alle guodes / to done, pe ojjer is lovetii our Lord 

ar3nesse / ])et is tyene / of herte / jjet is ]?et bed / to ])e lj!^j,'„iy"'^ ^''^^' 

dyeule / huerine / he him resteb / and zavb to be ma??ne / '^- "'^ '^ timid in 

■^ ' ' ^ ' J r r I iieart, is loth to 

and to ]je Ay}"fma?me. ' )pu best y-by / to zofte y-dra3e do penance, and 

. , . . falleth into the 

uorjj. j)ou art to liebble / of co wpleccioun. pou ne mijt lusts of tiie flesh. 

najt do / ])e greate penonces. jjou art to tendre. jjou to \>& oniosti.] 
ssoldest by anhaste dyad.' and j^eruore fe wrechche / 

\am let ualle to done jje lostes / of his ulesse. )3e jjridde 3. Tiie idle man is 

is ydelnesse. J?et is a zenne / pet de]j moche kuead / ase devil first to think 

zayf / >e wyti??ge. Vor hua^ne >e dyeuel / uynt >ane wUCSdesir; 

man ydel : he hine de> / to worke. and dej, hi»^ uerst / Jt^tttd 

jjenche kuead. and efterward / to wylni uileynies / ^°^° "^^^^ '"* 
ribaudyes / lecheries / and his time lyese / and manye 
guodes / J3et he mi3te do. huerof / he mi3te -wynne 

paradis. J5e uerjje is / heuinesse. hua/uie ])e man / is i. The heavy man 

zuo heui / jjat ne lone]) / bote to ligge / and resti / and and siep°e. *^' "^^^ ' 

slepe. o])erhuil hy bye); / 3^103 awaked / to nyedes / "'ifour masJes 

fet hi hedden leuere / lyese vour messen : ])a?zne ane tl^^an a sweat or a 

zuot / ojjer ane slep. ]5e vifte is / wyckednesse. bet is 5. Thew-ckedsiug- 

1 / T • / T 1 sard wiU not try 

nuanne jje man / hji me ze?me / and yvelj) pe uondinges / to amend his evil 

of ])e dyeule / and of his ulesse / J)et him asaylej) / and ^''^^^' 
be ri3te kueadnesse : nele arere fet heued to gode / be 
zor3e / ne grede / harou be ssrifte. ne arere fie honden. 


[Foi. 9. a'] be satisfacioun. [dedbote]. j)Q ilke anlikne]) / J^ane 
He is like thei ssrewe / bet lieb leiiere rotye / in a prison / uoiil / and 

shrew, who would .-., iii; n i /xT 

rather rot in stmkinde : jjaHne to habbe / ]>e pyne oi stapes / to cliue 
theToubie to'''^'' uor his outguoinge. j)e zixte / is litel \vyl [ar3nesse]. 
f^l ""* ^^ Ine fise ze?ine / bye]) ])o / J?et hebbe]) drede / of na3t / 
ntT^wii'uireL- f®^ ^^ done / na3t aginne / wel to done, nor hi babbeji 
eth to begin to do ^j-qi^q j,et god / bam wyle fayly / bet is be drede / of be 

good, for fear that r&/ J J J I r T IT 

God will fail meteres. fet habbejj drede / of hare metiwges. ])o 


This is the dread anUkneJ) fan / ])et ne dar na3t guo / me fe pe])e uor fane 

of the dreamers, i-i-i aijii-ii/ 

that are terrified sneggB / J)et sseawej) hun his hornes. And to pe cliiide / 
HeisUketho^^ fet ne dar na3t guo his way / uor fe guos fet blaujj. 
goLffor'Sr o°f }5is^^ VJ' fe zix vices / fet benyinef fe mamie / 
a snail, or like g^gd gi/znynge. Vor obre zix vices / ne may be sleawolle 

children afraid of°<'"'& ' ' "^ ' 

a goose that blow- habbe guod aginnynge / ofer amendement. }5et byef 
There are six vices techches / of kuead seriont / fet niakej) / jjet non guod 

that prevent good , ., /•,!• • i-\ 

beginning and man / ne ssel ms onderuonge / m to Ins sermce / hua/nie 
amen en. he is sleuuol. [ontrewe.] onssriuel.' uoryetinde. slak. and 
Untruth. The fallinde. be uerste vice is / ontreube. Vor huanne 

sinner believes the 

devil rather than god / zet ine jje herte of man / guod wyl / wel to done : 
[pe dyeuies red : ])a?ine comjj J3e dyeuel / and him zayj) / ' Jiou hit sselt 
e on rewe. ^^ ^ recouri / fiou art yong / and Strang / fou sselt 
libbe long.' and zuo he him / onwonejj fe dyeuel wel 
Sloth. This is a uor to donc. Efterward / comf sleufe. uor he / fet 

vice that all are i -i • , • -i / ■, 

besmuttedwith. wel dej) / and dej) hit auerst : hit ms no wonder / pa,^ 

he hit do / sleuuolhche. J?et is a uice huerof al j>e 

Few folk are as wordlc is besmet. huo fet nimj) wel hede. Vor hte 

diligent as they .- - /.ii tt i i • .ji-i i/ 

arehoidentobe. uolk fer byef / J»et by diligent / me fet hi byej) / 

yhyealde to done / auorye god / and hire nixte. 
Forgetfuiness. Efter sleaube / is uoryetinge. Vor huo bet ys 

The slothful is ^ ' . i c 

loth to shrive, and sleauuol : ofte uoryct. Vor fise tuo ze?mes / of uoryet- 
wHins^^ ^ ynge : hit yualf ofte / fet he ne can him ssriue. Vor 

liuaHue fe man / is sleuuol / hiwi to ssriue : he uoryet 
True shrift is ne- his lackes / and his zennes / fet is grat peril. Vor non 
ness^'^^ ° orgive- ^^ ^^^ habbe / uoryeusnessB : wyf-oute / zofe ssrifte. 

Jjet berf / uorjjenchinge / of herte. beknaulechinge / of 
* onssriuen ? 


moujje / bo3saninesse / ine dede / pet is ameiidi^ge : and an.i protiuees re- 

, ,, pentunce, confes- 

dedbote. per ne ys non zuo guod man / fet yef he sion, obedience, 
yze3e wel / his ojene lackes / jjet he ne ssolde uynde / sSacUo'n!^ 
yno3 uor to zigge eche daye / ine his ssriffje. Ac sleuj^e. 
and uoryeti?^ge : blende]) ]je zene3eres. pet hi ne zjep 
najt ine pe hoc / of hire inwytte. 

J?E PERIL OF SLACNESSE. The peril of slack- 


Efterward / com]) slacnesse / jjet conij) / of pe de- slackness eometii 

„ , . of default of cour- 

laute / 01 herte / and of kueade wone. jjet bint zuo age and of evil 

pane man / fet onnea])e / he hi/?t jefp j to done wel. 

ojjerhuil hit comb / of onconnyndehede : and of fole sometimes it 

comesof ignorance 

hete. huerby pe man / op let zuo his herte / and his and of foui heat. 

body / be uestinges. and be wakinges. and by ojjre 

dedes. zuo Jjet he ual]) ine fyeblesse / and ine zuiche 

ziknesse : pet he ne may najt t^'cmayly / ine godes 

seruice. and to-ual]; / ine pa, slacnesse / ]jet he ne he]? 

smak / ne deuocion / wel to done. Efterward / comb Aftenvards com- 

eth weariness, 

werihede / pet make]) pane man / weri / and worsi / that maketh man 

uram daye / to daye / al-huet he is / al recreyd / and 

defayled. And fis is / pe zixte vice / of pe kueade 

sergonte. Jjet he faylej) / er pan he come / to pe ende / 

o])er to his terme. And me kan zigge : huo ])et serue]) / 

and na3t uol-serue]) : his ssepe / he lyest. 

)3E 6 POYNS OF SLEUJPE : )jET BRENGeJ) MAN TO HIS The six points of 

sloth that bring a 
E^DE. man to death. 

And yet eft / pev bye)) / zix poyns / kueade. huerby 
sleube / brengej) man / to his ende. )5e uerste is / J- Disobedience, 

_ as seen in a reluct- 

onbo3samnesse. h.nanne pe man / nele do / pet me him ance to do pen- 

, . 1 • 1 • / ance. 

zayj) / me penonce. ojier me nim hat zom])ing / ])et 

hi?H f>ing]) hard, he him excuse]) : ])et he hit ne may ^-^^^ g ^ j 

do. opex yef he hit onderuangj) : he hit de]) / opev htel / 

o])er na3t. p)e opev poynt / is inpacience. uor ase he ne 2. impatience of 

control and cor- 

may / no ])ing here / be bo3samnesse. he ne may folye/ rection. 
be paciense. zuo ])et non / ne dar to hi?w speke / of his 




3. Grudging or p-uode. be biidde / is uroclivn^e. Vor hiiawne me 

murmuring ' ' i o ^ a 

against good ad- spekb to him I HOT liis "node : he him wrebeb / and 

visers ; this causes ' ' *- j j / 

4. Sorrow and grocliejj. and \\\m jjing]) : jjct me hi/?i onworjjej?. and 

weariness of life, 

wiiicii leads to the ))erof he ualjj / in-to zor3e / jjet is / Jie uerjje vice. jAn zuo 
moche / hi??i oiierge]^ / fe ilke zor^e / J)et al / j^et me 
hi??i zayj) / al J^et me \v\m dejj / al j^et he yherji / al |)et 
he zijjj : al hit lii?/i tienep. and zuo he iialj? / in-to 
zor3e / and into tyene to lihhe / zuo J)et hi??i-zelf / hi??i 

5. Desire of death, haste)) / and Avylue]) / his dyaj). and Jiis is Jje vifte vice. 

6. Despair is the Eftep alle bise zorjuoUe poyns of sleube / hi??i yefb be 

devil's deadly ' ' -^•' T I J r T 

stroke; dycuel / Jjanc strok dyadlych / and dejj hxm / into 

it causes a man to Avauliope. beruoie he porchaceb / his dyab / and him- 

commit suicide. 'i > i 

zelue / sla3]7. ase despayred. and hi??i yef)) / alle kuead- 
nesses / to done / and hi7?^ ne dret na3t / to do ze«ne / 
huet jjet liit by. To zuich ende / let sleaujje ' Jiane man. 
Jpise bye]), xviij. poyns. ]jet fe dyeuel / |)rau]) / ope fane 
sleuuolle. hit ne is no wonder / j)a3 he lyese jjet geme. 

The fifth head of 1^^^ VIFTE HEAUED OF ]?E BESTE. 

the beast is the Vjg^; m'xHq heaued / of be beste / beuore y-zed. is the 

sin of avarice and ' i i i <i 

covetousness, the ze«ne / of auaiice / and of couaytyse / bet is rote / of 

root of all evil. ' ' J J I t t 

This is the great alle kucadc. ase zayj) zaynte paul. )5et is Jie maystresse / 

schoolmistress ,.i,/ ■ i/in •/ 

and teacher of all, pet hep / ZUO greate scoie / Jjet alle guojj frm / uor to 

for all study in i • i / i j.- -vr m c 

the school of lyerni. ase zayp / pe wrytmge. Vor alle manere of 
ImlTki^st Ik- ^^*^^^ / studie)) ine auarice/ and greate / and sniale. kinges. 
lates, clerks, lewd py-glates. clerkes. an lewede. and religfious. Auarice / 

and religious. '■ ° ' 

Avarice is disor- is disordeiie loue. ZUO disordene / hvm ssewej) / in J»ri 

showeth itself in maueres generalliche. ine wynrijmge : boldeliche. ine of- 

1. Winning. liealdinge : streytliche. ine spendinge : scarsliche. )?ise 

I. Sghiiss"^' ^y^\' l'*^ f I'i ^0)^^ prmcipales : fet of J?ise rote wexej). 
Of the root of Ac specialliche / and propreliche / of j?e rote of 

avarice come - ; , , / -, , -, i ■, 

many small roots auaricc / guoj) out / manye smale roten. pet ojeJp / wel 
deadly sinsT greate / dyadliche ze??nes. J5e uerste is gauelinge. j)e 
a.'Robbm-y.'^'''"' ofer/J'yefK )Pe fridde / roberye. J3e uerfe / chal- 
t sSiegr' ^^'8*5- ^^ ^'^^^^ / sacr/lege. )3e zixte / symonye. ])e 
6. Simony. zeueiide / kuedhedes. J5e e3tende is / ine chapfare. pe 

1 MS. sseaujje 


ne^encle is / Avycked creft. jpe tende is / ine kiiade 7. wickedness. 

uolke. And ech of Jiise smale roten / lu?» to-del]) / 9. wkked" craft, 

ine uele manyeres. 10. wickedgames. 

barene be nerste rote / bet is s^uelinse. him to- i- usury has 7 

^ ' ' 00 outcastings, for 

delj) / ine zeuen / outkestiy^ges. Vor ber byeb / zeue there are 7 kinds 

of usurers. 

manere gaueleres : lenynde. jjet lenej) zeluer. nor ojjren. 

And aboue ]je catel : ninieb be hejbes. ober iue pans, some lenders 

(mortgagees) lend 

ojjer me nors. ojjer ine corn, ojjer ine wyn. ojjer ine silver in return for 

n,p, ,, !•• /• Till cattle, com, and 

irut 01 pe grounde / fet m nimej) / me wedde dyade. fmitsofthe 

wyJ3-oute rekenynge / jjet frut ine paynge. And fet ^™"" " 

Avors ys : hi wyllejj rekeny tnyes. ojjer firies Jjet yer. uor 

to do arise jjet gauel. and ivyllej? / yet habbe yef J)es 

aboue / uor eclie terme. and makeb / ofte / of be gauel : '^^^^ ''''^^^^y '"■ 

_ ' ' J I I I CI crease the rate of 

prnicipale dette. Jjise byej) gaueleres kueade / and interest, 
uoide. Ac j?er is ano])er lenere corteys. fet lenej? / The courteous 
Avy]3-oute chapfare makiinde. alneway in he3iiige. SouSifer. 
ojjer ine pans. o))er ine liors. o)jer ine coupes of 
gold, ojjer of zeluer. oj?er robes, ojjer tonnen mid 
wyn / ojjer ine uette zuyn. seruices ulesslicbe. of hors. [Foi. 10. a.] 
of cartel!, ojjer prouendres to ham / o])er to hare child- 
ren, ojjer ine o])re ])inges. and oueral to gauel / huanne 
me hit nimjj / by Jje skele / of jje lone. J)is is jje nerste 
manere / of gauelynge / ]5et is ine leninge kueadliche. 
)pe ojire manere / of gauelynge / is ine fan / Jjet ne 2. The second 
lene]) na3t / to hare persone. ac J)et hire uaderes / and \% js the withho"fung 
uaderes of hare wyues / ofier hare eldringes / habbejj '•'" P^'^^^^^^e. 
yporchaced / be gauelinge. hit of hyealde]) and nollejj 
hit na3t yelde. )3e fridde manere of gavelinge. is ine 3. The third 
ham / Jjet habbejj onworj? / to lene of hire hand : ac hi master money- 
do]? lene / hare sergons. oJ?er oj^re men / of hire pans. o"th^/^sin the 
J)ise byeb be mayster gaueleres. Of be ilke zemie ne fe^it "jen are not 

'' I t -i ^ I free who support 

bye]) na3t \q he3e men quit / fiet hyealde]) and sostene]) the Jews. 

iewes and ])e caorsins. fet lene]) / and destrui]) / fe con- 

traye / and hy nyme]) ]ie medes / and \q greate yef])es / 

and o]jerhuil / jje ronsounes / ]iet bye]) of fe guodes / 

of >e poure. )5e uer])e manyere / is ine ham / ],et f^Ilthr™ 


lend other men's leneb / of obremaime zeliire / ober borjeb / to litel cost: 

silver obtained at ' ' ' ' ' . 

small cost, so as uor to leiiG / to g^'otter cost. j)ise bye]) / litle gaiiel- 

interest. ercs / jjet lyeriie]? / ziiych uoul creft. j)e vifte manere 

usurer that teach- IS / ine clicapfare / huanne me zelj) / fet fing. huet J^et 

craft!^^ ' "" hit by : more ])anne hit by worfi / uor jjane time, an 

5. Chaffer is to sell ^^^ ^^^_^,^ •_, j ^^ time-zcttcre ontrewe. huawne he jzi^]) 

a thing for more 
than it is 
the time. 

than it is worth at jjg^ uo\k / mest nyediiol. jjanne wyle he zelle / fe 

derrer tuyes / ofer fries zuo moche / j^ane Jjet Iping / by 

1. The chafferers worJ». Zuych uolk / dof to moche kuead. Yor hire 
higi'rmwuo ^ '"'^ time-zettinge / hi destnieji / and make]) beggeres / pe 
po\erty. kny^tcs : and pe he3emen / J)et uol3eJ3 fe tornemens. 

2. They lend and jjet hy betake]) / hyre londes / and hare eritage / ine 
which they know Aved. and dead wed / })et na3t him ne aquytte]). j)e 

will not be re- ; , i • / 

deemed. ojire zene e]) / to begge ])e fmges / ase corn. o])er wyn. 

3. They buy things ober obcrbing / lesse be be hakiedele / ba?ine hit his 

at half their value r r r o i r IT 

and sell them wor]). uor pe pans / f)et he pay]) beuore. and ])anne j 

twice or thrice the ,.,,,, ; i - 

dearer. lilt zelle]) / haiii ayen / tuyes zuo moche / o])er ])ries : ])e 

derrer. )5e oJire begge]) ])e Jiinges / hua?«ie hi bye]) lest 

4. They buy corn ^yorb to greate cheape / ine herneste / bet corn, ine uen- 

cheap, and sell \i ' '^ ^ ' ' "^ 

when it is scarce ; donginge : })et wju. opve cheapfares nor to zelle ayen / 

and they desire i-i ; 

the dear time so al-liuet 111 bye]? / mcst diere. and -wilnej) / fane dyere 

as to sell the , . , , ^^ , -, i , / . , 

dearer. tiiiic / uor to zelle ])& derrer. pe ofre / pet corn agerse. 

andvhfes''"nr'" ]>^ ^iiies in flouiinge / hua/me fet hi byef / of uaire 
flounshmg eon- gsewynge. be zuiche uorAverde : Ipet hi habbe / huet cas 

6. They use fraud yualle : hire catel sauf. he zixte mane?'e / is of lian / 

in their merchan- "^ i s i 

dise. fet take]) liire pans to marchons / be zuo fet hi by 

uela3e / to fe wynnynge. and na3t to fe lere. ofer fet 
hi betake]) / hire bestes / to fe haluedele / be zuo fet hi 
by / of fer pris. fet is to zigge / fet yef hi steruef / 
ine mene-time : do ofre ine hare stede / ase moche 

7. They take ad- woi'f. \)Q zcueude manere / is ine fan / fet do]) / hare 

vantage of the ne- / • i 

cessities of their pourc ne33eboures / me hare nyedes. and uor fet hi 

poor neit, i , |^g^i-ji-jgjj j \yr^T^^ y-leud / a lytc zeluer. ofer corn, ofer ydo 

zonie cortaysye. And huawne hy hise yzef poure / and 

nyeduol : fa/^ne makef hy / mid ham / marcat / to do 

hire niedes. and fe pans / ])et hi token beuore / to fe 


poure nia/?ne. ober him lende / a lite corn. / lii habbeb ^^•^ take tin-ee- 

■" I I J penny worth of 

jjri i)anewoi']5es of "worke : uor ane peny. work for a penny. 

. ^ [Fol. 10 b.] 


j)e ojjer bo3 of auarice : ys jjyef fe. fet is nynie / ofer The second bough 
of healde / opve niarene Jiinges / wyjj wrong / and on^vy- theft, that is, to 

• T / 1 11 / f> n 1 A 1 take and withhokl 

tmde / and "wy])-oiite wylle / of pe Ihorde. And jjet me other men's goods 
may do / ine uour maneres be fe manire of fyeues. Vor Four kinds of 
Jjer ys : a fyef open, and a ))yef ywre3e. a ])ief prme. i.'open.' 2. covert. 
andafyef uelaje. ^J^^'- *• ^'^^ 

})e Jjyef co??nnun / and open / bye]? po / jjet be 1. The open thief 
zuiche crefte / libbe]?. of hua??z me dej? dom / liuawne wi^en caught. 
me hise nymf. Of zuichen fier byejj / uele maneres. 
ine londe / and ine ze. be bvef y-wre je / is bet steleb -■ Tiie siy thief 

' J TJ ^ :> IT I stealeth in corners 

ine halkes / and yAvry^eliche greate jjinges / ober great or smaii 

things, by strife, 

little / be liire vijtinge. ojjer be traysoun. ofer be treason, or craft, 

)3e prme byeues byeb bo / bet ne steleb najt / of s. Tiie privy tiiief 

is great or small. 

onconjje. ac of priues. And of zuichen : jjer byej) / of 

greate / and of smale. )3e greate / byeb of be kueade / and The great ones are 

' I J t I j^jjg reeves, pro- 

J)e ontrewe renen. proiios. and bedeles. and seruons. vosts, beadles, and 
Jjet stele jj / fe amendes. and wyfdrajej? fe rentes / of that steal tines and 

i-ni 11 , /• TT 1 • hold back the rents 

hire Ihordes. and rekenep more / me dedes. and me of their lords. 

spendinge. an lesse / ine onderuonginge. and ine 

rentes. Zuyche byeji / \q greate officials / bet byeb / They make the 

expenditure great 

ine J)e house / of riche men. Jiet make]) pe greate spend- and the income 
inges. and yeuep largeliche / ]?e guodes of hare Ihordes / and are liberal 

,,n j_i/n ,ji n with their mas- 

■wy]j-oute hare Avytende / and wy]j-onte hare wylle. ter's goods. 

To jjise zertne belongeji / Jje ze??nes of be w}iie. bet To this sin belong 

theslnsof thewife 

de]j zno moche / be hare ze?me / jjet fe cliildren / Jjet hi who wrongeth her 

,, ,T'i,;i 1 I'l kind by spouse- 

wot M^el / pet hi hep / be spousbreche : berjj away jje breach, 
kende. Zuych is be zenne / of be wyne bet be gnodes / ^'^^ ^^'''^ steaieth 

'' ' I r J r r o / her lord's goods to 

of hire Ihorde stelf>. nor to yeue / hare kenne. ofier uor give to her kin. 
to done / into kuead us. And of ham / of religion / 
|3et bye]) ojeneres. uor hi behotej) to libbe / wy[jj]-oute 


The little thieves J)e opve bye]? / ])e little Jiyeues. J)et stelej) / ine fe 

steal bread, . /iiiii,- 

wine, their neigh- house : bread, wyn. an ojjre fmges / huyche pet ni 

hens, and garden ^y. ojjer of hii'e ne3ebores. hire capons. he?men. frut 
of hire garclins. oJ>er ojire Jjinges / huet fet hit by. 

Such are those ZuycliB bye]) ])0 / fiet of hyealdej) / fe finges / Jiet hi 

they find, knowing vinde]). and wytej) wel / liuas }>et hi bye}), and nolle}) hise 

longs."™ '*^'^' na3t yelde. Vor yef fe vinst / and na3t ne yelst : pou 

thiandtt: hit stelst. And p^ hi ne wyte / hnas fet hi bye> : hi 

not the owner, we j-^g ssoUe / nait beruore / hit of healde. ac hi ssollen do 

must take the ad- i j i i 

vice of Holy be be rede / of holy cherche / ober be hire ssrifte- 



4. The thief ]je })yenes be nela3rede / bye]) }fo / ])et parte}) / of Ipe 

taketh of the theft })yef})e / o])er nor uela3rede / ojjer by yef})e / o})er be 

purchase ; he con- beggiiige. o])er iiie opro maiiyere. Efterward / })0 Ipet 

eth, and defendeth consentc}) / o]}ev rede}) / o])er hoti}) / hit do. And })0 

})et defende}) pe }iyeues / oper sostene}) his / in hare 

queade / o})er his onderuonge}) / in to hare house / ojiev 

in to his londe / mid hare Ipjeflpe. Efterward / Ipe 

The coiTupt judge kueade domesmen / fet hise soffre]). o})er be yef})es. 

soiy. " '^'^^^' o}'6r be biddynges. olpcv be olpre kueade skele. and 

nolle}). o})er ne dorre / ri3t do. 


Ill The third ^® fridde bo3 of auarice : is roberye. })et he]) 

bough of avarice -^gig sniale Toten. be uerste is / ine kueade exequitours / 

IS robbery, that ' ' ' 

hath many smaU of bekuydes. J5e o})er is / ine kueade lordes / by he 

1. Evu executors kny3t / ober ober / bet be-ula3eb / be poiu'e men : bet 

of bequests. 

hi ssolden loki. be tayles. be tornees. be lones. be 

2. Unfaithful kueado ■vvones. be amendes. be ])reapnynges. olper be 

guardianship. ; t n 

o})re wones / Ipet hy zeche}). oper bejjenche}) / hou hi 

mo3e habbe / of hiren. Ine })ise ze/me bye}) / Tpe greate 

Unlawful posses- pj-mces. ober barouns. bet be hare stre??gbe / nimeb ])e 

sion of othermen's _ . "-/'// 

castles, lands, and cites. Tpe casteles. })e londes. })e baronyes. and be obre 

baronies. , ; i . 

riche men / ])et hare poure ne3eboures / benune]) mid 
strengfe / londes / vines / ofer o])re }iinges. and nime}) 
ary3thalf / and alefthalf / fet no })ing / ne may ham 


ascapie. pe fridile is / ine robberes / and kueade her- s. wicked imr- 

111/ bouring of rob- 

berjeres / pet berobbejj / pe pilgrimes / an pe marchons / bers. 

and o]>re waynerindenien. pe uerjje / is ine ham / jjet 4. unpaid debts. 

nolle]) paye / fat hi ssolle. and Jjet hi of hea[/]de]) / mid 

wrong / pe ssepes / of hare sergons. ojjer of ham / Jjet 

do]) hare niedes. pe v-ifte is /ine Jiise greate p?'ela[te]s/])et 5- Robbery of 

1 • /TIT / T T T underlings by 

benime]) / and robbe]) / hire o^derlinges / be to moche prelates, 

procuringe. o])er be zome onri^tuolle ninii^ges ])et hi do]) 

in to uele maneres. );o bye]) pe wolues : ]3et urete]> pe who, Uke wolves, 

.... T T T devour the sheep. 

ssep. pe zixte is / ine zuyche reuen. pronost. bedeles. e. oppression of 
ofre mesteres men / huiche ])et hy bye}), fet make]) pe provoste, LT^ ^' 
greate robbynges / and pe wronges / ope pe pouxe. and ^®^*^^'^^- 
beggej) / pe greate eritages. per bye]) zuo uele oftre 
maneres / of roberies : J)et long ])ing / hit were to zigge. 
ac zome bye]) y-contined / ope psii j ])et bye]) yzed. 


pe iierbe bo2 of anarice / is acsynge. bet is to yerne ^^- tiw fourth 

■' . I J o r J jjQ^gj^ pf avarice 

opo^ obre / mid. Avrong. to ]»ise zewne belonge]) / al ])et is false claim. 

I [ope ?] 

barat. alle iialshedes. and alle gyles : fet comef / ine Dame Avarice 
plait. Ine ])is clergie / he}) dame anarice / uele scolers. scho\a"rin this 
and of clerkes : and of leawede. and specialliche / zeue 7°khidJof folk '' 
manyeres of uolke. bet alle / bus studieb. pe uerste ^^^^ ^^^^ ^*u'^y- 

■' , ^ . ' ^ ^ / T T T ^- ^^^'^ plaintlfifs 

bye]) / pe ualse playneres / pet make}» / pe ualse bezech- that seek corrupt 
inges. and zeche}) / pe ualse demeres. and lang time, and justice, ° '^ ^^ 
be ualse wytnesses. be ualse playteres. be ualse lettres "^"'1 ^'""6 f^^^se 

■" -^ ■" 1. k/ T Witnesses. 

uor to greui o}!ren. and trauaylef }iet uolk / myd "^vrong. 

ober be cr/stene cort. ober be leawede cort. be obre 2. The pretended 

^5^ ^ •» r gxiles. 

bye]) / pe ualse yulemde / fet vlye]). and na^t pet / 

fet ri3t is. and zeche}) ^v^'})setti[n]gges and respit. uor 

to bynune opveii / hare 03en. pe ])ridde byef»/ pe ualse 3. False witnesses. 

wytnesses. }»ise make}> / pe ualse mariages. })ise 

benime}) / pe heritages. })os do}) / zuo moche kuead / 

and liarmes / fet non / ne may his amendi. and al })is 

hi dob / be hare greate couavtise. jpe uerbe byeb / be *■ False accusers, 

^', ® -^ ' r J r I r gustainers of false 

ualse plaiteres / ftet onderuonge}) / an sostinet / pe causes. 


liaise causes / be liare Avytinde / and hise beclepie]? nor 
ssepe / and nor yefj^es. fet hi nyme]? ari3thalf / and 
alefthalf. and ofte lyese / )je gnode playntes / he, hare 
kueadnesse / olpev nor onconynghede / oper be sleawjje / 
!['*"}'?] niiswendej) jje ri3tes / and do3* alle jje wronges / uor 
masters of guile, hare couaytisB / ase ])o fet bye]? mayst/'es of gjde / and 

dispute and of 

accusation. 01 contak / and of be-uelynge. j)e vifte. byej) / Jte 

5. False notaries, ualse notaryes /f)et make J) jje ualse lettres. and ualse]) 

J)e celes. make]) jje kueade libelles. and to iiele ojjre / 

6. False judges, ualshedes. be obre byeb / be ualse demeres. bet 

who are influenced •< j t' x / / 

by love or by hate, ham zelue hongejj / more of one half / jjanne of anojjre/ 

be jeipes j ojier be behotinges / ojjer be byddinges / 

fFoi a bi ^J"^^ ^'^^^ \o\\Q. ojier uor ^vxejje / ofer uor drede. and 

onbyndejj ]je playntes / mid wrong. And do]j maki Jje 

greate costes / and nimejj / Jie greate yefjjes / o]?erhuyl / 

who sell their of be on : obcrhuil / of be obren / oberhuyl /of on / 

dooms (verdicts), -^ •'^ I r r I y J I I 

and wrongfully and of ojjre. and zellejj / hare domes, ojjer ham / letejj 

use the poor. « i i ; / 

yworjie. And do)? / to Jie poiire men / greate harmes / 

7. False coun- jjet 111 ue moje amendi. j?e ojire bye]) / ])e kueade 


bezide-zitteres / ])et yeue]) ])e kueade redes / to J)e de- 
meres / and make]) lyese f)e playntes : uor ])e sendees / 
All the aforesaid Jiet liy liabbe}). Alle J)e persones / beuore yzed / byef 
to restore what y-hyealde to yelde / pet hi habbe}) y-het kueadhche / of 
fuUy withheld!"^' o])ren. and hare harmes / ])et pe ofre habbe]) y-het / 
be ham. 


V. The fifth bough Ug yifte bo2 of auaricB / is sac?'/lege. Sacrilege is : 

of avarice is sacri- ■' / o o 

lege, that is, to huamie lue brec]i. o])er bleche]). o])er dra3]) uoulhche / 

break or steal the / p t 1 1 •^ i 

things of Holy ])e lioly ]>inges. o})er ])e men / of holy cherche. o])er 
])e y-hal3ede stedes / Jjct bye]) apropred / to guodes 
seruise. and ])et de]» do /ofte /couaytise ine uele manures. 

1. Abuse of the Verst / hiia»ne me dra3]3 uoulliche / Jiet bodi of oure 

Lord's body. 

Ihorde / aze do]) ])e ereges. and ])e "wyclien. and ])e 

2. Abuse of the kueade prestes / uor to wynne. Alsuo ich zigge / of 

other sacraments. '^ 

3. Destruction or J)e ofrc sacremeus. Efterward / hua;me me brec]) / 

theft of holv , , , , ITT /, ^ ^ ^ , • 

things. o])er stel]) / oper (u:<iyp uouUicho / pe nal3ede pmgcs. 


j)e crouchen. Jje calices. J)e creyme. fe corporeaus. 
pe yblissede uestemens. and ojjre / yblissede Jjinges. 
Eftf'rward / hua?;ne me bernjj. oj^er brekjj clierclies. i. Burning and 
ojjer lioli stedes. cherchtounes. ojjer hous of relygioun. churches, reii-n- 
oj>ev liua;me me dra3], fo / out / fet vle> to holy drIwfn'ouAtse 
clierche. ober into cherchtounes. uor to by y-borje. ^;_^° '^'>^"<^ 'f'^e^ 

/ J J 7 sanctuarj- therein. 

Efterward / hua??ne me make]) medles / ine cherche / 5. Disputes in 
zuo >et far ys / blod yssed. o>er hua»ne me de> / SZod.tllr 
ze??ne of lecherie. Eftenvard / hua?nie me layb hand / of lechery. 

'_ '' -• ' 6. Laying violent 

me kueade / ine clerk. oJ5er ine man / ober ine ^yy£- ^^^^^^ on cierk or 

/ n T • -r^ p T 1 ^ ^'"^ c"" ""Oman of 

man / 01 rehgion. Eiterward huanne me stel)). ojjer religion. 
hevp I be kueade skele / out of holy stede / ybHssede wessed thfngs 
>inges/oj,er onbHssede / huet >et hit by. Of >ise S^atS^^lt 
zewnes / ne byej? najt kuytte fo / fet pe guodes of holy ^"u^'/jhe^^^ds 
cherche. be patremo-VTie of lesu cri'st / despendeb of Holy church, 

^ . whohideththe 

me kueade us. Xe j?o najjemo / ])et benimej) / o])er of property of the 

hyaldejj mid -\^To[n] g / o))er mid strengfe. ojier ,,-ithhoid rents" 

hedej) jje ]?inges / f et bye]? apropred / to holy cherche. mhes!^^' ""'^ 

ojjer liise payeji kueadhche. ase fe rentes, jjo of- 

frendes. jje tendes. and Jje ojjre ri3tes / of holy 

cherche. Of bise zelue ze?aie / ne byeb najt kuytte / They are not quit 

, ^ ^ . . , , 01 ^^o ^■■e=>k Sun- 

J50 fet breke]) ]je zondayes / and Jje festes / fet bye]) to days and festivals, 
loki. Yor ])e holy day / he]? his "STidom / ase habbejj 
]je holy stedes. Jjise byep \q smale bo^es fet wexe]) of 
]ie bo^e of sacrilege. 


]je zixte bo^ of auarice / is symonye. ])et is zuo ^"^- Ti>e sixth 

11/ T 1 ; ■, ^ bough of avarice 

ycleped / uor ane -v^ychche / fet hette Symoun / ]jet is simony. 

wolde begge / of seynte peter fe apostel / ]>e gi-ace / 

nor to do miracles /and byad grat g-uod. and ])emore / 

hi bye]) y-cleped / Symoniaks : alle \o / ])et wylle]) simoniacs are 

zeUe / o]5er begge / ])e gostliche >inges. fet is amang / lurspt^uai" " 

alle ]5e dj^adhche ze/mes : on of fe grateste. And ])es g^j^f^; ,^^j,j 

bo3 / heb manie tuygges. }?e uerste is in ham / bet ™''"y '''■*s^ ' 

" ' ' \. Selling and 

zelle]) / o]ier beggefi / })e holy ordres / ojier fet body of/ buying of holy 



orders, or the sa- 

2. Preacliing for 

[Fol. 12. a.] 

3. Purchasing and 
obtaining corrupt- 
ly the dignities of 
Holy Church. 

4. Giving away 
for gifts, &c., the 
benefices of Holy 

5. Letting and 
changing of bene- 

6. Causing men to 
go into religion by 

Lewd (lay) men 
should keep them 
from this sin, 
which they may 
commit in 3 ways: 
1st, by helping 
their km to obtain 
dignities of the 
2nd, by giving 
away benefices. 
3rd, by causmg 
their kin to go in- 
to religion. 

Three kinds of 
gifts make si- 

1. Gift of hand. 

2. Gift of mouth. 
8. Gift of unclean 

oiire Ihorde / opev j?e ojjre sacremens / of lioly clierclie. 
pe opev is ine ha?«. / jjet zelle]? / godes word, and pre- 
chej) prmcipalliche / nor pans. ])g jjridde is ine ham / 
Jjet be yefjjes / o])er be behotinges / ojjer be biddingges 
dreduolle / ojjer nlessliche / make]? zuo nioche / pet hy / 
oJ)er ojjre : bye]) ichose / to dyngnetes of holi cherclie. 
ase bye}> bissopriches. abbayes. o])er denyes. o]3er 
ojtre dingnetes / ]jet me make]? / be chyezinge. j)G ueilpe 
is ine ham / pet be yefpes / oper be behotinges. oper be 
biddinges dreduolle / oper be seruise na3t clene / yeue]) 
pe proiiendres. and pe parosses. oJ)er opre benefices 
of holy cherche. j)e vifte is ine ham / fiet be niarkat 
niakinde : letep hare benefices / ojier chongep. )5e 
zixte is ine ha»?. / pet be markat niakinde : guop in-to 
religion, and ine ham / pet ine zuiche mane;'e / liis 

Vele per byep opre zennes / and of diners cas / ine 
symonye. Ac lii belongep more / to klerekes : pawne 
to leawede. And pis bok is more ymad / nor pe 
leawede : parane nor pe clerkes. pet habbep pe bokes. 
Ac alneway hit is nyed / to leawede men / pet lii ha??^ 
loki / nram pise zewne : ine pri cas. ))e on is / hua?me 
hi wyllep helpe hare ken / oper hare iiryendes / an hejy 
ine dingnetes / of holi cherch. ])e opre hua??ne hi 
yeuep pe j)ronendres oper benefices / pet byep of hare 
yefpe. ])g pridde / hna?me hi yeldep hare children / 
into relig[i]on. Ine pise pri poyns / yef hi yenep / oper 
ondernongep yefpes / oper kneade biddingges / oper 
kueade semises : hi mitten zone nalle in to pise ze?uio 
of s}anonie. Vor ase ziggep pe holi writes, per byep 
pri maneres of yefpes. pet makep symonie. yefpe of 
hand. yefpe of monpe / ase biddinges. yefpe of 
seruise na3t clenlich. Ich clepie onclenlich : hua?ine 
pe semises byep y-do / nor onclenhche cause, oper 
prmcipalliche : nor ping gosthch. 



be zeuend boj / of auarice : ys Avyckedhede. Ich clepie "^ii- The seventh 

■' ' -JO bough of avarice 

wyclikedhede : hua?me be man / is zuo wykhed / and iswicicedness, i.e. 

when one is so 

zixo nioche dyeuel : fet lii??i ne dret najt / to done / ane wicked that he 
greate zewne / dyadlich / and orrible. ofer grat harm / great and homWe 

,, / T, ;, /il,- deadly sin or hann 

to o]jren / nor a lite wayn / ojjer nor ixrenie / to nun. ^^ 0^,;^,.^ ^^^ ^^ 
J3es b03 / hef manye tnygges. J)e nerste is. hnanne / ™ S^rf " 
eny nor drede / of ponerte. ober nor couaytise / nor to manifoW: 

"^ I ^ > •' ' \. Apostasy, as 

Wynne : uorzaib [renayb] god / and be cr/stene bileane. becoming Heretic, 

. Jew, or Saracen. 

and becom|) bongre. oJ>er ien. ojier sarasin. To 

bise ze?zne / belon^eb / be ze7^ne : of ham / bet nor To this sin be- 

' ' n X I f , I longetli the sin of 

pans / makeb to clepie / bane dyenel. and make]? ]je those who make 


enchanntemens. and make Ji to loky ine Jie znord. who look in the 

, f> 1 ; "'^il °^ t^is thumb 

oper me jje nayle / oi pe jjoume. nor to oi-take / pe for to take thieves, 
byenes. ober nor obre bino^es. And of ham alsno / ^^^ "^ *'^«™ ^^° 

'•^ ' r r o I that by witchcraft 

fet make]? / ober porchaceb / be charmes / ober be cause those in 

spousehood to 

wychecreft. o|)er be kueadnesse / hnet Jjet hit by. ]jet hate one another, 
nolk / jjet byejj ine sponshod / togydere / ham hatiej). 
ojjer ne mo3e habbe nela3rede / Jie on wy)) )5e ojjre / be 
sponshod. Ojjer Jiet nolk / Jjet ne byeji na3t ine spons- 
hod : loniej) ham togidere / folhche : and be zewne. ])e 
ojjer is / Jie ze«ne / of grochinge / and of traysonn 2- onidging and 

P . , , treason, when a 

LbezujMvnigeJ. hna?nie )3e man / nor ^^'5mnynge. oJ?er man for profit 
nor mede / def jjing / hner by lii dra3e]3 ofre / to ])e Srbrsw'oM 
dya]?e. ojjer be znorde. ojjer be nenjmi. o];er ine ojjre """^t^?"!, t,-, 
manere / hnet Jiet hit by. ])q. jjridde / is jje ze?zne of s. Buming of 

, 111 towns or houses ; 

ham / jjet nor Avynnynge / berneji ho us. tonnes, casteles. destruction of 
cites. o])er cherchen. ojjer destine]) jje vines. o])er comes, harm to others 
ofer doj) ofre harmes nor mede. ])& nerj^e is fe ze?me 4°s",^g'^iiscord, 
of ham jjet zawejj discord, and p?/rchace]) fe stryfs / ^-r^^^'f^'o^er^to 
and ])e vrerres in cites / ojjer ine capiteles / ojjer be-tuene ^* gainers there- 

Jie he3emen / nor Jjan ])et hi wenej) f e more to Avynne 
mid strif ine ])e werre : Jjawne ine pays. ])q vifte is Jie 
ze?me of renen. of pronostes. of bedeles. of sergons. 
Jiet accuseji / and c[h]alenge)) Jiet ponre nolo / and ha»^ 




To this sin belong- 
etli the sin of 
false judges, 
false plaintiff's, 
and false wit- 

VIII. The eighth 
bougli of pride is 
chaffer, i.e. a sin- 
ning for speedy 

It is seen in 7 
modes : 

1. To sell as dear 
as possible, but to 
buy at the cheap- 

2. To lie, swear, 
and perjure, in 
order to sell goods. 

3. To defraud in 
weights and mea- 

a. buying by the 
greatest weight 
and selling by the 

6. selling by short 
weight, as the 
tavemers do who 
fill the measure 
with scum ; 
c. increasing 
fraudulently the 
weight of goods. 

i. To sell to time. 

5. To sell a differ- 
ent article than 
was at first bar- 
gained for. 

6. To hide the 
faults of a thing, 
as horse-dealers 

7. To make a thing 
look better than it 

do]) raymi^ / and kueadliche lede nor a lite wynnynge 
Jiet hi liabbejj be-zide. 

to fise zenne belongeji |)e zeiine of iialse domesmen / 
and of ualse playteres / and of iialse wytnesses. of 
hnam we habbej) aboue y-speke. Ine manye ojjre 
maneres is ydo fe zewne of wyckednesse. Ac lang Jjing 
hit were to zigge. and betere may ech man rede fe 
ilke zenne / and j)e o]?re / ine Jje boc of his inwyt : 
jjanne ine ane ssepes scinne. 


\)e e^tende bo^ of auarice / is chapfare / hiierinne 
me zene^ej) / ine uele maneres / nor timlich wynnynge. 
and nameliche / ine zeue maneres. }?e uerste is / to 
zelle pQ jjinges / ase dyere / ase me may. And to begge / 
as guodcheap / ase me may. )?e ojjer is : lye3e. zuerie. 
and iiorzuerie / ]>& he3ere to zelle / hare chapuare. pe 
fridde manere is / Jtet me dej) ine wy^tes. and ine 
mcsures. and Jjet may by / ine Jiri niane?'es. ])e 
uerste : hna?me me he)? / diuerse wy3tes / ojjer diuerse 
mesures. and beggej) / be jje gratteste wy3tes / ojtev be 
Jie gratteste mesures : and zelleji by jje leste. ])g ofre 
manere is / hua??ne me he]? / ri3tuolle wy3tes / and ri3t 
nolle mesures / and zellejj ontreweliche / ase doj) Jiise 
tavernyers / pet uelleji fie mesure / myd scome. )?e Jjridde 
manere zuo is hua??ne Jio / Jjet zelle]) be Avy3te / purcha- 
ce]) / and make}) zuo moche fet / pet ])ing / pet me ssel 
we3e / ssewe]) more heuy. ])e nevpe manere / to zene3i in 
chapfare : is to zelle / to tyme. of })isen / we habbe]) 
yspeke aboue. j)e vifte manure is : ofer ])ing zelle : 
panne me hep / y-sseawed beuore. Ase dof ])ise 
scriueyns / })et ssewe]) guode lettre / ate ginnynge. 
and efterward / make]) wycked. j)e zixte is : hede / pe 
zo])nesse / of fie ])inge / fiet me wyle zelle / ase do]) / 
pe romongours of hors. J3e zeue?2de is / maki / por- 
chaci / J)et / })et ])ing / }iet me zelfi / make]) nor to ssewy 


betere / J5a«ne hit by. ase do]? / bise zelleres of clob. is,asdociothseii- 

. . ers, who choose 

pet ciiiesejj / pe jjyestre stedes / huer hi zellejj / hare dim places to se:i 

1 , T 1 I / • / • their cloth in. 

clojj. ine uele opre nianeres / me may zeneji / me 
chajDfares. Ac long Jjing / hit were to zigge. 


Jpe ne3ende bo^ of aiiarice : is ine kueade creftes. ix. The ninth 
ine pise / zenejep moche uoik : me uele mane?"es. ase in wicked crafts. 
j)ise fole wyfmen. J3et uor a lite wynnynge : hy yueb Thus siimeth foui 

," ., .-., women, 

nam to ze?«ie. ALzuo fise hysians / and Tpise kempen / and champions 
and vele ojjre / Jjat uor pans / oj^er uor timHch profit / give them "r 
yuejj ham / to crefte / na^t oneste. fet ne may na3[t] / '^''"""''^ "''"• 
by do : wy]j-oute zenne. an of ]jan ])et hit do]? : and of 
ham / Jjet hise sostyenejj. 


\)e tende bo3 / of auarice : bye J) kueade gemenes. x. The tenth 

, , „ , bough of avarice 

ase byep jje gemenes of des. and of tables, and of is wicked games, 
o],re huyche huet >et hy by / huer me play], uor pans. aToTt^bfefrs 
ojjer uor ojjer / timelich wynnynge. Zuyche kuade fo, p™ ^'''^""' 
gemenes / specialliche of des / and of tables : bye]? [FoI. is. a] 
uorbode / be ri te / uor manye ze?mes / ])et uol3e]5 " canseth many 
zuyche gemenes. j)e uerste is / couaytise uor to wynne / i- covetousness 

1 . T T / 1 ■ 1 , . ; to win and despoil 

and uor to dispoyly / his uela3e. pe o]5er is / gaue- one's feiiow. 

, / J 1 P , 2' Cfeat usury, as 

lynge to grat. ase ne3en / uor tuelf. na3t uor ane nine for twelve, 
mon])e. ne to e3te da3es : ac ine one zelue day. pe ^°' * ^'°^^^ ^^' 
]jridde is / to mori lyeasynges / and ydele wordes. and 3. Lies, idle 
]jet wors is : greate blasfemies of god / and of his hal3en. blasphemies of 
hueruore / god him wvepelp. ase oftezi]5es / he he]) fa'intT'^ °^ "'^ 
ynome / to Hte wreche. Vor oferhuyl / ham miswent 
fe uisage / ])et beuore : behinde 

.A TALE. A tale of a knight 

. who swore by 

A kny3t wes / ])et zuor / be godes e3en. an haste / God's eyes. 

■!• I IT • ,,Ti 1 -, I His eye leapt upon 

Ills on e3e / Ihip ope ]jet cheker. An archer / uor pet the checker. 
he hedde ylore ate geme : nom his bo3e / and ssat an ^rot^at'ooT''" 


found his arrow he? / ave srod. bane morzen / huanne lie zet / ate 

on the checker 'aU ^ / ^ o ^ y i i 

bloody.' geniene : liis arowe / vil ope )jet clieker / al blody. 

4. Bad example. pQ vcrjje IS / JjG Icueacle uorbysiie. pet lie j?et playjj : 

5. Loss of tune, yefjj to ofreii : jjet y-zye]? pet geme. \)e vifte / in lere 

of time / pet me ssolde be zette / ine guode workes. 

And manye ojjre zennes : jjet long Jjing / hit were to 

He that wiimeth zigge. jjing / ich. ne ssel na^t uoryete. pet / pe ilke / 

should give liber- , i j. / • i p 

ally for God's pet wynjj : ne ne may na3t / me guode manere oi- 
healde / Jjet lie wyn]) / ac ssel bit y[e]ue / nor godes 
If it be got by loue. bote yef pet liit by / ine zuyclie mane/'e : fet he 
it should be re- hit hedde / uiid barat / ojjer be stre??g])e. ase pe ilke / 
stored to the loser. ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ p^^^^ j ^^ stre[n]gJ5e. Ine jjet cas / 

he ssolde hit yelde to lum / J?et hit he]) ylore. Alsno 

ich zigge : of jjet me "svyn)) / ine tornenie»t. 

These other j)ise bye J) pe bo^es / of auarice / yno3 per hjep oj^re. 

belong more to Ac liy hjep / niore to clerekes : ))a??ne to J^e lea^vede. 
derks" than lewd j^^^^ ^-^ ^^^^ j -^ ^^^^^ ^^^^.^^^^ y ^^^^, ^^ kawede : >a«ne 

iior pe clerkes / jjet connej? pe writinges. 


The sixth head of j)e zixte heavied / of pe kueade beste : is lecherie / 
lechery, i. e. too j^et is to moche loue / and desordene / ine lost of lenden : 
Sveandiult. opev j ine nlessHch lost. Of fise ze?2ne uondejj pe 
t^tMslSi'l^T^ dyenel / in vif maneres / Ase zayf saynt gregorie. 
modes, in— Auerst / ins fole zijbe. efterward / ine fole wordes. 

1. Foul sight. ' ^' ' 

2. Foul words. efterward / ine fole takinges. efterward ine fole kess- 

3. Foul handling. ' 

4. Foul kissing, inges. efterward / me com]) to pe dede. Vor of fole 

5. Foul deed. t / ■ 

zi^Jie : me com]) to pe speche. and uram pe speche / to 

pe handlinge nram pe han[d]linge : to pe kesinge. uram pe 

kessmge : to pe dede. And ]ious sotilliche / make]) pe 

This sin is divided dyeucl / guo uram on to o])er. p)ls ze?me / Iwn to- 

1. Lechery of del]» / uerst ine tuo maneres. uor pev is lecherie / of 

2.^ Lechery of lierte : and lecherie of bodie. J3e lecherie / of herte : 

Thfiechery of ^uo he]) / vour stapcs. Vor pe gost / of fornicacion / 

heart hath four j,g^ serue}) / of pe ucre / of lecherie / becleppe' pe herten : 

1. Foul thoughts, make]) uerst / come pe f)03tes. and pe likinges. and pe 

1 <o has been erased in the MS. before becleppe. 


yniaginacions / of ze?me / to herte : and make]) jjenche. 

Efte/'ward / be herte blefb / ine be boites. an sno 2. DeUght in foui 

thoughts without 

delite)). yet ne dejj he na3t / fe dede nor no fing. And actual commis- 

ine j?ise bleuinge / and ine pe ilke lost : is Jjo ofer 

stape / jjet may by / dyadhch ze?me. J?e greate ze«ne 

may by / pe lost, pe jjridde / stape /is Jje graiinti[n]gge 3. Consenting of 

/»! /I/. i/ir> nil 1 ^^^ heart, reason, 

01 herte / and of Ipe scele / and 01 fe wylle. And zuyche and wiu. 
granti??ges : byeji alneway / deadlich zenne. Efter pe 
gmntiwge : comb be wj'lnynge. and be greate hete bet *. Desire and 

great heat to sin, 

hy habbej) uor to zenejy. and doj? more fa/me tuenti [FoI. is. b.] 
zennes / yne J)e daye / ine zijjje of leuedys / and of caused hy the 

, PI sight of fair ladies 

maydynes / Jjet sse^vej) ham / uajre \di:^t. pet oite hy quaintly adorned, 

sseawej) / and di5tej) ham / pe more qwaynteUche / and 

pe more honestehche / uor to maki musi / pe foles to 

ham. and ne wene]) na3t / grathche zene3y : uor jjet hi 

ne habbej) no wyl / to do pe dede. Ac uor-zo])e : h}" 

zene^e)) / wel grenousliche. Vor be pe anchey.soim / of 

ham : byeb uorlore / manye zaules. And ber byeb / who thus bring 

•^ ^ I " r .^ r I many folk to sin. 

moche uolk / y-do to dyaj)e / and to zenne. Vor ase 

zayb / be uorbisne. ' leyedi / of uaire dijtinge : is arblast / Ladyof fairadom- 

•^'11 I 70 / jng IS 'arbalest to 

to pe tour.' Tor hi ne hef leme / ine hire bodye : J)et the tower. 

ne is / a gryn / of pe dyenle. ase zay]) Salomon. }5a/me 

behoueb hit / yelde scele / ate daye of dome / of be Ladies, who wit- 

' I " I " ' ■> tingly cause folk 

zaules / pet be Jie ancheaysoun / of ham / bye]) uorlore. to sin, shall be 

. , , called to account 

j?et IS / to onderstonde : huanne hi jeuep encheysoun / at doomsday. 
uor to zene3y / be hare wytinde. 

Lecherie of bodie. him todel]) : ine lecherie of e3en. Lechery of bodyis 

of yearen. of mou])e. of honden. an of alle pe "svyttes / ery of eyes, ears, 

of pe bodye. And speciaUiche : of pe uoule dede. And ^d^wite (^nis). 

hue' is hit uoul dede ze])])e hit is kendehch ? uor fet !['"«' •'=iiow.] 
god / hit uorbyet / ine his spelle. and his apostel panel : 
pet pus zayp. 'ech manhabbe his o^ene : uor fomicacion.' 

pet ys to zigge : his 03ene wji. To po ze/me / belongep / To tws %m be- 

11,,. ;i -I I , , 1 1 ■ ■ , 1 longeth drunken- 

alle pe pmges / huer-by / pet uless him anst / and ness and gluttony, 
Tvylnep / zuiche dede. ase byep pe mochele drinkeres. bed-ciothes^and 
and eteres. pe zofte l>ed. elopes likerouses. and aUe ^^^^f'^'^y- 



The sin of the 
deed of lechery is 
divided into many 
1. The 1st is of 
those who live to- 
gether out of the 
bonds of wedlock. 

2. Adultery with 
common women. 

8. Single men 
living with 
widows or the 

4. Adultery with 
single women. 

5. Adultery with 
married women 
(or spouse- 

This sin is doubled 
when both parties 
are man-ied. 

6. Unnatural sin, 

for which God 
smote to death 
Onan, Jacob's 

[Fol. U. a.] 

7. Adultery of a 
man with his god- 
mother or his 

manyere eyse / of bodye / out of nyede. and special- 
liche : ydelnesse. 

j)G ze?zne of dede / of lecherie : him to-del]) / ine uele 
bojes / be pe stat of ]?e persones / J5et hit dojj. and ge]) an 
hej / uram kuede / to worse. J5e uerste is of man / o\>ev 
of Avyfman / Jjet ne habbe]? / nenne bend, ne of wodewe- 
hod. ne of spoushod. ne of ordre. ne of religioun. ne of 
ofire niane?-e. J)et is J)e uerste ze?me dyadlich : in dede / 
of lecherie. }?e oj?er is / to wyfmawne co7nm.une. J?is 
ze??ne / is more hard : uor hi is / more aid. and uor 
fet / zuyche Avj'fmen / bye]? ojjerhuyl wyues. olper of 
relig[i]on. and ne uorzake)) ne«ne. ne uader / ne bro]jer. 
ne zone / ne ken. pe Jjridde is / of man sengle / mid 
wodewe. ojjer ayeward. )?e uer])e is / wi]) sengle wii- 
man. j)e vifte is / mid wyfman ymarissed. |)et is fe 
zenne / of spousbreche. Ipet is wel kuead. uor jjer is / 
brekinge of treujje / pet j)e on ssel here / to pe ojjre. 
efterward pev is / a sacrilege / hua«ne me brecjj / jje 
sacrement / of spoushod. hit yualj5 oj?erhuyl / deserte- 
soun / of eyr / and ualse mariages. )3is ze«ne / him 
dobblej) ojjerhuil / hua/me hi is / of man y-spoused : 
wyjj Avymman fet hep housebounde. )5e zixte is / 
hua?me pe man / hej? his 03e ^Tyf j dej? ping / pet is 
uorbode / and disordene / aye kende of man. and ordre. 
and of spoushod. And mid 03ene zuorde : man may / 
him-zelue sle. Alsuo may he / mid his 03ene wyue / 
zene3i dyadHche. jjeruore smot god / to euele dya])e 
onam / iacobis neuu. And pe dyeuel / ))et hette asmo- 
deus / astranglede / pe zeue houseboundes / of pe holy 
mayde / sare. fet zejjfie wes / yonge thobyes wyf. Vor 
alle pe sacremens / of holi cherche / me ssel vsi / 
clenliche / and mid / greate worjjssipe. \ie zeuende is 
of man / to his godmoder / ojjer to his goddo3ter. oper 
of godsone / to the children of his godzyb / ojjer of his 
godzybbe / uor ]jo children / ne mo3e na3t come / to- 
gydere : Avyjj-oute dyadlich ze?nie / ne be spoushod. 


j)(i cjtende is of man / to his keniie. and. be ilke zenne / s. Adultery of a 

man with his own 

arist : and lo3ejj. be j?et pe kenrede / is nye3 / ojjer iier. uin. 

J?e ne^erede is / of pe ma??ne / mid jje kenne / of his 

wjiie. ojjer aye ward / of be wyue / mid be ke?aie / of 9- Adultery of a 

man with the kin 

hare housebounde. ])q ilke ze?nie / is Avel dxeduol. of his wife, or the 

^^ , / 1 1 1 ; 1 p wife with her hus- 

V or liuanne fe man / hep uela3rede / myd enye wyi- band's kin. 
mane : he ne may nawmore / be spoushod ' / habbe 
none / of hire ke/nie. and yef he / enye nimjj : pe 
spoushod / ne is na3t. And yef he / nimp wyf : and 
efterward / of pe half/ of hire ke?me : ha lyest / pe ri3t / 
])et he hedde / to his wyue / ine zuo moche / pet he ne 
may / efterward / wonye mid him / bote hy / hit ne 
bidde beuore. j)e tende is of wyfmen to clerkes y- lo. Adultery of 
hoded. jpis ze?nie / anhe3e]3 : and 1036]). by pe hodes. hooded clerks, 
and pe worjjssiphede. pe enlefte is / of man / of pe 11. Adultery of a 
wordle / to wyfman / of reHgioun. ojjer ayeanward / of with a woman of 
wj^fmanoffe wordle / to man / of reUgioun. J5e .xij. is coiurary.*"^ 
of man / of religioun. and of wyfman / of religion, and ^'' Adultery of a 

10 J I o man of religion 

bis ze?me : an-he3eb / and lo3eb. be be stat / of be per- ""'^^ ^ '^°™^'' "^ 

■' ^ I J J I I I i. religion. 

sones / fet hit dob. \)e .xiij. is of prelas / bet ssolden is. Adultery of 


bi ncnesse / and uorbysne / of holynesse / and of 

kle?inesse / to al pe wordle. })e laste / is mest uoul / i*. The last sin is 

1 11 T / • -n too foul to be 

an lodlakest / jjet ne is na3t / to nemny. pe ilke mentioned. 

zemie / is aye kende / pei pe dyeuel tek]? to man. oper 

to w}^man / ine uele maneres / jjet ne byej) na3t / to 

nemni / nor pe materie / Jjet is to moche / abomynable. 

Ac ine ssrifjje / hit ssel ne?nni / pe ilke / to huam / hit 

is be-ualle. A^or asemoche / ase pe zenne / is more Those guuty of 

this sin stand in 

uoul/ and more grz'slich : pe more is worjj / pe ssrifte. need of shrift. 

Vor pe ssame / |)et me hep / of pe zigginge : is grat del / 

of be penonce. bis ze?ine / is zuo onworb to ^ode : bet Thissinissohate- 

' ' ^ -^ ful to God, that he 

he dede rine / uer berninde / and bernston stinkinde / aid rain burning 

... /f., /IP 1 1 I -n fire and stinking 

ope pe Cite 01 sodome / and 01 gomorre. and azenkte / vii brimstone upon 
cites / in-to helle. J5e dyuel him-zelf / fet hit por- m°oiTji?" 

1 ^IS. npuoshod 


• cliace]) : help ssame / liua/nie man hit deJ3. and Jje eyr / 
is anuenynied / of Jje dede. 


The seventh head \)e zeuende lieaued / of ])G kueade beste : zuo is / 

of the beast is the „ , /.ii. i./ii. 

sin of the moutii. ])Q zenne 01 Jje nioufe. and ]?eruore / ])et jje moup / hep 
uvo offices! one to ^^^^ officGS. huerof / fe on belongejj / to jje zuel3 / ase 
toTaS? "'""""' to P^ ^ete / an to fe drilike. j)G ofer / zuo is in 

speche. j2eruore / him to-dclj? / J»e ilke zenne : in tuo 

deles / prmcipalliche. J3et is to wytene : in zewne of 
iience we have sin glotounye / jjet is ine mete / and in drinke. and ine 
sin of evil speech. ze«ne / of kueade tonge. fet is / ine fole spekinge. 
I. Sin of gluttony. And ueist / zigge Ave / of )je ze?me / of glotounye. jjet is 
great power by ^ vice / J)et fe dyeuel / is moche myde ypayd. and 
this sin. moche / onpay]? god. Be zuych zenne / hejj jje dyeuel / 

wel grat mi3te / in nia;me. Huer-of / we redejj ine jje 
[Foi. 14. b.] godspelle / j^et god / yaf yleaue fe dyeulen / to guo in 

to J)8 zuyn. and J»o hi weren / ine ham : hise adreynten / 
Gluttons lead the ine be ze. inc tokuinge : bet be glotouns / lede]) lif / of 

life of swine, and 

the devil hath zuyn. aiid jjc dyeuel he]) yleaue / to guo in ham : and 

leave to go into i;- /f>iii ii ; 

them, hise adrenche / me fe ze / oi helle. and ham / to do ete 

so that they eat , ,j.i'j.i ii-i ■, i^ 

till they burst.and ZUO moche : pet hi to-cleue. an zuo moche drinke : Jjet 

drink till they are i i i t_ t. 

drowned. % ^1^??* adrenchef. 

Hua??ne fe kempe / hep his nela^e / yueld / and 
hhn halt / be ])e frote / wel onneajje / he arist. Alsuo 
hit is of J)an / Ipet Jje dyeuel halt / be jja ze??ne. and 

The devil by this Jjeruorc blcj^eliche / he yern]) / to fe frote : ase jie wolf / 

sin holdeth a man 

by the throat and to Jic sscpc / him uoT to astraugli / ase he dede to euen / 

strangleth him. i , a ^ i • -i , , i , • , • ; 

and to Adam / m paradys terestre. pet is Jje vissere / 
of helle / jjet nym]? fane viss / bi fe j^rote / and by ]>& 
cliinne. jpis ze?ine / moche mis-payj) god. Vor ])e 
The glutton glotoun / makcjj to grat ssame / hua/nie he make]) / 

a sackful of dung, lus god : of aue zeclic / uol of dong / fet is of his 
i.e.hib e y. "vvombe / ]5et he louej) more / Jiawne god. and ine him 
God bids him fast, ylcfth / and him serue}?. God him hat neste : ]>o 
eat umg andVte™ wojj^be zay]) / ' ])ou 116 sselt / ac et longe / and a-tmyt.' 


God him liat be J>e morgan arise : J33 wo»iLe zayjj / ' ]>o 
no sselt / ich am to iiol / me behoue]) to slepe / Jie 
clierclie nys non hare / hy abyt me Avel.' And hua?me 
he arist : he begynjj his maty 11s / and his benes / and his After risin- he 

, thinks of wliat he 

oreysones. and zayjj. ' a / god / huet ssolle we / ete to day. shau eat. 

huader me ssolle / eny J)ing iiynde / ]iet by worf?' 

Efter jjise matynes : come]; jje laudes. and [he] zayj). ' A, 

god / huet we hedde / guod wyn yesteneuen / and 

giiode metes.' And efterjjan / he bewepj? his ze«nes : Tiien he thinks 

of yesterday's 

and zayjj. ' Alias he zayjj / ich habbe y-by nyej dyad to good wine, but 

ni3t. to Strang / wes pet wyn / teue. J?et heaued / me aching head. 

aklp. ich ne ssel by an eyse : al-huet ich habbe / 

ydronke.' Jpous to fe kueade zayjj. }pis ze??ne /let man 

to ssame. Vor aljjeruerst / he becomj) tauernyer. 

ba?2ne he playb ate des. ba?ine he zelb his o^en. ba^ne The glutton often 

' . T ? I comes to the gal- 

he becomj) riband, holyer. and )jyef. and ])a«ne me lows. 

hine anhongeb. bis is bet scot : bet me ofte payb. ^his is the shot 

'^ I ' > I i- ^ r he often pays, 

Jpis ze«ne liim to-delb / ase be saynt gregorye. ine This sin spreadetn 

out Into 5 boughs. 

vif bo3es. Vor ine vif maneres / me zene3ej) / be mete / 
and be drinke. j^er nor \ei j pet me eth / and dryngjj : 
to-uore time, ojjer / to lostuoUiche. ojjer / out of 
mesure. o])er / to ardontliche. Ojjer / to plentyuous- 
liche. ])e uerste bo3 fawne / of J)ise ze«ne : is to ete / 1. Eating before 

1 J.- ij ^ ,• 1 • , ■ I r- I . , 1 , time, and yielding 

beuore time, and to uoul Jjmg hit is / of man / jjet hep to lecuery of 

age : huawne he / ne may abyde / time / to etene. and '''"°*'' 

of grat lecherie / of frote / hit com]), pet man / j)et is 

Strang / and hoi of bodye. wyJ)-oute ancheysoun 

sceluol. to-uore ri3te houre / jernp to pe mete / ase asdothadumh 

dej) a best doumb. And uele ze?«ies come]) / of ])0 

ilke wone. J?a»ne hit com]) /^ pet zuych a man zayj). a man guilty of 

pet he ne may neste. ne do penonce. Vor he hep pet fa'st.bTcausrMs 

yzed. ' ich habbe / a to kuead heaued.' And he zayp SS wo^sSis 

zop. nor he hep hit zuych ymad. and kuead herte heart becomes 

alzuo / pet hep ymad pet kuead. and him hep y-do 

breke ' / pe uestinges / pet is grat zewne. and yef he 1 [ms. bro7ce.:\ 

him damnede / be him zelue : per-of no strengpe. Ac 
4 * 


He will have fei- he wvle liabbe uela-jes / bet dob ase lie deb. hiiiclie he 

lows like himself. "^ pit ..... 

dra3j» / uram wel to done and let his mid him j in-to 

helle. Vor he deji ham / breke hare uestinges. and do 

[Foi. 15. a.] hare glotounyes. huer-of hi ham / Avolden loki : yef jjer 

nere / kneade nela^es. Vor jje drinkere / and J)e hor- 

whom he causes lii^g / amaiig Jie ojjre kueades / Jiet hi dojj : prr>p?-eliche 

'" ^'"' one ze7*ne / jjet is ]je dyenles / hua??ne hi wy]j-dra3e]) to 

do wel. Hy ziggej) / ))et hi ne mo^e na3t neste. ac hy 

lye3e]j. Vor litel loue of god : ham hejj jjet / y do 

He loves the idle zigge. Vor yef hi loueden zuo moche / Jje zojje ioye of 

more than the licuene. ase hy do]) / Jje ydele blisse / of fis wordle : ase 

ruejoyo iea\en. j^^ uestej) / uor \iQ timliclie nyedes / al-huet ni3t : ase 

wel / hi mi3ten ueste / huet non / uor god : yef hihi??i / 

He is as the child zuo moclie loiiede. Ac hy byejj / ase is fet child. ]jot 

have bread in his Avyle alneway / habbe J)et bread / ine his hand. And Jje 

sselt conne / Jjet ase me zene3ej) / ine to raj^e arizinge / 

uor to ethene : and alsno me zene3e]) : late to soupi. 

Some sin by sup- jja^ne bet uolk / bet late louieb to soupi / and to waki 

ping late, and ' ' ' ' > '■ ' 

rising late. he ni3te. and waste]) fane time / ine ydelnesse. and 

late guof to bedde / and arise]) late : zene3e]) / ine 

Tiiey waste their -^i^^q manercs. Verst : ine J)et hi waste}) / J)ane time. 

time, and turn 

night into day. and liiiie miswendej> / huawne hi make]) / of ]je ny[3]t : 
Such folk are ao- (Jay. and of })e daye / ni3t. Znych uolk / god acorse]) / 
be ])e prophete. Vor me ssel be daye : wel / do. and be 
nijte / herie god / and bidde. ac huo Jjct lyf a bedde / 
huarane he ssolde arise, slepe he mot : hua?2ne he ssolde 
bidde. and his se/niise yhere / and god herie. and ])os 
he / lyest al his time / and \q ni3t : and fane day. 
They play at evil Efterward / iiie zuyche wakinges : me deb manye 

games, as dice : 1.1 o i -i 

kueades. ase playe ate ches. ofer ate tables, and me 

zay]) / manye bisemers. and folyes. and ])us waste]) / 

So they wrath jje wreclie liis time / and his ^v}'ttes / and his guodes. 

God, and harm 

their bodies and and wrefef god. and liarme]) his bodi / and more ])e zaule. 
]?e ober bo3 : is of mete / and of drinke / be to 

2. Immoderate 

eating and drhik- moclie / and wijj-oute mesure. )3e ilke byef / prop/'e- 


liclie glotounes / ])et al uorzuel3e]5 / ase def ])e kete of 


liis sperriiige. Hit is grat wyt / to loki mesure / ine Gluttons are like 

mete / and ine drinke / and gratheljje. uor mocheuolk loL^it'spLrotv" 
steruejj. and ofte per come]? / greate ziknesses. Ac huo 

fet wyle Jjise mesure lyerny : he ssel ywyte / and onder- one man lives by 

stonde / fet Jjer hjep / nele maneres to libbe / ine pe by m' Juuy'a^"' 

wordle. j)e uerste libbeb / be be ulesse. be ober be / ^'"'^'^ ^^ '"^ p'^^' 

,..-., JIT J r I sie^ a fourth by 

his lohuete. pe jjridde / be his fisike. )3e uerbe / be his honesty, a 

•1- i. 4. ' -u T I ^ fifth by his sins, 

nis onestete. pe vilte / be fan jjet hare ze??nes acse)?. and a sixth by the 

J3e zixte be pe goste / and be pe loue of god. oodf" "' 

j)o ])et libbef be pe ulesse / ase zajp zaynte paid / Those that live by 

-i.-,,. - -,■■,/ ^^^ ^*^^ ^^''y their 

m siA^ep Jure zaulen. uor hi make]) / of hare ■vvombe : souls and make 

hare god. pe ilke / ne hyealde]? scele / ne mesure. and god." ^ ^ ' '""" 
])eruore / hi ssolle habbe / ine pe ofre wordle / pine 
"vvy])-oute mesure. 

pe ilke bet libbeb be hare iolyuete : wylleb hvealde / Those who live by 

' ' '' J r J I their jollity know- 
hire fole uela3redes : zuo fet hi ne conne / ne hi ne no moderation. 

11103 e / healde mesure. 

J3o pet libbe]) be ypocr/sye / jjet byeb / be dyeules Those that live by 

hypocrisy are the 

martires. hi habbe]) / tuo mesures. uor pe tuaye devil's martyrs. 

dyeiden / pet tornie/^te]) fane ypocWte : bye]) moche 

ayder/ayens o]3ren. }?e on him zayj). 'ethyno3 / al-huet/ 

fou art uayr / and uet.' pe ofer him zay]) : ' fou ne sselt. 

ac fou sselt ueste / al liuet fou art / bleche and Ihene.' 

JSTou behoueb / to habbe / tuo mesures / ane little / and "^^^^ "''* temper- 

' ' ' ' ' ately before the 

ane scarse. fet he use]) / touore pe uolke. And anobre world, but immo- 

T 11 , , 1 ; derately when 

guode and large. ]5et he use]) / ])et non ne j-zj^p. pes ne none sees them, 

halt na3t / pe r^te mesure. pe ilke / pet couaytyse ledef / [FoI. is. b.] 
habbef zuyche mesure : ase pe pors wyle. fet is Iheuedi / 

and hotestre / of pe house, panne ssolle we betuene pe oftentimes there 

It, T/f., 1, -i-i-i is a strife between 

porse / and pe wombe / of pe glotoune : habbe a uajT the purse and 

strif pe wombe zayf. ' ich wylle by uol.' pe purs zayf / ^i°™^f '^' 

' ich Avylle by uol' pe wombe zayj) / ' ich wylle ]5et fou Sbffuirso^ 

ete. and drinke / and bet bou despendi.' And be purs ^''^^ ^^^ p""«- 

' ' ' ^ r I The one says I 

zajp : 'foil ne sselt na3t. ich wille bet ])oii loki / and win eat and spend, 

the other says 

wy])dra3e. Alias / huet ssel he do / fes wi-eche / fet is thou shait not, i 

,, . 11111 m will that thou 

prel / to zuyche tuaye kueade Ihordes. Tuo mesures / save and retrench. 


niakej) he wy^te ymad. J)e mesnre of wombe / in of)rc- 

ma?me house guode / and large. And j>e niesure of the 

purse / of his. jjet is zor3uol and scarse. 

Those that live by )?o J>et libbef) be fisike : hy healdej? pe mesure / of 

by phys^ic.*^" ^ jpocras / Jjet is Hte / an strait, and hit iual]? ofte. )jet fe 

ilke / jjet be fisike leuej) : be fizike sterf jj. 
Tiiose living by jjo Jiet libbejj be hyre onestete : Jje ilke hyealde]) / 

their honesty eat 

at proper times, pe uiesure of scele. andlibbejj worssipliche / to fe wordle / 
jjet etej) ine time / and ine oure. and nime]) mid guode 
vrylle : Jiet hi habbe]^ / and cortaysliche / an gledliche. 

Those living by j)o ]jet libbe]) be pan I J)et hare ze?znes oksef). 

their sins are iit,-i j ^ i ^ 

dieted by penance, hyealdep zuiche manere / and niesure / ase me ham 

charge]) / ine penonce. 
Those living by Jjq jjgt libbc)) / be f 6 goste. bye]) fo / J^et ine pe 

those that use all lone of god Avonyclt. to liuam be holy gost tekb / to 

things aright, in 

reason and moder- hyealde ordre / an sckele / and mesure. j3o ])ethabbe]) 

pe Ihordssip / ope pe bodyes / ])et is zuo y-ta^t / Jiet he 

ne acsej) / none outtrage. and de}) / ])et pe gost hat / 

"vvy[])]-oute gi^ochinge / and wifi-oute Avijjzigginge. 

Thus we see that Xqu mi3t ])0U ysi / uor Jiet Ave habbeji hyer yzed / 

many tricks by Jiet uele giuues / hep pe dyeuel / uor to nime Jiet uolk / 

■wliich to talce man 

by the throat. be pe jjTote. uoT uerst / he sseawe]) ham / pe wyiies / 
First, he showeth and Jie metcs / Jiet hjep uayre / and likerouses / ase he 

bim wine and 

meats, dede / to euen pane eppel. And Jiet / yef hit him ne is 

na^t AvorJ) : he him zayji. ' eth / an drink ase Jie ilke / 

tells him to do as and Jie ilke. uelajrede Jie behoueb hyeafllde. yef be 

others do, 

Avylt / Jjet me ne storue pe imjt. and Jiet me pe / ne 

hyaldeuorpapelard.' ojier he him zayJi. 'Jie heljieof Jiine 

and to keep his bodye / bou sselt loki. uor huo bet ne heb helbe : he 

body in health -J i r j r r 

and strength by ne hcji najt. Xe by na^t mansla3Jie / of Jie selue. Jiou 

proper susten- . . i /-\ i i • 

sselt to June bodye : Jie sostmonce. OJier he hirn zay]?. 


The devil says, c ]^^j^-^ yg^^g j of jjg guodes / fet Jiou dcst / ojier mi^t do. 

and so ser\e God. jjon ne est / na3t uoT JiB lost / of Jiyue bodye : ac to 
serui god. Jiou sselt / Jiine strengjie loki to god. ase 
zayj) dauiji.' pise sceles / byeji zuo cleniinde / pei pe 
wyscste / and Jie holyist[e] man : bypjj ojjorhuyl / beca3t. 


be bridJe boj of bise zcHiie is / to uerliche yerne / ^- Tiie third 

^ ■' ^ ' J I ^ough is a strong 

to pe mete / ase de]3 Ipe liond : to fe lies, and )je more / yearning for meat. 

jjet is / Jje ilke uerlichliede : ]je more / is fe ze«ne. A^or 

ase liit ne is / no zenne j uor to habbe ricbesses. Ac 

liis / to moche louye. Alsuo / bit ne is no zewne / uor 

to ethe / ]je guode metes : ak etbe bis / to uerlicbe / 

ober disordenelicbe. Etbe metes / byeb guode / to To eat meats is 

good, provided 

guode. and to bam : jjet be scele / and be mesure / bis they are eaten 
vsejj. and liise nimej? / mid jse sause / of fe drede / of the dread of our 
oure Iborde. Vor me ssel / eurenio babbe drede : fet 
me / ne mys-njone / be ouerdede. and me ssel berye C^"'- ^''- ^■'^ 
god. and yelde bjTU bonkes / of his yef bes. And be ^y the sweetness 

' ' "J I Qf t;],g meat we 

fe zuetnesse / of jje mete / J)et wyf-oute / ne may by : me should think ou 

. God's sweetness. 

ssel jjencne / godes zuetnesse. and to ])e like mete : fet 
uel]3 ])e berte. Jjeruore me ret / ine bous of religion / 
ate mete : uor jjet / bua?me ])et bodi / nymJ5 bis mete / 
of one half : fet ]je berte / nyme his of oj^er half. 

be uerbe boj / of bise ze?me / of ban bet / to noble- *• Tiie fourth 

, I '^ 1^ I bough is tlie • 

liche wyllej) libbe. jjet despendejj / and AvasteJ) / uor to spending and 
uelle hare glotonye / hwer-of an hondred poure / mi3ten in order to live 
libbe / and yno3licbe by ueld. Zuicli uolk zenejej? ine suciffoik sin in 
uele manures. Yerst : in greate despenses / fet lii """/ ^^at^ex- 
niakejj. efterward / ine fan / Jjet hi / hit vsejj / ine to g'Tn intem er- 
grat bete / and ine to grat lost. And afterward / ine ance. 

•11,,.,,., 3- In vanity; they 

])e ydele basse / jjet hi habbe]). Vor hit ne is na^t / like to boast of 
onlepiliche lecherie / of zuelj : ac hit is / wel ofte uor 
host / fet hi zechejj / zuo riclie metes / and makef> / zuo 
uele mes. huer-of / ofte / come]) / uele kueades. 

])Q vifte bo3 is / fe bysibede / of glotuns / bet ne 5. The fifth bough 

^, IT /'pi '* ^^^ anxiety of 

zeclie]) / bote to ])e delit / of bare zuel^. Jiise bye]) pro- gluttons, who seek 
preliche / lechurs / ])et ne zecbej) / bote fet lost / of the^s!vaUow.°^''°^ 
hare zuel^. Ine fri ]jinges / nameliche / li]) ])e ze?me / tLle ^1^6^: 
of zuyche uolke. Verst / ine fe greate bysibede / ))et by '• ^" ""^'"s^""^ 

habbej) / to porcbaci / and to a^raibi. Efterward / mid ^- «reatiustii 

' or / the use of thei 

grat lost / fet by habbe]) / ine })e us. Efterward / ine property, 
pe biisse / fet in habbe]) / me fe recordinge. And buo recording and 



deavours-to make jjet mijte telle / huycliB bysinesse hi dob / to ban / bet 

ofone meat many ' ^ I J J y I r I r 

disguised messes, hare nietes / by wel ag/'oy})ed. and ech to his o^ene 

smac. and hon hy mo^e maki / of one mete / uele mes 

And wiien the desgysed / uor hare uoule lost. And hua??ne be mes / 

mess comes on, 

one after the byejj y-conie / on / efter ]?e o])er: ])artne byejj ])e burdes / 

other, it; ^ • 

and ]?e trunes / uor entremes. and me ])ise manere / ge]) 
jests and jokes jje tyme. be Avreche him uoryst. be seele slepb. f>e ma3e 

form the entries. 

[a piaynte] grct / and zayjj. ' Dame Zuel^ / f)o me ssast. ich am 

The gkitton says, 

"tiiough my belly ziio uol: J)et icli to-cleuG. Ac fo tonge ]je lyckestre / 
let this dish h-hxi ansiierej) : and zayj). * jja^ J)ou ssoldest to-clene : ich 

rirterthe Tielle na3t lete askapie / ))is mes.' Efter Jie lecherie/ \)dt 

iTeat'in'^'a.mes^ ^^ "^® etinge : com]) jje blisse / jjet is hie fe recorder, 
the wish of the Eftcrward / hi wesseb bet hi liedden / nykken of crane. 

gluttons.that they ' '^ '^ ' '' 

had the neck jf a and Avombe of COIL nor bet be mosseles / blefte lenger / 

crane and tlie 

belly of a cow. ine JjB JjTote. and more mi3ten uorzuel^e. 

The sins of glut- Nou ]50u hcst y-hyerd / Jje ze«nes / jset come]? of 

arise commonly glotounye / and ' of Iccherie. and Jjeruore / ))et zuyche 

in the tavern, that /-, ti;-, ,j^- n 

well of sin, ze?aics / arizejj co;;nnunliche / me tauerne : pet is weile 

of zc;me. Jperuore / ich wylle a lite take / of jje zc;aies / 

]?et byej) y-do / ine jje taut'/'ne. )?e tauerne / ys ))o 

very cla°i"eiofthe ^^^^^ ^^ J"^ dvoulo / hucrc / his dcciplos studic]?. and 

*^'^^'''' his 05ene chapele / fer / huer me dejj / his seruese. and 

}>er huer he make]) / his miracles / zuiche ase behoue]) ^ 

to Jje dyeule. At cherche / kan god / his uirtues sseawy. 

and do liis miracles, fe blynde: to lijte. fe crokede : to 

ri3te. yelde fe wyttes of J»e wode. Jie speche : to })e 

When the glutton dombe. Jje hicrfe : to ])Q dyaue. Ac fe dyeuel deJj al 

[Foi. 16. b.] ayenward / ine j)e tauerne. Vor hua?^ne J)e glotoun gejj 

u7rightTwiiei?he hi to fe tauerne / ha gef opri3t. huajzne he coin]? a-yeii : 

oanntt'support ^6 ne heJ3 uot jjet h.wi 111030 sostyeni ne here. HuaMue 

whe.f he enters l^^ pei'^^ ge> = lie y-zyc> / and y-herj) / and spec> wel / 

he can see, hear, ^^^^^ ondcrstaiit. hua« he coiiib ayen : he heb al bis 

and speak well ; 

when he departs xiorlore / ase be ilke bet ne heb wyt / ne scele / ne onder- 

he has lost all ' ' ' . 

these, and has no sto?<dinge. Zuychc bye]) fe miracles pet ])e dyeuel 

reason or under- .-,, , ,i iii i,t 

standing. make}). And huet lessouns per he ret. aile uelpe he 

de~niScies. tck}) ]jer. glotouuye. lecherie. zuerie. uorzuerie. Iye3e. 

1 MS. «dn - MS. hohom^ 


miszigge. reneye god. euele telle, contacky. and to uele 

ofre manyeres of zennes. J?er arise]) fe cheastes. Jje 

strifs. JJB mansla3])es. fer me tekjj to stele : and to 

hongi. jie tauerne is a dicli to fieues. and fe dyenles The tavern is a 

castel uor to werri god / an his lial3en. and Ipo fet jje and thedeviiT' 

tauenies sustyenef : byej) uela3es of alle f e ze??nen fet aga/nsfGlVIua 

bye]) y-do ine hare tauernes. and uor zo])e yef me ham "" ^^'"''^• 

zede / o])er dede / asemoche ssanie to hire nader / ofer to 

hare moder. ofer to hare gronies. as me de]) to hire sustainers of 

ni T 11 taverns are acces- 

tiader oi heuene. and to oiire Iheuedy. and to fe lial3en series to aii the 

jy T 111- 111 •• i'. 1 ^'"s ^one in their 

01 paradis. mochel hi wolden ham wrejii. and o])er red tavern i. 
hi wolden do fer to |)a«ne hi do]). 

\)E ZENNES OF j^E TONGE. The sins of the 


Huo Jiet wyle conne and we3e ])e ze?mes of jpe tonge : 
hit hehouef ' fet he conne Ave3e / and ayenwe3e / fet it behoveth each 
Avord hujxh Ipet hit by. and huer-of hit com}) : and huet re-weigh each 
kuead hit dep. Vor hit y-nal]) fet / pet Avord is ze/me cometh and wiiat 
ine hym. uor ]>et hit is kuead. And yef hit by-ualf fet '"^ ''''°''''- 
hit by ze«ne uor pet hyt gep out of kueade herte. And 
of heauede hit biual]) / fet pe speche is grat zenne / uor 
J)et hi de]) grat kuead / p^ hy by uayre and ysmo])ed. 
Nou sselt ])ou ywyte / fet pe kueade tonge / is fet trau The evil tongue is 
J)et god acorsede in his spelle / uor fet he ne uand na3t God!becauiri'!e''' 
bote leaues. }»et ine holy writ bye]) onde[r]stonde ^°u"f ""'"ir^'-' 
worcles. And alsuo ase hit is Strang ])ing to telle / alle ^° ^''y- words. 
pe lyeaues of pe trauwe : alsuo liit is Strang fing uor to 
telle pe ze/aies fet of pe tonge come]). An ])ise ten bo3es we may, amongst 
we nioje alsuo newni : ydelnesse. yelpinge. blondinge. JTamet^en boughs: 
todra3inge. lyesynges. vorzueriinges. stryfinge. gro- idieness.boastmg, 
cliinge. wy])stondinge. blasfemye. *'""' 'y'"!?' pe''- 

\)e ilke Jiat ham yeue]) / to moclie to ydele Avorddes. grudging, oppo- 

sition, blasphemy. 

hi zeche}) grat harm / fet hi ne aparceyue]) na3t. vor 
hy lyesef Jiane time precious, huer-of hi ssolden haT)be 
eftsone disete. and uorlyeseji pe guodes fet hi ])enche}) 
to done / and ssolden do. and nimefi pe tresor of pe herte. 
» MS. bo/wwp 


Those who give and liise iielb a-yen mid ydelenesse. lii onwrij) fane pot. 

themselves up to 

idle words un- and ]je ule3en vlye]) Jjerin. hi hise clepiej) / ydele ^yordes/ 

cover the pot so i-t t-i p /ii n/ 

that the flies ac 111 lie Dycjj. ac ni Dye]? of grat cost / and Jiarniuolle / 
One calls them and peiilous. asB J)0 ))et enitej) Jie lierte of hire giiode. 

idle words, but , i,t- i • ^ ^ i i ,;i jy 

they are not so, ^nd uelj) his ayen / mid ydelnesse / as Jjo / mier-ol 

harmful ^"'^ behouejj yelde rekemnge of echen beuor god / ate daye 
of dome, ase god zay]j ine his spelle. Hit ne is na3t 
lite ping / ne ydelenesse / liuer-of hit behouej) rekeni. 

And in the high and yelde scele ine J)e he3e cort / ase beuore god / and 

Tl:i::Xr' al >e baronage of heuene. 

given oftiera. jj^g i,q y(Jele wordes me zenejeb ine vif maneres. Vor 

In idle words one i -J J > 

simiethin five ber byeb zonie wordes ydele / liuer of jse tonges byefi zno 


1. The tongue is noUe / j?et speke]j beuore / and behjnde. pet bye J) ase 

Bometimes full, i, / 

[Foi. 17. a.] Jje cleper of pe melle / pet ne may him na3t hyealde 

clapper" of a mill, stille. And yef hi spekp bisye wordes of ham pet zno 

blepeliche tellep tidyinges. pet zettep ofte hare lierte to 

The after-tellers mesayse of ham pet his ylierep. and makep pe efter 

fools and liars. tellei'es ofte by yhyea[l]de foles andiiorlye3eres. Efter- 

2. Idle tales and -yyard byep pe tales / and pe uayre zigginges. liuer-of hi 

habbep nioche of ydele blisse / po pet hise conne sotil- 
liche zigge / nor pe herkneres do wel lhe33e. Efter- 

3. Jests and jokes Ward byep pe bourdes / and pe trufles uol of iielpe / and 

full of filth and ofp,. ,, i,ii i i 

lies, 01 leazinges. pet me clepep ydele wordes. Ac uorzope 

stinking and foul hit ne byep. ac hy byep Avel stinkinde / and wel uoule. 

words. , / T • 

4. Mocking and Ett(^;*ward bjTp pe bisemeres and pe scornes / pet hi 
scorn o goo ziggep ope pe gnode men. and ope alle ham pet wyllep 

do wel / peruore : pet hi niy3ten his dra3e to hare corde. 

and iiram pe gnode pet hi liabep y-('o?zceyued W3^pdra3e, 

Jjet ne byep na3t ydele wordes. Vor pou art ase nian- 

Thouartasaman- slajbe / vcf bou be bine tonge / Avybdra:st ane man / 

slaughter, if thou ^i" / ■' r T o i j r ? I 

causestany opcT a cliild wel to donc. and god pe can asemoche 

one to do wrong, in t i ^ ii- 

by thy tongue. pank : ase wolde pe kyng / yet pe lieddest ysla3e his 
zone / oper his tresor ystole. 


°f*®''"°^ Op Jje zea^ne of yelpinge. 

Efterward comp pe ze»iie of yelp}Tige / pet is Avel 


grat / and wel uoul / -wel uals / and ^vel vilepi. Hi is wel 

grat : Vor huo pet yelp]? : he is aperteliche godes jjyef. He that boasteth 

and him ^YJle henyme his hlisse / ase we zede hyer- 

beuore. fet is a wel uals ze?me. Yor Jje guodes huerof For a nttie wind 

■1-, ,, ,. T.i T^ie loseth heaven. 

ne mi^te wynne pe heuene : hi yeue]? nor a litel wynd. 

And ziio hit is a wel uoul ze?me. Vor pe wordle zelf / The worui itself 

•t 1 1, n ^ ^ -1 1 . holdoth him to be 

nam Jialt uor lol. and uor vilayn and uor nice. a fooi. 

Ine ]jise bo3e hjep vif leaues. Jiet bye J) vif manere in this bough are 

PI- i'\ • ■ rn- • n ■ ^^'^ leaves : 

ot yeipmges. On is preterit. |)e[t] is to zigge : of jjinge i. Past-boasting 

ypased. pet is pe zennc of |)an / fet zuo blej^eliche prowess,&c!' 
recordejj hare dedes / and hare prowesses, and jjet hi 

wenef liabbe / o))er wel ydo : oper Avel yzed. j)e ober 2. Present-boast- 

„ ' . ing of present 

is of present fet is to zigge : of nou. fet is pe zenne of riches, nobleness, 

jjo : jjet na3t ne dojj gledhche. ne ham ne payej) wel to °^'^^°'"^^^- 

done / ne wel zigge. bote ase me his yzy^Jj / ojjer yherjj. 

Jjise / ine dede / ojjer ine speche / and ine zinginge : hi 

yelpejj / and zellej) uor na^t : al fet hi do]). To ])an 

belongef pe zenne of zuichen fet yelpe]? of pe guodes 

fet hi habbef / o]7er fet hi wenef habbe / of hare 

noblesse, of hare richesse / of hare prouesse. Hy byefi 

ase J>e coccou / f>et ne can zinge / bote of him zelue. J5e These boasters are 

. , , . n • ■ 1 ''^e the cuckoo. 

pridde is pe zenne 01 ])ise ouerweneres fet ziggef. ich 3. overweening— 

wille do ]iet / and fet. ich wj^lle awreke forre. ich wille one wTif do.^^ ^^ 

maki pe belles and pe danes. j)e uerbe is more sotil *• Blaming what 

is right in others. 

Jjet is of fan Jiet ne mo^e uor ssame ham-zelue praysi. 
ac al fet oJ»re dof / and ziggef : altogidere uayrliche 
blamye]) ase ri^t na^t ne him prayse]?. to fet hi conne 

do and zigge. j)e vifte is yet more sotil / of ham bet 5. Affected 

. . . humility. 

huanne hi wille]i f>et me hise praysi / and hi nolle]) Many folk say 

.,., -I • T •, 1 ,/ 1 1 ''"''' t'^ey are 

zigge apertehche : hi hit make]) a na3t / and make]i zuo wicked and sinful, 
moche ham milde / and zigge}) / J)et hi bye}) zuo kueade / 

and zuo zenuol / and zuo onconnynde : frisijje more / [Foi. 17. b.] 

panne hi by. vor bet me .ham hereb / and hyealde : uor so that one may 

■■ ^ r r I J hold them in 

wel bo3sam. 'Alias' zay]) saynt bernard 'huet fer is bier esteem. 

zor3Uolle yelpinge.' Hy make]) ham dyeulen : uor fet SvesTvnJ.'ir' 

me halt ham uor angles. Hy makel) ham kueade : uor ^^^^ they may be 

o J r accounted angels. 



Others seek 
spokesmen to 
praise and extol 
their virtues. 

Of flattery. 

Flatterers are the 
give suck to his 
children and sing 
them to sleep. 
They smear the 
way of hell with 

There are five 
boughs of this sin 
1. Praising hastily 
what is well said 
or done. 

2. Exaggeration 
of trifles, 

where there is 
more of lies than 

3. Assumption of 
goods and graces. 
The folk who as- • 
sume so much 
:ind so deceive 
many are called 

4. SingingjiZflcebo 
to every word or 
deed, be it good or 
bad ; or echoing 
all that is said by 
others, be it good 
or bad. 

fet me ssolde liis liyealde nor good, ne more me ne 
may ham wre]?! : Jia^ne iior to zigge / uor zofe pou 
zayst zo|). To fan belongejj ])e zemie of ham Jjet zechi]) 
spekemen ham uor to praysi. and uor to grede hare 
noblesse / be huas moujje hi speke]) / and fe more 
hardyhche. j 

Of bloxdinge, 

pe blonderes / byef ])e dyeules noriches. fet his 
children yeuejj zouke / and do]) ham slepe ine hare 
ze?me be hare uayi'e zang. Hy smerie]) fane way of 
helle mid hony / ase me dej) to fe here / wot Jet J?e 
zene3ere hine ssolde guo fe hardylaker. pis zenne him 
to-deljj : ine vif deles, fet byej> ase vif leaues : ine fise 
bo3e. J3e uerste ze?me is of fyse blonderes. fet hua??ne 
hi yzej) fet he / ofer hy / fet hi Avyllef beuly / habbejj 
wel yzed. ojjer fet he help wel ydo : an-haste him zigge]? 
to him-zelue / uor fet ha he}? ydele blisse. Ac liis kuead 
nolle]) hi hi??? na3t telle, pe ofer ze/me is / hua??ne fe 
litle guodes fet hire children fet hi dof zouke / ydo / 
ojter yzed : hy leuef / and dobblef /' and more]? hit of 
hiren / al-huet fer is more of lyeasinge / ])a??ne of zof. 
And feruore hi byef ycleped ualse wytnesses ine holy 
Avrit. pe fridde ze??ne is / hua??ne hi doj) onderstonde 
]pe ma??ne / ofer fe wyfma?ine / fet he help ine him 
manie guodes / and g?*aces / huer-of he ne help none 
and feruore his clepef holy writ : charmeres. uor hy 
becharme]) zuo moche fane man : fet he ylef [f] ham more / 
jianne him zelue. fet he yleff bet fet he yher]) : ])a??ne 
fet he yzi3t. and fet hy ziggef of him : panne fet hi use]). 
pe uerf e ze??ne is. f et hua??ne hi alle zingef/' Placebo.' fet 
is to zigge : 'mi Ihord zayf zof. mi Ihord def wel.' and 
wendef to guode / al ]:iet Tpe guodeman def / opev zayf . 
by hit guod by hit kuead. And feruore hy byef ycleped 
ine fe writinge : ecko. fet is fe rearde fet ine fe 11630 
helles comf ayen / and acordef to al fet me him zayf. 
by hit guod / by hit kuead. by hit Z(if / by hi uals. 


J?e vifte ze??.no is / hua«ne jje blondere defendej? / and 5. Defending, 
excuse]? / and wryeji pe kueades / and Ips zeniies / of ham hiding faults of 
fat he wyle ulateri. and Jseruore zm^che bye J? ycleped ine Thoseguiity of 
writinge: tayles. Yor hi wrejj Jje ueljjcs of ze?aie of ^Ws^^^in are called 
riche men / uor zom timlich guod. hueruore lii byef 
anlicned^to fe tayle of fe uoxe / be hare barat / and 
uor hare bezuykinge of tedra3}Tige. 

Blondere / and misziggere : byeb of one scole. bise Flatterers and 

mls-sayers are 

byej) pe tuo nykeren J)et we uynde]) ine bokes of kende li^e Nykers or 

/. T_ , -TT- 1 , „ Mermaids, 

01 bestes. V or hy bye]? a ssewynge of fe ze / pet me 
klepejj nykeren. pet habbe]? bodyes of w^^fman / and 
tayl of uisssse. and clauen of am. and zuo zuetelich 
zinge]) / fet hi make]) slejje pe ssipmen / and efterward who sing sailors 

to sleep, and tlieu 

his uorzuel3J5. j)et byej? pe blonderes. fet be hare uayre swaiiow them, 
zang / make]) slepe Jjet uolk. and ine hare ze??ne. hi They are like the 

adder Serayii, 

resemble]) an eddre / ])et hatte serayn. Jjet jevnp more [Foi. is. a.] 
zuyjjere / panne hors. and oberhuyl vleb. and habbeb tii^^t runneth 

' ' swifter than a 

])et uenym zuo Strang : ])et no triacle ne is pex to na3t horse, 

wor]). Vor mpxe com]) pe dya]) : ])a»ne me \\e\p fane 

byte. j?et bye]) pe missiggeres. of hua??2 Salomon zay]) / 

pet hi byte]) / ase eddren ine bezuykinge. an fiet uenim 

sla3]) ])ri / in one stroke, fane fet zayf. ])ane fet Ihest. 

and fane / of huam he missay }). \)et is be felhste best ""^ ^''^ ''*'*^' 

•* Hyane, who un- 

J)et me clepef hyane. fet ondelf]) fe bodies of dyade graves dead 

, IT- , , . , -1 / , men's bodies and 

men / and luse etep. )5et bye]) fo / fet bytef and etef eats them. 

J)e guode men of religion / fet bye]) dyade to fe wordle. 

Hi bye]) more feller / fawne helle. fet ne uorzuyl]) / 

bote kueade. Ac hi yernef op to fe guode. hueruore hy They are like the 

byef anlicned to fe ZG3e. hua«ne hi hef yuar3ed / Avel Soltesmlnin 

blef cliche byt men : yclofed mid huyt. Hy byef ase ^i'Sj the beetles 

be Ihapwynche / bet ine uelbe of man / makeb liis nest / '^^' '°^'® 'i""^- 

' IT I There are five 

and zuo restef. ]3et byef fe ssarnboddes ])et beulef pe boughs of evil 
floures. and louief f et dong. And fes bo3 hef vif i!' Fhldfug of lies 
leaues. J)e uerste is / hua??ne me vint lea3inges.i and fe oth^ers!"" '° "''""^ 
kueades uor ofren to arere blame, pie opex is / hua?2ne ^" ^^'""^ '""^ 

' hazing es ? 



increasing the 
report of another' s 
3. Turning good 
into evil. 

4. Speaking evil 
of otliers, 

for when one 

siiealceth good of 
another, some one 
will find some- 
thing amiss. 

They are like the 
scorpion, fair as 
to its head, but 
whose tail is 
5. False and un- 
true grudging of 
others' deeds. 

fet kuead jjet he ylierjj of oj^ren / lie hit teljj uorf> / and 
hit moreJ3 of his o^en. }?e ])ridde is hua»ne he kueuc]) / 
and dej) to na3te / alle pe guodes Jjet J5e man dejj / and 
hise deJ3 hyea[l]de to ane kueade. J?es eth Jjane man al 
yhol. pG ojjre ne etejj hihe na^t al / ac hyt / and nimjj 
a stech. and jjis is ]5et uerj?e lyeaf of Jjise boje / jjet is 
proprehche ycleped todra^ynge. Vor he to-drajjj / and 
toheau)) eche daye zom stech of guode / jjet he yhyer]) 
of ofren. Vor huanne me zayjj guod of ofren touore 
him : alneway he vint / and zet ames. Yor zolpe he 
zayj) : pet is zo]j. he is wel guod man / and ich hine 
louie moche / ak he hejj zuich a lac ine him / and pet 
me iiorJ)ing|). J?es is pe scorpionn jjet make]) uayr mid 
J)e heauede. and enueyinejj mid pe tayle. )pe vifte is 
hua/me he miswent / and went to pe worse half, al Jiet 
he yherj) / ojjer yzi3|) / fiat me may wende to guode / 
and to kueade. and feruore is he uals demere / and 


Lying makes a 
man false. 

The liar is among 
men as chaCf 
among corn. 

The liar is like 
the devil. 

The liar, like the 
devil, changeth in 
many ways the 
folk to beguile- 

He is like the 
chameleon, that 
liveth by air, who 
with all sorts of 
colours has none 
of his own. 

[Fol. 18. b.] 
In this bough are 
three small twigs. 


Leazinge ualsej) Jjane man / alse me ualsej? pe kinges 
sel / o))er pe popes bulle. and jjeruore fet me make]) 
ualse monaye and berj) ualse lettres : ha ssel by demd 
ase nalsere / ate daye of dome. })e lye3ere is aniang pe 
men : ase pe ualse peny amang pe guode. ase ])et chef : 
amang pe corn, pe lye3ere is ylich pe dyeule. ])et is 
his uader. ase god zajp ine his spelle. Vor he is 
lye3ere / and uader of leazingas / ase he ])et made pe 
uerste leazinge. and yet he hise make]) / and tekj) eche- 
daye. j)e dyeuel him ssewe]) ine uele ssef])es. and him 
chonge]) in uele wysen / fet uolk uor to gyly. Alsuo 
de]) pe lye3ere. hueruore he is ase pe gamelos ])et leue]) 
by pe eyr and na3t ne hef ine his roppes bote wj^nd. 
and he]) ech manere colour / ])et ne hep non liis 03en. 

Ine fise bo3e bye]) ])ri smale tuygges : Vor per hjep 
leazinges helpinde and leazinges hkynde. and leazinges 



deriyiide. and in eclien is zenne. Vor ase zayb saynt ^- Lies helping. 

■' •''•'%. Lies pleasing, 

austin. asenioche ase lie jjet 1703]) / be his leazi^ge / de]) 3- Lies hurtful, 
guod to ojjren : alneway he def) his 03ene harm / ]5a?me 1. The first sin 

. T T • T 1 k 1 • &oe& harm to the 

Jje leazmges helpmde byefi zenne. Ac fe leazmges man who is guilty 
likinde. byejj more grat ze/me / ase bye]) J)e hye3inges 2! The second sin 
of be loze/aour. and of be gememen / and of be scorneres. 'sseeninflatterers 

> J o I r and scorners who 

fet ziggej) fe bysemeres. and fe lezinges. and fe lhe5- lie to please folk. 

inges uor to solaci ])et uolk / ine ziggynge / and ham to 

harkin : is ze^ne. hit ne is non drede. Ac be lyazinges 3. The third sin is 

deadly, whether 

deriynde : byej3 dyadlich ze?^ne. huanne me his zayjj it be in thougiit 
wytmdenche / and be |)03te • / uor to do harm to ojjren. j-i ms bojto] 

To J)ise bo3e belongejj alle ualshedes / and jje gyles / to this bough be- 

and ))e contackes. ]?et me de]) in al fe wordle nor o])ren ^^^^^ ^^j ^^^^, 

to gyly and harmy. ofer ine zanle /o])er in bodye. ofer ^*,^rm Others" 
ine guodes. ofer ine los / huych ])et hit by. 

Of ]JE zenne of LYE3INGE. Of the sin of 


Kvead tiing hit is to lyeje / ac more ze;me hit is hi;?t ^'^^^'^y '^ "•"■■se 

■"^ Z' "^ ? / than lying. 

zelue uorzuerie. and feruore oure Ihord hit ziio moche 
norbyet. Perilous J»ing hit is to zuerie. ac na3t uor 
])an / ])et ine no poynt me ne may zuerie : wy]i-oute 
ze«ne. ase zayb be bougre. Ac uor ban bet ofte zuerie : Swearing leads to 

"^ ' ' ° r r forswearing. 

niakeb ofte uorzuerie / and ofte zene3i. Yor ine zeue There are seven 

modes of swear- 

maneres me zuere]). Verst hua/nie me zueref boldliche / ing : 

...r-T / 111.T1 1-. ; !• ^'^^'^ swearing. 

pet IS [inj onworpnesse/ and blepeliche. fet hit Jiing]»/ ])et 

hi?« hit like]) to zuerie. fieruore hit uorbyet saint lacob. 

' ne zuerie]) na3t : bote hua7me hit is nyed.' ac ])et wyl : ?• Needful swear- 

is be lecherie ^ uor to zuerie. Efte?'ward huare me zuere]) 3. Light swear- 
Ii3thche / ]>et is uor iia3t / and wyf-oute scele. ])et is [2 ms. uucherui 

uorbode ine fe o]»re heste of ])e la3e / ])et god wrot ine 

be tables of ston / mid liis viHgre. Efterward hua?aie *• Habitual swear- 

■• ' ing. 

me zuere]) be wone : ase at eche worde. Yor ]3er bye]) 

zome zuo euele yta3t : ])et hi ne conne noting / zygge 

"wvb-oute zueriynge. Jpise habbeb sod in to gr«t on- Hab'tuai swearers 

■\vorJ)hede. hua«ne al day / and uor na3t / him clepie]) to tempt. 

wytnesse / of al ])et hi ziggef. Yor zueriinge ne is non 



5. Foolish swear- 
iiift, as in sudden 

in rash promises, 

in bold assertions 
without being 
certain of tlie 

ill promising what 
one cannot fulfil ; 
and swearing by 
the sun, moon, 
one's head, &c. 

[Fol. 19. a.] 

This is worship- 
ping the creature 
instead of the 

6. Swearing by 
God and his 

Those guilty of 
tliis sin are worse 
than the Jews who 
crucified Christ. 

It is a wonder 
how Christendom 
beareth them. 

ofer fiiig : fanne to clepie god to wytuesse. and liis 
nioder / and his hal3en. Efte?-ward huaHiie me zuere]j 
foUiche. and fet jnallp ine uele maneres. Oj?er liuaHne 
me zuere]) he tyene / and sodaynlyche / huer-of hvm 
uorfing]) efterward. 0))er hiia?me me zuerej) nor fiing 
Jjet me ne may na3t liealde ■\\'}"J)-oute ze/aie : zuich oj) 
me ssel breke : and do penonce nor fane fole o]j. Ojjer 
hua«ne me zueref zikerliche / of finge fiet me nis na3t 
ziker / yet faj hit by zoji. Ofier hnanne me behat 
zikerliche fet me na3t not / yef me hit may noluelle. 
Ojjer hua?zne me zuere]) be fe sseppinges / ase me zayf. 
be pe zonne fet ssin]?. by Ipet uer Jiet bern]). ofer by 
myn heiied. ofer by myne uader zanle. ojjer oJ»re pane 
ylych. Zuyche ofes god, uorbyet in his spelle. Vor 
fiet ich ssel maky ziker : ich ne ssel na3t dra3e to 
wytnesse / bote jjane he3e zoj). fet is god fiet al wot. 
na3t pe clene ssepjjes / Jjet ne byejj bote ydelnesse. And 
hua/nie ich his zuerye be ])03te : ich here ham ane 
worjjssippe / j>et ich ssolde here to god onlepi. Ac 
hua?aie me zuere]) be pe ' godspelle : me zuerej) be him / 
pet pe Avordes byej) / and byep ywryte. And huanne me 
zuerej) be j)e holy relikes / and be jje hal3en of paradis : 
me zuerej) be ham / and be god Ipet ine ham wonej). 
Efterward huawne me zuerej) vileynliche by god / and 
by his hal3en. ine j)ise zenne / byej) j)e cristene worse / 
j)anne j)e sarasyn.' j»et nolden zuerie ine none manere / 
ne nolden j>olye / pet me zuore beuore ham / zuo vileyn- 
lyche / be lesu crist : ase doj) pe cristene. Hi byej) 
more worse j)a?zne j)e gyewes : pet hine dede a-rode. Hy 
ne breken non of liis buones. Ac j)ise him tobrekej) 
smaller : pamie me dej) j)et zuyn ine bocherie. jjise ne 
uorberef) na3t oure Iheuedi. and j)ise his tobrekej) more 
vileynlaker : and hire / and pe oj)re hal^en / fiet hit is 
wonder : hou fie c/v'stendom hit fiolej). Efte/'ward 
hua?me me zuerej) ualsliche. oj)er hua/nie me berf) ualse 
' It niav be read pu 


wj-inesse. ojjer me zueref uals / -svytindelj'clae. ine 7. False swearing 

. and false witness- 

huyche manyere / fet me zuerejj oj^er openliche / oJ3er ing. 

stilleliche be art / ofer be"e. Vor ase pe ri3te 

wrytes ziggej) / god fet louejj Mueknesse / and zo))- God loves meek- 

/ 1 , , 1 , , ,(11 ness and truth. 

nesse / yne ziiycne wytte onderuangj) pane o]) / and onder- 
stant fet word : ase he Kit onderstant / pet ne feng]) 
na3t bote guod. and pet miiekliche / and wyjj-oute stryf 
bit onderstant. 

Mochel is grat godes myldenesse. bua?me znyche Great is God's 

, -.J?,- i.i.1- J., 1 ,. • mildness, when 

men pet zueriep oi finge fet hi -wytejj wel : Jjet ne is men swear 
na3t zojj. oJ)er behotejj jjing : jjet hi nele ' na3t heakle. ^^^^flnoiui} .q 
fet pe dyeuel hi??i ne astranglej) hastelyche. Vor For when one 

1 1 , 1 T 1 , 1 says, " So God me 

nua?^ne he zayp : zuo god me helpe. ofer zuo god me help," and if he lie 
loky. and he lye3e : he dej) out of pe helpe / out^oflhe paif of 
and of lokynge of god. nou ssolde he be ri3te / lyese ^°'^'^ mercy, 
"wyt / and onderstondi??ge / and body, and gnodes. and 
zaule / and al jjet he halt of gode. 

j?e laste bo3 of jjise zenne is : hua«ne man agelt his The last bough of 
treu])e / and Jtet he hep behote^ / and y-granted. ofer manskineth *"* 
be Ms treu>e. oj^er be his of e. Vor trenpe jlo^e / and ^fd'aJaStT^''' 
ojj ybroke : is ase hit were al on. TMS.bohote] 

ChEASTE. strife. 

Saynt augustin zayji. Jiet noting zuo moche ne ys strife is like the 
ylych to pe dyeules dedes : ase cheaste. Jjes ^ meyster saith Augustine, 
huer-of ne is non drede : pay)) moche Jje dyeule / and 
na3t ne payj) god. fet ne loue]) bote pays / and onynge. 

bes boj hi»i to-delb ine .vii. obre bo3es. Huer-of be There are seven 

' ■' r d r ? T boughs of contest: 

uerste is : strif. )pe ober / chidinge. }5e bridde / i- ^^ife. 

2. Chiding. 

missigginge. J5e uerjje / godelinge. }3e uifte / at^vji;- s. evu speaking. 

, . 4. Slandering. 

mge. pe zixte / freapninge. pe zeue/^de / vnonynge 5. Reproaching. 

TT I 1 1 • , 1 /I 6- Threatening. 

arere. Huanne pe dyeuel yzi3p loue / and onjTige 7. Discord, 
amanguolke: moche hit him uorfingj?. and uor ham HJe%'lTeetve"''' 
maki vnonynge : he makeb blebeliche his miste ham ^""^ concord 

'' ° ' ' ^ among men, 

uor to do striui. And pe dyeuel beginjj fet uer of he tries to raise 

2 It is not clear whether \>es or jjt's is the MS. reading. _ . 



which is followed tyene / and euel wyl nor to becleppe. ba;me efter bet 

by noise, as when " ' '' ± i j j 

one says to the sti'if / and be clieaste : comb be novse / and be cheaste. 

other, " So it is," ' '^ r r J I r 

"It is not so," Al / alsuo huanne me aly^t Jjet uer : Ihap]? jjet smech 
" It was not so." after Jie layt. Stryf / and cheaste / and hua?me j^e 

on zay)? to fe ojiren : ' zuo hit is.' 'zno hit ne is.' 'zuo 

hit wes ' / 'zno hit nes.' 

2. Chilling is Chidingc is : hua?aie eyder lyexnej) o]?ren / ojjer 

lying one against . . 

another. grcatc woi'des. Liter j^an comeji Jje myssiggmges. ))et 

[Foi. 19. b.] is hna??ne Jje on peynejj J)a??noJ>ren / and zigge]) jje 

3. An evil speaker greate felonyes. Vor jjer is a feloun fiet he]? fie tonge 

has a tongue i • i , pi / , 

sharper than a moie kemmde : pa7me rasour. more znyiter / pa?aie 


arwe ulyinde. and more boryinde : Jjanne zouteres eles. 
He is like the zuyche men bye J) anlykned to ])e porn-hog. pet ys al 
hog), with its ° y wry^e myd prikyinde eles. and hit is to moche fel / 
ourrightTnd iTtt. ^'^^^ 7-0\iQ hit is wrojj. And ])a?/ne hit is of-tyened : he 
He is like a fierce ^^'^^ out his cles of his bodye : ari3thalf / and a lefthalf. 
dog that barks Alsno he is aiilikned to be felle dogge. bet byt / and 

and bites at every ■> ^o i '' ' 

^"'^y- beberkj) alle po pet he may. 

4. Slandering. Eftfrward comep pe godeUuges. Jpet is hna??ne pe 

on godelep pa?me oprene. And pet is zuo grat zenne / pet 
pe wrytynge zayp : pet huo pet godelep his emcr/sten : 

Slanderers are lie ys acorsed of god. And saynte j)aid zayp. pet ziiych 
uolli ne ni03e habbe godes ryche. And Salomon zayp. 

Their mouth is as pet hare nioup is : ase pe wy3te pet ualp ine hot weter. 

faiieth ilito hot Ip^^ ^^st liyer ■/ and per : and scoldep alle po pet byep 


5. Reproaching a Efterpan coRicp pe Avypiiymynges / pet byet yet 

man for his sins, , , t , , / , 

lollies poverty, i^ore grrtttcr zc/uie. huaHiie me atwyt ane man / oper 

poor kin, &c. j-^jg ze»nes / oper his folies / oper his ponerte / oper his 

poure ken / oper opre lac ' pet is ine lii?«. 

6. Threatening is Efterward ZUO comep pe preapnynges / and beginnep 
wars. ^ ° pe medles / and pe werres. Ac aboue alle pise ze/mes 

pet we habbep hyer ynemned : j^asep pe ze;me [of] 
Above all the sins j^^m / bet be hare kueade tonge / sostyeneb / and 

already named, is . o / J r I 

the sin of those arerep pe strifs / and pe euele wjdles / betuene ham 

who by their evil 

^ dcfante has been erased in the MS. 


bet bveb uryenJes tomdere. and bo bet miswendeb bet tongue arear and 

I -J I ■^ <=> > ' ' ' sustain strife and 

})ays. and fe onynges. God hate]? uioche zuycli uolk evil wiii. 
and zuo zayjj \q "vvritinge. 

Of GROCHINGE. IPET is op U\M bET NE DAR NA2T Ofgrudfe'ingor 

' ' ^ murmuring. 


Ofte we liit yzeb come / bet be ilke bet ne dar an- some men wiii 

•J ' I r r X not be remmded 

suerye / ne cliide. bet he beginb to groclii betuene his of their faults 

"^ ' ^ o r o without grudging 

teJ5. and grunny. Vor efter fe chyaste : we zettej) fe and grunting. 

ze?^ne of grochinge. Hon grat is fe ze»ne : ous ssewef 

wel \q wreche jjet god kan nyme. ase recordefi holi 

wryt. Yor bise ze?me / onleak be erbe / and uorzuah For this sin un- 

datan and abyron. and villen doun al knic in-to helle. and swallowed 

, 11, Dathan and 

An uor po zewne / zente god a uer / fet uorbernde kore : Abiram. 

and alle his uela3es. CC.L. of jje gretteste of godes ost 

ine desert. Vor be ilke ze?me uorlore be yewes bet land ^or this sin the 

■^ ' Jews lost the land 

of beheste / jjet god hain hedde behote. zuo fet of zix of Promise, 

/-I, i; 11111 / n 11 ^o that out of 

• U. Jjousond / jjet god hedde ykest/ out of fe freldome the six hundred 

ofjje kinges of egipte. and fet he hedde yloked : uourti care^outoV" 

year ine desert / niyd Jie nianne of lieuene. ne yede in- ^^^'' 

to J)e holy londe / bote tuo / wyfioute mo. bet hetten only two (Caieb 

. . and Joshua) lived 

calef : and losue. ac alle hi stornen in zor3e : ine J)e to enter canaau. 

}5is ze«ne he), tuaye bo3es. Vor fe on : is grouch- ^^.^'^Mr 

inge aye god. and be obre aye man regneb- bis ze?ine mu»"ing against 

, , ^ rrJ or J' (joj 2. Murmur- 
is ine uele maneres / ase ine sergons aye hire Ihordinges. i"? against man. 

Tills sin is seen 

ine wyfme?z : aye hare leuedis. and ine children / aye in many ways, 

hare uaderes / and hare modren. Ine poure : aye J>e against their 

• 1 1,111 ,1 i Ti 1 masters, women 

riche. and pe freiles : aye fe kny3tes. Ine leawede : against their 

aye Jje clerkes / and aye Jje prelas. and fe cloystrers : '°jfinst ulei7" 

aye fe abbottes. and fe p?'iours : and hire officials / ase Parents, &c. 

subprfor. and j^e ojjre. And wext pe grochinges ine alle ^Foi. 20. a.] 

zuyche persones : ober of onboasa/zaiesse uor ban bet me This is the result 

of disobedience, 

is to hard ine liestes. ofier ine sleauj^e / uor fet me is to sloth, or impa- 


sleuuol. ojjer of inpacience / uor fet me ne deji na3t 

alle fe ■s\ylles. ofer of enuie. ofer of felonie. uor jjet 

5 * 



Man desires to be 
God's master, and 
if he has not his 
will, he murmurs 
against Him, 
and singeth the 
devil's song. 

The Holy Ghost 
maketh hischosen 
sing of the sweet 
songs of heaven. 

The devil maketh 
his disciples sing 
the song of hell, 
i.e., grudging. 

They murmur 
against God for 
every adversity 
that befalls them. 

What wonder is 
it, if God take 
vengeance upon 
such folk ! 

Of opposition 
(rebellious con- 

Withstanding is 
worse than grudg- 

This sin is seen in 
those who will 
bow to none. 

whose hearts are 
rebellious to God 
and man. 

Tliis sin hath 
four boughs, 
that appear in the 

me auoncej) more fe on : jja/nie Jie ojjre. and manye 
olpre kueade roten. 

Grochinge aye god he]j yet nou yno3 mo enchey- 
souns. Yor man Ipet help uorlore g?*ace / and Jiolemod- 
nesse : he wyle hy mayster ope god. zuo / Jjet / al god 
de|) ine erjje : bote yef lie hit ne do al to his wylle : an 
haste he grochejj aye god. and zyngjt ])et pate?' noster. 
to tokne. Vorzofe ac ]>& dyeides zang. Vor ase fe holi 
gost tekjj. and make]? his ychosene zinge ine hare herten 
Jie ziiete zonges of heuene. J^et is of fe graces of al Jjet 
he def». and of al ]>et he us zent. Alsuo fe kueade gost 
make]) his deciples zinge jja?ine zang of helle. fiet is 
grochinge. Jtet eure ssel yleste ine helle. in al fet god 
de]j / bote hit by al to hire wylle. Vorzojje mochel is 
zuych a man fol / ant out of his wyte / pet wyle pet me 
him yelde scele / of al fet he hef ydo / yef me hbn zent / 
aduersete. pouerte. ziknesse. dyere time. rayn. dru3j)e. 
yef me yef]) him j and benym}) hit ofren. bote yef hit 
ne by do al to his wylle : he hhn niym]) anhaste to 
grochi aye god / and him euele ])onke]). huet wonder is 
hit / ])a3 god him awrek]) of zuyche uolke / ])et wylle]) 
him benyme his Ihordssip / and his wyshede. 

Of wy)2stondyngb. 

Kvead ])ing is grochinge : ac more is wors / wyf)- 
stondinge. wyfstondynge is a zewne / ])et com]) of Jie 
herte fiet is rebel / and hard / and rebours / and dyuers. 
Jiet alneway Avyle pet his wyl by do / and his zyggi??ge 
by yhyalde. pet wyle / pet alle pe opre / bou3e to him. 
and he ne bou3e to nonen. }5is is pe harde herte : 
huer-of Salomon zayp. pet he [ne may na3t fayly : of 
kued ende. And ase per is grochinge aye god. and aye 
man : alsuo is zuych herte rebel to god / and to man. 

)?is zenne hep vour bo3es. Vor zuyche herten byep 
rebours / and rebels / red / to leue. to done godes heste. 
chastinge polye. and techinge onderuonge. Yef enye 


of liare iiryendes ham wylle]) rede, and hare iireme i. They rebel 

,.■,,, against the advice 

ssewy. na3t nam noilejj ynere. rajjre uor fet lii nabbe]? ofMonds. 
yspeke. hi do]) f e more blejjelaker fe contrarye. To fe 2. xiiey are rebei- 
rede of oure Ihorde : ofte hi bye)) rebel / yef me ham christ.^^'"^*' 
ret fling : fet by to helfe to hire zaules. ne nofyng 
nolle]) do / er])an me gabbe]) of ham. And fos hy 3. They are rebels 
bye]) rebels /to fe heste of oure Ihorde / to huam hi bests of our Lord, 
bye]) yhyealde. and zuo moche ham zet beuore J)e dyeuel 
of toknen. o])er of fyeblesse. opev of elde. ofer of ye^efe. 
ojjer of o])re kueade sceles. fiet alast : hi ne do]) na^t. 
Efterward hnawne me his chaste]) / and wy))nym]). hi '^'^ey excuse 

themselves when- 

ham defende]) ase fie bor / zuo fiet hare folyes ne be- ever corrected. 

knawef). and fie more fiet hi ham excusefi : fie more wext 

fie ze?me. And zuo hit is hua?me god his beat / and ^j^^j^ ^^^ ^■^^^^_ 

chaste]), and maugre hy wytef. and zyggej) ofte. on])ank ®"''"^ "'"' beateth 

fan : and pe ofren / ' huet wyle god me do. huet habe ^vu against Him. 

ich him misdo 1 ' Jjos dep fe fol. and fet him ssolde 

by triacle : to him went in to nenym. and be medecine : 

., J r [Fol. 20. b.] 

him yef]) fiane dya]). Efterward fer byefi zonae of zuo 4. They listen to 

diners wjt / fet none guode techinge ne onderuonge]). but^fontwSir^' 
ak alneway weryeti hare sentense huet bet hit by. zuo o^™P]a'is,and so 

^ >j r r J tall into error. 

fiet ofte hi ualle]) ine errour. and ine ualse 02:)inions. and 
ine eresye. and ine euele byleaue. 

Of BLASFEMYES. or blasphemy. 

Blasfemyes is ase zayb saynt austin. ober huawne Blasphemy is to 

'^ ^r J r believe or say of 

me ylef]) and zayf of god fiing : b(!t me ne ssel yleue / ood what one does 

, . not or should not 

ne healde. ojjer me ne lef]) na3t fet nie ssolde yleue. Ac believe, 
speciallyche we clepie]) liyer blasfemye : huanne me specially is this 
missayf) of god / a?«l of his hal3en. ofer of the sacre- sp"eak evn'ofljod, 
mens of holy cherche. J?is ze?aie ys ydo ine uele ™ramentsr"'' 
maneres. Ofier hua«ne me hit zay]) be ])03te. ase do]) fe ^nb'n ''^*"''* ^'"^ 
bougres / and fe mysbyleuinde. Ofier me hit zayf) uor 
couaytise to wynne. ase do]) fise charmeres / and fise 
Avyche?^. Ofier hua?zne me hit zay]) be tyene / and be ^^ .^ ^^ 
despit ase do]) fise playeres / ]5et zuo uyleynHche who wickedly 



break chrisfs tobrekej) lesu ciistes body, and ziio iiileynliche mis- 

siggej) of god an of his blissede moder / J»et hit is 

These folk are like dreduol and zorje to hyere / and Iheste. Jjise byeb ase 

mad hounds, that 

bite and know not Avode houndes / fet bite J) and ne knawej) najt hare 
Ihord. )pis zerene is zno grat : J)et god his awrekj) ofer- 
huyl aperteliche ase we habbej? yzed beuore / fo we 

This sin God has speke of wyckcde nolkc. Of bise zenne zayb god ine 

declared shall not ^ ' ? . 

be forgiven. his spelle / jjet liit ne ssel by noryene : ne ine J>ise 

wordle ne ine J)e oJ)re. 
Of the 10 sins of jsj'qu we habbeb ytald ten manere ze?mes of be tonge. 

the tongue, 

the 1st is idleness Jja??ne is Jje iiersto : ydelnesse. and fe laste : blasfeniie 

and the last bias- i • . n i i • 

phemy; and be cas hit is Jiet balomon zayf. J»et fe beginnynge 

folly, the end of Jje kueado tonge : is folie. and fe ende : to knead 



Here end the Hyer ende)j jje zeue dyadhche zennes / and alle hire 

seven deadly sins. ii-it/ti- • •^ i 

bo^es. and hno ]7et wel hiw. stude dej? ' me fise boc : he 
No man can keep niyjte moche profiti / and lyerny / and knawe eche 

himself quit of 

them uidess he manyere of ze??ne / and hi?«-zehie wel ssryue. Vor non 
ne may hi??z wel ssrine / ne hi»i loki uram zewne : bote 
he his ne knawe. Xon ssel J)a?me \e. ilke / Jjct ine Jtise 
boc ret. yzy diligentliche to by yssrine. and hi//i loky 

Of those sins that be his my^te. Of ojjre zewnes Jiet he ne is na3t gelti : 

he hath not com- 
mitted, let him lie ssel herye god and hi??i bo3saniliche Jjonky. jjet Mxtn 

thank God for pre- ■, , 11 ■, 
serving him from hejJ yloked. 

For to learn to VOR TO LYERNY STERUK. 


Learn to die, so as Onneabe sterf / bet ylyerned ne lieb. Lverne to 

to be able to live. ' I T J J r - 

\_Note wel i^ erne steruo : ba?me sselt bou conne Hbbe. Vor non wel 


He is a wretch libbe ne ssel conne : Jiet to steriie ylyerned ne hej). 

who cannot live 

nor dare die. And Jjc like ary^t is ycleped "WTechche : j?et ne can 

lybbe / ne ne dar sterne. 

Yef Jjou wylt libbe viiliche. lyerne to sterue gled- 

liche. Yef Jjou me zayst / hou me hit ssel lyerny : ich 
This life is but ^i* wyle pe zigge an haste. }3ou sselt yivyte fet Jjis 

aTemiSioir'"'' -^y^- ^^ ^^ ^°*^ ^^^^- ^^"^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^ wendinge. and fet 

1 MS. studedcjj 


ech wot. and Jjeruore me zay|) of ane ma«ne hiianne lie 
sterfjj : he went. And hua/aie he is dyad : he is ywent, 
Jpis 1}^ alsuo ne is bote a wendynge. nor zojie / nor zojje : 
a wendinge wel ssort. Yor al Ipet Ij-f of ane nia?me/jja3 au the life of a 
he leuede a jjousond year : pet ne ssolde by / bote Uv^ed a thoufand^ 
onlepy prikke : to >e zj^],e / of >e o>re Ijaie / fet enre S:Z;'.:ll 
wyfoute ende ssel yleste. ojjcr ine 2013 e : ofer ine *||^"''®'^''''°''' 
bHsse / wyfoute endynge. ^j,^, ,^ ^^ 

Jjis ous "wj^tnesset wel J?e kjTig. fe erl. pe prince, pe This bear us 

witness kings, 

emperour. jjet jje blysse of fe wordle : hedden zomtyme. earis, princes, &c., 
nou ine helle : wepej) / and grede]?. yelle]) / and zor^ej). bit°fn"the'woS 
'A. alias : hnet is ons worf oure pouer. worfssippe. ""^ayenZ'l'en'' 
noblesse, richesse. blisse. and host, al hit ys \^vent / [P^'^'^ngo/heiie.] 

•J '1 I " Alas ! they 

Avel rabre ba?zne ssed : ober uojel nlyinde. ober quarel say, "ourbiiss is 

' ' f 7 J ' ^ a.\\ gone like a 

of arblaste. And J?ous gej? al oure lyf. ISTou we were shadow, 

, - we were born, and 

ybore : and an haste dyad, ne al oure lyf: nes na3t bote died in haste; 

a lyte prikke. nou Ave byej? ine zor^e Avy]?-oute ende. 

Oure blisse / is ywent in-to wop. oure karoles : into our bliss is tum- 

zOr3e. gerlo«des. robes, playinges. messinges. and alle Lid°ourcrrois^' 

guodes byef ous yfayled.' Zuyche byef Ipo zonges of Srare"i;e' 

helle. ase }>e writinge ous teljj. ous uor to sseAvy : Jjet ^o"ss"'''>'^"- 

jjis lyf / ne is bote a wendynge : wel ssort. and fis 

wordle : ne is bote wendynge. and libbe ne is bote ' a [> ms. botoi 

wendynge. j)anne ne is libbe : bote sterue. and pet is To live is but to 

zoj? / ase pater nostcr. A^or hua??ne ])ou begonne libbe : when we begin 

anliaste fou begonue to sterue. And al fin elde. and al todTe!' ''^''^^"' 

fine time / pet ys j'guo : pe dyaf pe hej? ywonne : and 

halt. J?ou zayst fet fou best zixti year, pe dyab hise We say we have 

1 , ■■ ... , , sixty years, but 

hep. and neuremo his nele pe yelde. jjeruore is fet death has and 
Avyt of pe wordle folye. And pe clerk zyinde : ne uiem"^'*'^^"' 
yz}3]5 na3t. Day and ni3t / makej) fing. and pe more fet 
hit makejj : pe lesse zuo knawejj. alneway steruef : and 
hi ne conne sterue. Vor day / and ny3t : fou sterfst / 
as ich pe habbe yzed. 

Yet eft ine oJ»re manere / ich pe teche fise clergie. 


Death is a separ- j,et bou coime ^vel libbe : and wel sterue. Xou yhyer : 

ation of the soul 

and body. and ondeistand. fe dyaf ne is bot a todelinge of fe 

zaiile : and of fe bodye. and Jjet ech. wel 'wot. Xou oiis 

Caton the Wise tekj) fe "wj'SG catoiui. ' Lveme vre' zayj) he ' to sterue. 

tells us to separate it 

the ghost from todele we Jjaiie gost of Jie bodie ofte. )?et deden Jie ineste 
often*'so"^did the ""^'se of fise philosoplios jjet ])is lif zno niocbe hateden / 
who^h^^no g'race ^^'^ f^ Avordle : zno nioche onworfede. and zno moche 
ckriS'^^"*^ wjlnede lyf na3t dyeadHcli. pet hi westen be hare 
■wylle. ac hit nes ham na^t worj). Vor hi ne hedden 
non grace j ne fe beleane of iesu crist. Ac ]je holy men 
SpeTtwo^""^ fet louie]) god / and yleuejj / \ei of fri dyeafes / habbej? 
deaths. j,g i^^^j ypased. Yor ])er is dyaj) to ze/me : and dyad 

dya\>es.] to te wordle. Xou abydeb bane bridde dyeab. bet is be 

There is a death '^ . r T r J T T r 

to sin and a death todi^tinge of j)e zaule : and of Jje bodie. Betnene ham 

The third death is aiid p^/'adys ne is bote a Ij^te W03 / fat hy ageltejj be 

the3frorthe >enchinge / and be \rylnynge. and yef fet bodi is of Jjis 

Auttie wall ^^^^ • f® heite / and jse gost : is of ojjerhalf. }?er hy 

Beparates them habbeb hvi'e bleuinge / as zavb saynte paul. hire solas. 

from Paradise. J ^ o / ^ r ■^ r 

Their thoughts hjrp, bhsse. and hire confort. and alle hire lostes. and 

are in heaven, 

and they hate this jjeruore : hy hatyej) ))is lyf: f>et ne is bote dyajj. and 

life and desire -, -, t\ -r-r • -i ii 

death. Ayj'lneJ) Jjane dyaJ) bodylich. v or ])et is damezele bere- 

blisse / fet ])e dyajj / ^pei alle Jje hal3en coronne]) / and 
dojj [zettejj] in to blisse. 
inwtisdya\i.^ Dyab is to guodenien : ende of aUe kueade. and 

Death to good ^ j- o 

men is end of all gate / and ingTioyiige : of alle guode. DyaJ> is f e 

evils and com- , tip t^ i/- e ^• 

inencement of Stream : fct todel]) / dyajj / and lyt. JJyajJ / is ot pis 

every blessing. ^^^^ ^.^ ^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^-^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^.^^ ^^ y^^^ ^,^^^^^ ^^^ 

of fis half jje streme yzj'e]? zno bri3te : of oferhalf hi 
The wise of this na3t ne yzejj. an peruore his clepeji fe ■vvritinge : foles / 

world are fools " t-i-tp»i 

and blind, and yblent. \ or feme dyaji : hi clepie]) lyt. And 

fane dyaf / fet is to fe gnoden / beginnynge of line : 

for they call death M hit clepie]) / fan ende. And feruore hy hatyef zno 

IhJ/cithe'end. ^i^oche fane dyaf. Yor hi nj-tef hnet hit is. ne of 
[Foi. 21. b] of erhalf f e streame ne habbef na3t ybleued. and na3t 
ne Tvot : f et out ne gef . 

If thou wut know J3a»ne yef f ou wylt yyijie huet is guod / and huet is 


knead : ano out of bi zelue. guo out of be wordle. lierne ^i^at is good and 

^ ° ' what is evil, go 

to sterue. todel bine zaule uram be bodye te bojte. zend out of thyself, 

' . , . divide thy soul 

fine herte in-to pe ofre Avordle : fet is to nenene. into from the body.and 
helle / in-to purgatorie. fer J»on sselt' yzy : huet isguod into the oti°e"^* * 
and huet is kuead. Ine helle fou ssel[t] yzi mo zor3es: ven%eu"and*pur- 
fawne me mo3e deuisy. Ine p?<rgatorie / mo tormens ^atory. 
Jja?zne me ni03e jjolye. Ine paradys / more blisse Jja/me 
me moje wvlny. Helle be ssel teche / liou goda-wrekb Heu shall teadh 

^ -J -^ r / o r thee how God 

dyadlych ze?me. Purgatorie : fe ssel seawy / hou avenges deadly 
god clenzejj veniel zewne. Ine lieuene fou sselt yzy purgatory shau 

Ti I ^ -J. I 1 111 i_i. show thee how 

openliche / hou u^rtues / and guode dedes : byep venial sin is 
he3liche yolde. Ine ]jis fri finges : is al fet is nyed f^^^^en thou 
"wel to -vvvtene hou me ssel co?ine libbe / and "wel ^^lau see how good 

•J ' deeds are re- 

Sterue. warded. 

Xou loke eftzone a lyte / and ne tyene fe na3t / to Forget thy body 

J)ise Jjri f inges. uorpet fou lyernest to hatye zenne. to heu in'^t'hy'iifc- 

Voryet fi body / ones a day. guo in-to helle ine fine nou'ntoTt atThf 

libbmde : f et f ou ne guo / ine fine steruinge. J?is def ^^f^:^^ ^^^„^^ 

of te f e holi man / and f e wyse. ]5er fou sselt yzy : al There shait thou 

see the absence of 

f et herte hatef. and bevly3f . and defaute of alle guode. aii that is good, 
yno3 of alle kueade. ver bernynde. brenston stinkinde. evii : burning fire, 
te???peste brayinde. voule dyeiden. honger. and f orst : 8tone"foui"™'iis, 
fet me ne may na3t stonchi. dyuerse pines / and ''"|n^*'^,*^"f*' 
wepinges. and zor3es : mo J)a?me herte mo3e f enche / ^""^ sorrow, 
ne tonge telle, and eure ssel yleste wyf-oute ende. And wherefore this 

sorrow is called 

feruore is fe ilke zor3e wel ycleped : dyaf wyf-oute death withoutend, 
ende. And hua?me f ou yzixt fet hit behouef zuo dyere 
abegge onlepy dyadlich ze?me : fe woldest f e rafre lets 
be vla3e quik. })a?aie fou dorstest / to onelepi dyadliche 
ze?me co??senti. 

Efterward guo in-to pwrgatoriie. ber bou sselt yzi be W pxir(jat<yrw.-\ 

" 1 o J I d J Afterwards go in- 

pines of be zaules / bet hyer hedden uorbenchinge / ak to purgatory, 

■• _ _ and see the pains 

nere na3t uolliche yclenzed. nou hi dof fer / fe leuinge of those who were 

... - not here fully 

of hare penonce / al-huet fet hi byef / bn3te / and cleansed of their 
clene. ase hi weren ate poynt / and ate time / hua?me hi 
1 MS. sselelt 


Their penance is yedeii out ' of jje welle of ci'istninge. Ac fe ilke penonce 

grisly and liard. . , t i i 

ys Avel grislich and hard. Vor al fet eure ])oleden pe 

All that martyrs holy martires. ofer wj^fmen fiet traiiayle]? of childe / of 

women with child, zoi^G : 116 ys hote a l3ejj iiie chald weter : to fe reward 

coidVatertncom- of ])G fornayse : hiierinne berne]) fe zaules. al-huet hi 

furnaceri'ereilr "l^yef yclenzed. ase gold al yclieiized''^ ine fe vere / me 

they burn. ^^ ^^^^ ^esse IpaniiG yclenzed. Y or J^et uer is of zuyche 

kende / al pet hit vint ine fe zaule of gelte of dede. of 

speche. of Ipo-^te / fet yerne]? to ze«ne : ofer lite / oj^er 

moche : al uorbernfi / and clenzef. and per byep ypunyssed, 

Venial sins are and a^vreke : alle uenyal ze??nes. fet ive clepiep : litle 

dooft!'"^ '^ ^^ ze?mes. pet we doj) ofte / and smale fole J)03tes. wordes 

ydele. trufles. scornes. and alle opre ydelnesses. al-hiiet 

hi by worpe : to gtio iii-to heuene. Imer ne gep in na3t / 

The fire of purga- "bQ^e hit bv rijt bri:t. bet ilke uer dredeb bo. bet by 

tory is dreaded by J ? 7 J ^ j j j 

those who keep hare myste ham lokeb nram dyadlich zenne. and lokep 

holy their souls ,,■, iiii ti i. 

and bodies. liolyliche hare herten. and hare bodyes. and hare moupes. 

[Foi. 22. a.] ^^_j^ ^^ ^-^ wyttes nram alle ze?me. and zuo libbep / ase hi 

ssolden echedaye to dome come to-uore god. And peruore 

None may live bet iion nc may Hbbe wyb-oute ze^me. Yor ase zayjj Salo- 

without sin, 

for good men mon : zeuczipe a day / ualj? pe gnode man. and peruore 

a day, be holy ssrifte / and be tyeares / and be benes : hi dop 

tTars.^and priiyers l^^rc mi3te liani zeluB to arcre / and to amendi. and ham 

they amend their | denie : bet hi onderstonde to nobi bane laste 

lives, and are not / ■' ' 

lost at the day of (Jqjj^^^ Yqj. ^^^q hjgj. hj^^, denib zobliclie : liwi ne worb no?i 

doom. ' ' 

hede to by uorlore : ate daye of dome. And pus me lyerne]) 

kuead to knawe / an to benly / and alle zewnes to hatye / 

and grat and snial. and onderstonde pe holy drede of 

Holy dread of God god / pet is beginiiyiige of guod lif : and of alle gviode. 

of go'odTife.""'" -^c hit ne is iia^t yno^ to leto pe kueades : bote me 

We must learn lycriiy pet guod to doiie. and bote yef me zeclie pe ^xiv- 

not only to eschew , , , , i • j_ t i i i. 

evil, but learn to tucs / uor Avyp-outc liani : iion ari3t wei ne lenep. panne 

'^'^ "°°^' yef pou ^vylt lyerny wel to libbe be u/rtne : lyerne zuo 

ase icli pe habbe yzed / to sterue. Todel pine gost nram 

Divide thy soul ujj-^g bodye / be bojte / and be wyliii«ge. guo out of 

from thy body by •' J I f } i ^ o o 

"'o"ei't. 1 MS. oiwt 3 MS. ychmzed 


Jjise "wordle steruinde. guo in-to Jje londe of Jje libtynde / Go out of this 

. . -, , world dying, and 

J)er no?z ne sterf [Jj] / ne yealde]?. fet is me paj-adys. per go into tiie land of 

1 1 , TT -1 / 1 I I 1 tlie living, 

me lyernejj A\^el to libbe / and wyt / an corteysye. nor 

fer ne may gno in: no mdeynye. J?er is blisfoUe ^^^J^^,f^^^'^°-^ 

nelajrede of god. and of angles, and of liaben. ber where is the bliss- 
ful communion of 

opwexejj alle gnodes. nayrliede. ricliesse. worJ)ssipe. ood, of angeis, 

. , . . and of saints, 

blisse. n^rtue. loue. Avyt. loye wyjjoute ende. )?er ne is where is neither 

noft ypocr/sye. ne barat. ne blondinge. ne discord, ne strife, flattery, 

eniiye. ne honger. ne f orst. ne hete. ne cliele. ne kuead. hu,^°er' IT 

ne zor3e. ne drede of vyendes. ac alnoAvay festes and 

kinges bredales. zonges. and blisse wyfoute ende. )5e 

ilke blisse is zuo grat : bet hiio bet liedde ytake ber of The Miss is so 

great that one 

ennelepi drope / of ])e leste finge fet Jjer ys : lie ssolde drop would in- 

by of ])Q lone of god ziio dronke : pet al pe blisse of J)ise 

wordle / ln-»i ssolde by / drede : and wo. Eycliesses : f° ">"♦■ "'''^es and 

' "^ ' ^ honour would be 

dong. worfssipes : tioiiDiede. and ))e ilke to greate lone accounted woe and 

pet he ssolde liabbe to come per : him ssolde by an 

hondred poiizen zipe pe more hardiliche hatye ze?zne. 

and lonie u/rtues. pet is al pe drede of belle, liuer-of 

icli babbe beiiore ispeke. Vor lone is more stranger : i-ove is stronger 

than fear, 

parene drede. And pa??ne is pet lyf viayr / and oneste : 
pa?me me beuly^t / pet knead / and me dep pet gnod. 
najt nor drede / nor to by yspild : ac nor be wylnynge and the love of 

■' ' J .r i r .! J o God will keep us 

of henene. and nor pe loue of god. and nor pe greate from sin. 

clennesse : pet ii/rtne bep. and giiod lyf. And pe ilke 

pet lone ledep : he zekp rapre / and lesse him costnep / 

pa?me him pet seruep god : be drede. Jpe hare yernp. The hare run- 

111 1,, iii,,i neth, the grey- 

pe gryhond hym nol3ep. pe on be drede : pe oper be hound foiioweth. 

wylnynge. pe on vly3p : pe oper hyne dryfp. })e holy JiJnneth a^tTe 

man yernp ase grihond. pet habbep alday hare 030 / to ina'^°""fs'e eis 

henene : huer hi yzyep pe praye : pet hi drinep. And fo,.''e^t''Jj]''„7i'^g]gg 

peruore by noryetep alle opre gnodes. ase dep pe gentyl ^^ doth the hound 

bond : hua?ine ha zyp his praye / tonore his e3en. fore his eyes. 

)?is is pet lyf / of pe Avel loniynde. of gentil herte / This is the life of 

and affayted. pet zuo moche lonyep n?'rtne : and hatyep gentle heart, 
zewne. pet yef hi weren zykere / pet me no ssolde his 



comie I ne god ne ssolde liis awreke : ham ne daynede 

[Foi. 22. b.] na3t / to do ze/me. Ac al hare fenchinges / and al hare 

■who shall have wyllis : hire herten clenHche loki / and agrayjji / Jjet hi 

the bliss of Para- 
dise, by worjji : to hahbe J)e blisse of paradys. hiier no cherl 

where no churl , . , , , p i , 

nor thief shall 1^6 ssel come m / ne uals. ne J>yei. ne proud, nor pe 


worse ssolde by pe nelajrede. 


and evil. 

To live aright one ]^ou ich Jjc habbe ysseawed / hou me tekjj wel to 

sterue / and lede guod lyf. Ac jjou sselt yvvj^te / fet fe 

begynnynge nor to come to gnode lyue : is to zeche 

and know what ia ui'rtue. jjct is |)et me knaAve / najt onlepilyche hnet is 

what is wrong. zenxiQ j and huet is elmesse : ac fet me conne ri3t wel 

knawe / and deme : huet is kuead / and huet is guod. and 

nor to dele J)et zoj^e guod : uram Jie o|)ren. and J)et greate 

A thing that one guod / uram J)e little. Yor Jjing fet me ne knauj? na3t 

nZ'fdotdt". Be is yhated / ne ywylned. And feruore sselt fou 

^"^^- y^vj'te be fan fet ]>& Avrytinges zyggej? : Jjet fer byejj 

zeue smale yeffes of god / fet me clepe]? fe smale 

guodes. on lite / an ojier grat / and zojie. An onlepi- 

liche bye]) guodes ari3t. huerof al fe wordle ys nye3 

begyled [ftezuyke]. Vor hi yeuej) fe greate guodes : uor 

This world is as a Jie little, ofcr fe lesse / uor J)e httle. ofer fe greate / uor 

many^'forchaV fe Icssc. Vot fis wordle is ase a fayre / huer bye]) 

re":-aTJeofT mauyc fole chapmen, fet of aUe ])inges / hi knaAvef fe 

things. propre u/rtue and tiet worl). bet ous tekj) be holy gost / 

The Holy Ghost ^ '^ ' ' ' T T -i ^ i 

teacheth us to and no?^ ober maister. He ous tekJ) to knawe \q greate 

know the precious . -i i 

things from the ])inges uraui fe little, fe preciouses / ura?« pe viles. pe 
from the sour. zucte / uram \q zoure. 

Timely (temporal) Of TIMLICHE GUODES. 


The small goods Hy clepie]) fc smale guodes : fe guodes of time / fe 

are^ those of for- ^^^^^^^ of fortuHc [hap], and J)e leuedy fortune : went 

fcweTturneth ^^^re hue3el eche daye / and benym}) / and yefj). and 

her wheel each y^Q^A: fct is aboue : beucfe. fet bye J) pe smale stones of 

some and taking gies ssvnynde. and l)e conioun his bay)) uor rubys. uor 

away from others- ^ •> ^ r •! i 


safyrs. ofer uor emeroydes. fet bye]? as iueles to chil- 

deren. pet god ous yefj) / ous to solas, and nor oure God gives us time- 

loue : to dra3e to lii/«. uor ])et lie wot pet we bye]? fort us. 

fyeble / and tendre. and hyealde we ne mo3e liis. 

efterward / wayes of pouerte / of zor^e / and of martire- 

ment / ase deb be guode godes kny3t. pet pane kyngdom Riches are not the 

true happiness. 

of heuene paynep be stre?2gpe to wynne be nis prouesse. For were it so, 

Clirist would then 

)5a?me pise ne byep : ne grete guodes / ne smale ary3t. be a tool, that 

J?a?«ne wes a fol lesu crist goddes zone, pet cheas pouerte. annifame, fnd 

and ssame. an efterward : he uorzok / blisses, worpssipes. Sl^°and"?chel°°" 

and richesses : yef pet byep pe zope guodes. Jpanne ne 

byep na3t / alle zope guodes ine heuene. )5a?^ne ne is 

na3t god parfitliche yblyssed : pet ne vzep na3t zuyche 

cuodes. ba»ne is frod ontrewe / and onkende / bet bise God. would be un- 

^ ' ° ' . I J J true and unkind. 

guodes benymp his urendes. and hise yefp more large- 

liche : to his yuo. yef pet byep zope guodes : pa«ne the saints and 

wise clerks were 

Averen foles alle pe hal3en. and alle pe wyse clerkes. aii fools. 

and pe greats filosofes. pet pise guodes beulo3e / and 

onworpede / ase dong. Yef pet byep zope giiodes : 

pa?me lye3p god / pet lye3e ne may : and holy Avryt. *»"? ^°^ ■>^o"i<i tie 

pet hise clepep / leazinges. and ssed. and metinges. and 

uanites. nettes. and bendes. and pe dyeules grines. and The gifts of for- 

pet IS zop / aze pater nosfer. Vor pet byep pe dyeules devirs snare 

1 T , 1 . , T 1 whereby he be- 

gmnes. liuer-by pe zaules me a pousond maneres he guiieth souls. 
gylep / and nymp / and bynt / and halt. [^"'- ^s- a.] 

Ac pe wyse chapman / pet is pe guode man / pet pe The wise chnp- 

11 ill! Till- / 1 ^'"^ know the 

holy gost aly3t. be zope beknaulechmge / pet ouer al worth of each 

him knaup / huet ech ping is Avorp / and yzy3p hit ri3t ^^' 

wel. Hi onderstondep / pet al pe wordle ne is na3t a 

guod snode : uor ma?mes herte to uelle. and pet per is They see that 

moche kuead : and litel of guod. And peruore huo pet in the'worid!^° 

lokep pe perils / and pe kueades pet per byep / and 

Avytep pet hit is zop : pet hi conne zigge. he pet ne 

yefp / pet he louep : he ne nymp / pet he wylnep. Hy 

makep to god ane handuol. uor hi yeuep be wordle : uor 

They give up the 

heuene. na3t / uor al. hor : uor gold, and letep al uor world for God, 



and become 

There are others 
wlio make good 
use of riches, 

who hold them in 
little esteem. 

They serve God 
witli their wealtli. 

They see their 
own feebleness 
and their defects. 

They would rather 
forsake all the 
world's goods 
than retahi them 
without the love 
of God. 

god. ricliesses. lostes. worjissipes. and becoine]) poiu'e. 
j)et is Jje uayi'iste lyf / an fe zykeriste : jjet is ine ])ise 

J5e olpve bye]) / pet yzejj / ])et ine iiele maneres Id 
mo3e do hare prou / of guodes of time. Jiet me may hise 
liabbe : ak na3t to moclie louye. Vor god ne hat na3t / 
al to lete. by bise ofbyealdefi : ac Htel liise prayzejj. bi 
hise uzejj : ac btel bis louye]). ase dede saynt Abraham, 
lob. and dauij). and iiele o])re. pet pe perils beidoje : and 
deden hire profit / of pe guodes pet god ham lende : hi 
coupen begge heuene. hi coupen hire ze»nen uorbegge. 
and helpe hare nyxte. Hi copen more louye god / and 
herye / and ponki. "vvorpssipie. drede. and yleue. uor 
pe greate perils liuer bi byep / and ham zelue pe more 
bou3e / hua/aie bi yzep hare fieblesse / and hire poure 
loue / and hare defautes. liua>?ne pane strayte way ne 
dorren guo. hua;?ne zuo lyte wyllep uor god polye / and 
yeue / pet zuo moche polcde / and let uor ham / yef hi 
wel ham wytyep / ak st[r]ang hit is. Yor liit is wel li3ter 
ping : alle pe guodes of pe wordle lete / at on tyme uor 
god : pa«ne his ofhyealde / and na^t louye. 

Of the less goods. 

The middle goods 
are of kind and of 
Of kind are beauty, 
strength, &c. ; 
of teacliing are 
learning, good 
mannei's, &c. 

These do not 
make men fully 

for many philoso- 
phers, clerks, 
kings, &c., that 
had much of such 
goods, are now 
damned in hell. 

Of J?e lesse guodes. 

J5e midel guodes / byep of kende : and of techinge. 
Of kende : ase ua}Thede of bodye. prouesse. strengpe. 
zuyfthede. myldenesse. clyer Avyt. sle^pe. owderstond- 
ynge. and alle zuyche guodes pet kende berp. Be tech- 
inge : ase grat clergye. ine alle opre guodes : pet me 
wynp be studye / oper be guode wone / ase byep guode 
peawes / and zome u/vtues. Ac pise ne byep najt yet 
arijt pe zope guodes : uor hi ne makep na3t pane / pet 
hise hep uollyche guod. Vor manye filozofes / oper of 
greate clierkes^ / and of kynges / and of e?»,perours / 
pet hedden moche of zuyche guodes : byep ydampned 
ine helle. Efterward / zuyche guodes yefp oure Ihord 
' MS. cherhes 


alsuo to his iiyeudes : ase lie deb to liis uryendes. to our Lord giveth 

such goods to His 

sarazyns / and to iialse cristeue : ase to jje guode. enemies. 

Efterward / liit ne is na3t zoj) guod / Jjet faylef / and 

J»et me may lyese wylle he nolle he. and Jiet j?ieues ne 

mo3e stele, ne robhere benime. alneway ate ende : dyeaj) 

his benymjj. Efterward / zojje guodes helpef eche 

daye / and ne harmeji neure. Ac uorzojje ziiyche True goods never 

guodes / and zuiche graces Avyjjoute : uop oite kuead / Mere outward ' 

and harmef ham / f et hise habbe> / bote hi hise ne i^li^^l^^ytuse 

wel usy. And hua/me hi ham yelpeb / ober hi ham "« to become 

J •! i- I I J proud and boast- 

prodejj / and ojjren hy onworfiefi. Vor Jie ilke to huam fui- 

god heb yyeue pe ilke graces / and Jie ilke guodes / J^et if we do not use 

aright God's gifts 

ich habbe beuore ynemned god uor to serui. and helpe 
his nixte. bote yef he hit ne vsy treueliche : he ssel 
bv ine be more gratter torment, and straytlyche hi?/i ^e ^'laii receive 

J r o *^ ^ the greater tor- 

behoue]) rekeni. and yelde scele to god / ate daye of ment. 
dome.^ of Jjet he hej? ydo. and of fet he hep ywonne / 
of jje guodes fet god him liejj ylend : uor to mory. 

Of J?E ZOjpE GUODES. Of tlie true goods, 

'Noil ich jje habbe ssortliche yssewed / huyche byejj 
pe lyttle^ guodes / and jje midel guodes: nou ich pe The true goods 

. make hira good 

wylle sse^vy huet ys jje zo])e guod ari3t : Jjet make]? fian that hath tuem. 

J)et hise hep : guod. and wy})-oute ham : non ne wes 

neure ari3t guod. ])et guod me clepeji : godes grace, and 

u/rtue. and charite. Grace : uor Jjet he yaf / heljje. and They are grace, 

virtue, and clia- 

lyf. and zaule. uor Avyjj-oute jjise guodes : pe zaule is rity. 

dvead. Vor ase bet body is dyead wyboute zaule: The soui is dead 

•J T J J ^ I witliout the grace 

alzuo is pe zaule : Avyjioute godes grace. Hy is ycleped of God. 
mrtue : uor Jjet hy "vvorjjssipej) Jie zaule myd guode she is called vir- 

,. Tx- T Ti-i' tue, for she hon- 

workes / and mid guode jjewes. Hy is ycleped charite : ours the soul with 
uor Jiet hy ioyne]) pe zaule to god. uor charite ne is non |°° ; Jcaiied 
o])er Jiing : panne dyere onhede. fet is pe ende / fet is ^o-ne'th'the^soiu 
pe perfeccion / and pe guodhedde / huer-to we ssolle ous t° ^°^- 
dra3e. Moche Averen pe egypciens deceyued. J>et is to 
zigge / pe yealde filozofes jjet zuo byzylyche desputede / The old phiioso- 

1 Tirr. , o iiro , 7,7 phers Set the 

1 MS. (lomo 2 MS. li/l(le 



greatest good in 
lust of flesh, 
or ill riches, or in 
honest life. 
But St Paul says 
that dame 
Charity, the queen 
of virtues, is the 
greatest good. 

Wlien all other 
goods fail this 
faileth not. 

Of three manners 
of good. 

There are three 
sorts of goods. 

1. Honourable. 

2. Pleasant. 

3. Profitable. 
Of the goods of 
the world. 
None desire them 
unless they be 
either honourable, 
pleasant, or pro- 

The proud seek- 
eth the first, the 
covetous the , 
third, and the 
lustful the second. 
Virtue combines 
the honourable, 
the pleasant, and 
the profitable. 

Virtue is honour- 

Six things are 
desired because 
[Fol. 24. a.] 
they are honour- 
able : 

1. Beauty, 2. wit, 
S. prowess, 
4. might, .'■>. free- 
dom, G. nobleness. 

and zo^ten huet wes Jje he^este guod ine fise lyiie. ne 
neure ne niy3ten hit vynde. Vor zonie hit zette ine loste 
of ulesse. Jie ojjre : ine richesses. and olpre / ine oneste 
lyf. Ac fe greate filozofe saynte pawel. jjet wes ynome 
in to j)e Jjridde heuene / and pasede alle fe ojjre filo- 
zofes / ous proueji he uele skeles. Jiet J)e he^este gnod 
ine jjise lyue : ys pe kuen of ui'rtues dame charite. Vor 
]ie zay]) wyjj-oute hire : non o]jer guod / ne is worjj. 
and huo jjet Jjis he]) : he help alle J)e ojjre. and hua/zne 
alle fe ojtre guodes fayleji : Jiis ne fale]) najt. and 
ahone alle fe o]?re greate guodes pet hyef : Jjys is jje 
Iheuedy. ]?a??ne is Jjis pit gratteste guod : jjet is onder 


And hueruore wylt ]jou pet guod / pet is ycleped 
ri3t n/rtue more louie / and zeche ahoue alle ojjren : 
]jis ich wylle yet eft / his worJj ssewy. Me can todele 
jjri manere guodes. guod / vrorfssiplich. guod / lostuol 
and guod : uremuol. na?anore ne is of giiodes. ne zo])e. 
ne ydele. hote J)ise Jjri nianeres. and j?et Jiou yzist open- 
liche. Of pe guodes of Jie wordle / fet non ne Avylne]) / 
ne louejj no])ing / hote yef he wene : fet hit hy him 
■vvorjjssipuol / ojier lostuol. ojier ure»iuol. ])e proude : 
zekj) fling worjjssipuol. J?e couaytous : ])ing ure7?iuol. 
j?e lostuol : fing lykynde. And alle pet pise zechep 
ydelliche : is ine mrtue / zopliche. Vor u/rtue is ping 
wel worpssipuol. lostuol. and ure??iuol. 

Of u/iJTUE. 

Jjct ui'ytue is worpssipuol : pet my^t pou ysy ine 
pise manere. Zyx pinges byep ine pise wordle moche 
ywylned / nor pet hit pingp pet hy hyep moche worp- 
ssipuol. uayrhede. wyt. prouesse. my3te. vridom. and 
nohlesse. )3ise hyep zix wellen of ydelnesse. Jja/me 
ydele hlisse is to moche. Vayrhede / is ping mochel 


yloued. uor jjet is j^ing moclie yworjjssiped. And na3t 

uorjjan uayrliede ]>ei jje e^e of jie bodye jzj^lp / and 

louejj. is jjing uals / ssort. and ydel. Vals : yef he ne is Beauty appeals to 

uayr. ne Ipe ilke uayr. ac cure e3en bye J) fyeble / pet ne ^^ ^^''' 

zyej) bote pet skin wy b-oute. ])anne hno bet hedde be Had we the eye of 

' ' the lynx, we 

zy3J5e ase hejj Jje lynx / jjet me clepef oferlaker : should see each 

leucernere. Jjet yzyjj? jjorj fane Aval alouer. lia ssolde yzy fuu of dung. 

openliche / j^et non uayr body / ne is : bote a liuyt 

zech nol of donge stynkinde. and ase a donghel be- 

snewed. Efterward bis uayrliede is ssort. uor zone hit beauty soon fails 

and withers. 

fayle]) and ualomve]? ase ]jet flour of fe uelde / anon ase 
fe zaule hxm todel]?. al jje uayrliede Jjet / Jiet body he]) : 
J3e zaule hit yeaf. and uor Jje zaule he hit heb. ]2eruore He is a foci that 

. rejoiceth on ac- 

he IS fol / j)et of uayrhede of bodie him gledej>. Ac jje count of his fair- 

uayrhede of Jie zaule: is uayrhede ari^t / fet alneway Beauty of the soul 

wext and neiu-e ne ssel fayly. J3et is f e zofe uap-hede / rsTketd'aod'^and 

hueruore J)e zaule to god like]) / and to jje angles jjet *^® angeis. 

yzejj fe herte. )3is uayrhede yelt / and yef]) / to jje ^* ^^<^*^ erace to 

zaule : grace, and uw'tue. and loue of god. uor hy re- 

fornie]) / and agrayjie]) / and hi??i yelt his ry3te pryente. 

fet is ])e yniage of his sseppere / ])et is uayr \vy])-oute The fairest thing 

co/rtpa?'ysoun. and ])et best him anlykne]) : mest is uayr. soui that hath pcr- 

. fectly its right 

pa^me pet uap-este J»ing ])et ys onder god : is ])e zaule / shape. 

Jiet he]) parfitliche his ri3te sseppe / and his ri3te bri3t- 

nesse / colour of flour. bri3tnesse of ' zo?me. ssep])e of [i ms. os] 

man. lykynge of preciouse stones. And al ])et ])e 636 of 

herte yzy}) of uayr : is uoidhede and uel])e / to ])e zyjfe Nothing in the 

of him. and al ])et me may onder gode Jjenche of uayr : compared to it. 

hit ne may na3t by ycomparisoned to him. 

Of WYT / AND OP CLEREGYB. Of wit and of 


Cleregye and wyt / bye]) ]iinges moche yworfssiped. ciergy and wit 
Ac yef ])ou wylt by wys ari3t. and he3e cleregye lyerny : honoured, 
make fet ])ou habbe ])et zo])e godes guod. fet is / grace / God's grace is the 

I . , , J. ■ , , 1 1 1 ''™6 wisdom that 

ana ut^'tue. uor pet is pe zope wysdom. ])et aly3t fe herte eniighteneth the 
of man. ase defi ])e zowne ]3e wordle. Jjis wyt pase]) fe ^^^^ ° "''"" 

82 THE world's wit is folly. 

This wit passeth "vvyttes of ])& Avordlc / asc cle]) ])G zowue : J)e brytnesse of 

world, wiiich is J^e moiie. Yor yef wyt of Ipe wordle ne is bote folye 

^"* "^ ^' ase zayjj fe wrytinge / and cliildhede / and onwyt. folye 

Tiiose who love ine liani : bet be "wordle louyeji / and hire iiayrliede / 

the world 

think the moon to Jjet hi nc conne yknaAve / Tpane day : uram fe ny3t. ne 
deme betuene grat j and snial. betuene precious / an 
vil. Hy wene]) of jje mone : fet hit by fe zo?me. nor 
lii wene)) of jje worjjssipe of fie wordle : fet hyt by Jie 
zo))e blisse. of ane epple : an hel. nor hi wenej) by jje 
wordle : fet hit by wel grrtt ])ing. jjct to fie zi3fie of fe 

They mistake a hcuene ne is bote an eppel. hy Avenef of a gles : fet 

glass for a sap- 
phire, hit by a safir. nor hi wenej) fet hare niy3te / and hare 

strengfie : by wel grat. f et more is brekynde / and 

They live like fyeble : f a/zne gles. Efter fe chi[l]dhede / f et Jje wyt of 

oniy'uTeir'^^r' K wordle / and ]>o f et bye], zno wyse to loky f et body / 

'^'"- and to eysy / and to delyty / fet libbejj ase children. 

In such folk is f ct lie zechejj bote hare wyl to done. In zuych uolk is 

^%oi '1 b "■ skele dyad, and feruore / hi libbej) ase bestes. nor hare 

They are like a wyt is al mysweiit / and cornpt. ase fe zuel3 of f)e zyke / 

who pretfsa"^'^'' of^r of fc wyfinan grat inyd childe. fet more hi uynt 

sour apple to a gmak in ane zonre epple : ba?aie ine ane huetene Ihone. 

wlieaten loaf. ^ ' 

and fiet child in ane cole : fiamie ine ane gnode mete. 
They cannot be- Alsuo zuych nolk 116 111036 ylenc / fiet fier by more 

lieve that there is-,T 1 1 ^ , 1 • 1 , • 1 ij_n- i 

more bliss in serv- '^hsse / aiid lost / inc god to scrui / and to louie : fia7?ne 

ing God than in ^ -[ . j ^ j j ^ ^^^^ j^j ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ / 

servmg their own f J I 

^"^'^- betnene zuete / and byter. Efterward / fis wyt / is 

oiiAvyt. ine fan fiet byef> ziio iiioche sotyl ine kuednesse 

to uynde /ine ofjren to gyly /and deceyui. ofier be playt / 

o]?er be strengfie / ofer be barat. fet hy ne fenchef) / ne 

studief) / bote ham zelue to auonci : and ofiren to harmy. 

Their wit is the Jjet w"3"t is fie dyeules Avyt / ase zayf saint iacob / fiet eche 

that each day dayc \\\m uoiidcfi / ofreii to harmy. Ac fie zofe wyt / 

to do wrong. '^" ]>^^ ^^ holy gost tckfj to godcs uryciides / is ine knanynge 

wyf -onte Avyfinimynge / fet ech f)ing is worf. hit ssewefj 

world is idle, f et fe wordle is ydel : ine byinge. vyl : ine worf . biter : 


in smac. bot be blisse of be wordle : is ydel. be its nches are viie, 

and its lusts are 

richesses : vil. Ipe lostes : bitere. ijitter. 

Efte/nvard he yefjj to y-iiele / J^et fe loue of god / t^'[,';i' ^'.^ of ™ 
and u/rtue / is zoj) jjing / and of pris. Zop : nor hi worth; 
nohieljj jje herte / and norisset / and sostyenejj. of 
pris : uor me may god / an al fet he heji : begge. 
Zuete : uor bet is be ma?^ne / bet alle bise binges makeb jt rendereth sweet 

' ' I ' J X o X labour, sorrow, 

zuete. zuynch. zor3es. tyeaers / and AvepiHges. ssames. J-eai-s, and weep- 

martires. and alle pinen. and al Jiet me may Jienche. )5et 

is jje zuete sucre / and of guod ssmak. and J)et is fe 

wyt / and jje A\^fsdom / |)et f)e writinge clepej) / Avor]?- it is the wit and 

ssipuol wysdom / liuerof wext zojje blisse ine inwyt. honourable. 

Efter uw'tues / an charites : he yefj) zofie prouesse. izo\)e prouesse.} 
|)a;me j)er nys prowesse ari^t : bote ine godes kny^tes / True prowess 
fet Ipe holy gost help y-dobbed / and y-armed / mid uw'tu / God's knights. 
and mid charite. Ine j)rouesse byeb bri binges to-deld. i" this prowess 

- are boldness, 

hardyesse. strengjje. an stedeuestnesse. Non ne is ary^t strength, and 

preus: Jjet jjise ])ri jjinges ne hep. fet ne ys hardy / and ^ *^ "^^ "'^'"' 

zyker / to greate finge ondernime. Strang / and my3tuol / 

uor to uol3y. zed / and stable : uor to uol3y. Ac wyjj-oute 

Avyt / and wy])-oute porueyonce : ne byej) na3t worj? non 

of jjise jjry ]?inges. Vor ase zayjj Ipe boc of be art of kny3t- in quarrels an 

•,-,,. error may be 

hod / iiie opre quereles hua?me me mysnym)) hou pet rectified, 

hit by uounde myd amendeine?it. Ac errour ine batayle / mistake may not 

ne may na3t by amended, uor hi is anon aAvreke. ^'^ ^"^'^ "''■ 

Eole op-nymynge is huer lite profit lijj. and moche "PoU opnimin'je.-i 
cost, and of peril, and of payne. Zueche byejj pe The world's 
opnymynges / ])et me clepej? prou^. and hardi / ine fise p^^^J-^^^ '^ p*^"'" 
wordle / j^et body / and zaule brengej? in-to ze?aie / and 
pe guodes also / and ine peril / and ine payne / uor a 
lyte lost to habbe : bet mochel is ydel / and litel ylest, 

... , p, -^ I J [iMS. OS] 

Ac uirtue make)) man of ^ greate herte / and of wyse virtue makes a 

, . , . man bold in heart 

opnymynge pmne hi make]) man ])et ne is bote erpe / so that he aspires 
zuo hardi / bet he dar opnyme : be regne of heuene to ° ZT^''^° . 

"^ 70 [-pol_ 25. a.] 

■vvynne. and alle pe dyeulen / jjet bye)) zuo stronge / to heaven. 
6 * 



onercome. )pis opnimynge : is guod / and wys. liuer 

pev is lytel peril / and litel of pyne. and blisse. and 

He who is without worjjssipe wyJ3-oute niesure. Huo pet ne he J) u/rtue : 

virtue hath no , , i i , / i -n ^ i i /« 

great courage, -liB ne hep grat lierte / ase hep Jie like fiet hej) drede ot 

adversities of the n^jt. Zuyclie bycj) J)o jjct zuo moche dredejj j>e kueades 

^°' ■ and 1pp. aduersetes of pe wordle. and pet hablie]) drede 

nor to lyese : pet hi ne ni03e na3t longe hyealde. ha nep 

na3t grat herte pet hit yefp uor na3t. ase dop po pet 

yeuep hare herten to lonie pe guodes of fortune / pet 

ine zope : ne byep na3t / to pe zi^pe of pe zope gnodes of 

He is as a child blisse. )ja?me zuych iiolc byep ase is pet child / pet 

who likes amirror , 

better than a king- louep more ane sseawere : pa?me ane kingdom, aneppel : 
Virtue maketh a ]>^nne al his kende. Ac n/j-tue yefp gr-at herte ari3t. 
and"tode"pise the ^^r viirtue makep Wynne henene : and onworpi pe 
^^'°''''^- Avordle. grat berdone of penonce to here, and alle pe 

kueades of pe wordle onderbere. and gledliche polye. 

and nor god to leste / to alle pe asaylynges of pe dyeule 
Eo that he is no wydstoiidc. And asc zaj'p pe wyse seneke. Na3t ne 
adversity than habbep iiiorc of my3te aye u/rtues / kueade mysfalles / 
of rain.'" ^ '°^* ^H-*! zoi^es / ne al pet fortune may preapny / an do : 
Virtue makes a more pa?nie per byep dropen of rayn ine pe ze. Virtue 
a lion, strong as'' makep mail hardi / ase lyoun. Strang / ase olyfont. 
st'^ea^dfiftTs'^'the'^ stedeuest and lestinde / ase pe zonne / pet alneway 
^""' yernp / and ne is neure wery. pa?ine per ne is prowesse : 

bote uirtue. 

Might. MY3TE. 

No true lordship Alsuo per lie is noii zope Ihordssip : bote ine uw-tue. 

but in virtue. 

A grat Ihord he is : pet to huam al pe wordle seruep. 
[Mannes Ihord- Zuych Ihordssip / yefp mail grace and UM'tue. Vor hi 

zet man spirituellyche ine his ri3te stat / huerinne 
Man was made to he wes uerst yiuad. j)e man wes ymad ine zuyche 

rule over all crea- . , , . i n i • 

tures, worpssipe / and me zuyche Ihordssipe : pet he wes 

Ihord of alle sseppes / pet were onder lieuene. and to 
huam : alle pinges bo3en / and to huam noping ne 
my3te derye. and pet is pe ri3te stat to man and to his 


Ihordssip. Ac fis lliordssip lie leas be zenne. ne lie hit bnt he lost this 
na3t ayen ne mi3te awynne : bote be u«-tue. Ac u/rtue virtue puts aii ' 
arere]) Jjaiie man an lie^ : and. lii»i dej? fe wordle onder- undfr'iiiffoot. 
not / and him dej) wende to lieuene. 

Virtue make]) fiane man / more ari3t Ihord of fe virtue makes a 

, man more a lord 

wordle : panne by fe kyng / of his regne. V or of pe tiianistheking 

guodes of Jie wordle / he hejj ase nioche ase his herte ^ ^^ '^^^^' 

wyliiej). per is his wone / and his sustinonce / and al 

Jiet he -wyle habbe / more ynoj / Jja?aie habbe fe kyng. 

uor al fet habbe]) pe guode / and fe kuede : al hit is 

his. Vor of zxio moclie make]) his prou / and of al hire i' '•au^es him to 

enjoy all things. 

god / and fonke]). and more lone]) / and drede]) / and 
seruej). ine fet he jz^p j and knauji / pei alle ssep])es 
byej) \Tnad hi»^ uor to serui. Efterward / he heb He is emperor of 

■J r -J I r himself, i.e., of 

anofre empire / uayr / an grat / wyfioute fet non ne ys "^i^ ^°'^^ ^"'^ 

ary^t Ihord. uor he is eniperour of him-zelue. pet is of 

his bodye : and of his herte. huiche he demfi / and halt 

ine guode payse / liuerof he de]) his wyl. Vor his 

herte is zuo bhbe to be wjdle of gode : ])et al bet god ms heart is al- 
ways in peace,and 

de]) : al hit is him uajnr. and ferby heji he alneway : Jje his bodyis govern- 

,. T, nn ed by tlie will of 

herte me peyse. and fet body gouerne)> be pQ wylle of God. 

god / and al fet god de]) to his bodye : he yelt fonkes / [FoI. 25. b.j 

and hym pay]), and ])et is pc Ihordssip / pet mVtue jeip He gives thanks 

to fan pet hit he]). Huerof spec]) senekes ])et zayj). gifts. 

Ase moche worjissipe / and grat empirete' of pe kpige / 

by empe/'our of by-zelue. A god uele byel) J)er kynges / There are many 

kings and empe- 

and of barouns ine pe wordle / ])et habbe]) casteles / rors that have 
cites / and regnes / fet ne habbe]) na^t fis lliordssip. who have not this 
)?et of hare herten : ne bye]) na^t Ihordes. ])et hyse "'^ ^ '^" 
tormente]) ofte. ofer be yre / o])er be euel wil. o])er be 
couaytyse / o])er be wylny[ii]gges. fet liy ne mo^e \\^t 

VrIDOM. Freedom. 

Efterward / no?i ne he]) uridoni : bote he habbe 
grace / and u/ytue. }?a?me yef ])ou wilt coiine huet is JortroT freedom, 
' Soin'MS. 



iiridoin ari3t. panne sselt jjou onderstoncle Jjct Ipe man 

1. of kind (nature), lieb bri maiieres of uridom. be one of kende. be obre of 

2. of grace, 3. of -^ "^ ' ^ ^ 

bliss. grace / fe ])ridde of blisse. 

1. Free-will to do pe iierste is uri-wyl / huer-by he may cliyese / and 

good or evil. 

do / uryliche o])er Jiet guod oper fet kuead. )?erne 
This freedom uridom lie halt of god zno uriliche Jiet non ne may him 

comes from God, 

and the devil can- do wiang. ne alle JjB dyeulen of helle ne mojen mawnes 

not influence man , • , i ■ i • n -vt 

against his will, wyl stiengj)! to do 0116 ze?me wyJ)-oute his wylle. V or 
yef man. dede ])et kuead to-yeans wylle : liit nere non 
zenne. Yor non ne zene^ejj iiie J>et he ne may na3t 
bevly. ase zayf saynt aiistyn. vridoni liabbej) alle men. 
ac hit is yboiinde ine children / and ine foles / and yne 
wj^tlease / Jjet ne habbe]) nenne skele / huer-by hi 
co?jne chyese : fet guode ura?« ]?e kueade. )?erne 

Man loses bis free- uridom be man benymb hini-zelue ine grat del. liuanne 

dom when he sin- ^ i o 

neth deadly, he zene-^e]) dyadliche. nor him-zelue zellp : nor fane lost 

of pe zewne. and him-zelue yelt to jje dyeule / and 

and becometh the becoiiij) his J>rel to fe zewne. zuo fet he ne may hit 

devil's thrall. m ; 

uorjjrawe to his wylle / Jjet he hep ymad zyker : bote pe 
grace of god him helpe. 

2. Freedom of |)e oJ)er uridoiii is pe ilke / j^et liabbe]? pe guodemen 
Those bave this in jjise wor[d]le / fet god hef yvryd be grace / and be 
grace°anrvi°tue ^rrtue / uraiii pe freldome of pe dyeule and of ze?me : 
slaves of sur f ^^ ■'^^ ^^^ ^y^f frelles. ne to gold / ne to zeluer / ne to 

hare caroyne. ne to pe guodes of fortune / Jiet pe djap : 

ne may beiiime. Ac hy liabbej) hire herten zuo arered 

They care not a ine god : bet hi 110 prayseb be wordle : bote ane botoun. 

button for the . -i ^ r r 

worid, and dread and 111 lie drcdcj? kyng. ne erl. ne no?^ niisual. ne 

earl, nor life nor jioucrte. no ssame. ne djap. uor hi hjep half deade. and 

habbe]) pe herten zuo to-deld uram pe loue of pe wordle : 

f et hi abidej5 and wylnej) jjane dya]? / ase dej) pe guode 

but desire death workman his ssepe. and pe lezere liis lieruest. and J>o 

as the reaperlongs 

for harvest. fot byejj ine WO of ze : guod port, and pe prisons : hare 

deliureonse. and pe pylgrym : his contraye. and pise 
hjep stedeuestliche vri / ase me may by ine J)ise Avordle. 

They dread no- ^^ . . , , .. -i, i ni, 

thing but God. VOT hi 116 Icue]) / 116 dredef nojjiiig bote god. and byep 


inc greate pays of lierte. uor hy hys habbef yzet ine 
god. and byej) nye3 ine paradys be wylnynge. And ]>& 
ilke vrydom : com]) of grace : and of uiVtue. 

Ac vet eft bis viidom : ne is bote breldom / to be 3. The third fvee- 
zy^fie / of fe Jjridde uridome. jjet habbej? J)0 jjet bye]) than the other 
nye3 deliured / of bodye / and of al. and myd gode ^^ ^ 

byeJ) / nou ine liis glorie. fise byef zo]jliche vry. nor 
hy bye], delynred of aUe ^yo / of drede / of dea],e / and ^^^^l^ 
of zemie. of Avanhope. of gyle, and of he wordle. of delivered tvom aii 

i- aj I yfQQ^ from dread 

zorje. and of alle pyne of hertc / and of bodye : wyb- of death, from sin 

-> ^-^ ' "^ _ •* and sorrow, for 

oute comynge ayen. of kuyche binges / non ne is ury they are now iu 


ine })ise wordle : liuet hi is y-do. 

Noblesse. ^°^''^'''^- 

Hvo Jiet ])ano})reue urydom hner-of ich habbe yspeke 
niyite habbe : to greate noblesse hit ssolde come. j)e True nobility 

' Cometh of the geu- 

zoJ)e noblesse / com]) of Jje gentyle herte. vorzojie tie heart. 

non herte ne is gentyl : bote he louie god. ])a?aie f»er ne 

is non noblesse : bote to serui god an louye. ne vyleynye: The gentle heart 

loves God and 

bote ine Tpe contraiie. pet is god to wrefi / and to do hates sin. 
ze?^ne. Kon ne ys ari^t gentyl / ne noble / of lie Noonehoideth 

J y ^ J I I r right nobility 

gentilesse of fe bodye. Yor ase to jje bodye : alle we from the body ; 
bye]) children of one moder. Jiet is of erfe : and of wose. drenofone 
hner-of we nome alle : uless and blod. of ])0 zide : non ^rth^ndmud. 
ne is arizt gentil / ne vri. Ac onre ri^e nader / is our nght father 

? ° ' '' ' IS King of heaven, 

kyng of henene / fet made ])et body of ])e er])e. and 
ssop ])e zanle to his anlycnesse an to his fourme. An 
al ase hit is of ])e nader nlesslich fet mochel is blife / 
hua;/ne his children him bye]) ylych. al-zno liit is of 
oure nader gostlich / })et be wrytinges / an be his zondes / 
ne let nast ous to somony / and bidde / bet we zette «"'i ^^^ ^®"* ^''.'l 

? ''I ' ' son Jesus Christ 

payne : to by hi'/?z ilich. and ])eruore he ous zente his to bring us the 

true pattern, 

blissede zone Ihesu crist in-to er])e / uor to brenge ous whereby we are 

, , 1 • / formed to His 

J)e zo})e uorbisne / huer-by we byef yssape to his ymage / image and fair- 
and to his uayrhede / ase bye]) fo ])et wonye]» ine his 


heje cite of lieiiene. J2et tyej) fe angles / and Ipe 

lial^en of paradis / huer ech is pe more lie3 / and pe 

more noble / pe more prop?'eliche pet he berjj pe ilke 

The holy man in uayre jniage. And feruore pe holy man ine jjise 

this world endea- 

vourstoknowand wordle dejj al his herte / and al his payne to knawe 

love God. , AinT-i 

god / and louye. And of lure herte : alle zenne to 
The more the waynye. Vor pe more fet fie herte is clene / and pe 

heart is clean, r. p -r 

the more openly nayrer : zuo moche he jzj^p pe face of lesu crist Jje 

heseeththefaceof tt ,, ,,ii- , ti 

Jesus. more openuche. and pe more fet he his jzj^p openliche : 

pe more he him louej) pe stranglaker. pe more he hi??i 

liknej) p?'opreliche. And ]jet is pe zope noblesse / fet 

makef ous godes zones. And Jjeruore zayjj ri3t wel 

saynd ion pe apostel. uor J3a?me we ssolle by godes 

children, and we ssolle by him ylich propreliche hnanne 

In paradise we we him ssolle yzy / ase he ys openhche. fet ssel by ine 

openly as He is. liis blyssc : hua?me we ssolle by ine paradys. uor hyer 

as in a glass HG zjp 11011 / onwry3e pe uayrhede of god / bote ase hit 

^' by ine ane ssewere. ase zayjj sainte panel. Vor jja?7iie 

we him ssolle yzy face to face clyerlyche. 

True nobility be- j)q zobo iioblesse panne of mail begjTib hyer be 

gins in grace and 

is completed in gracc / and be uz'rtue. and is nolueld ine blysse. j)ise 
noblesse makej) pe holy gost ine herte Jiet he clenzejj 
ine cle?inesse / and aly^t ine zojsnesse. and uoluelj) ine 
charite. J)ise hjep pe fri greteste gnodes : fet god jeip 
pe angles, ase zayJj saint denys. huer-by hy hjep yliche 
This nobility the to hare sseppcrc. And fus workej) Jie holy gost ine pe 
eth in the heart, hcrteu of guode mcii be g?'ace / and be u//-tue / huer- 
by hy byejj ymad to pe ymage / and to pe anlycnesse of 
He raiseth men up god / asc hit may by iiie ])ise Ijiie. uor he his arere]? zuo 
ine god / and his beclepjj zuo ine his lone / J)et al hare 

[Foi. 25. b.] \Tyl I and al hare onderstondinge is / pet is jjet 

is hare bejjenchinge jjet is ywent ine god. ]jis loue and 

fis wylnynge / Jjet ioynej? / and one]) zuo pe herte to 

so that their will god : jjet he ne may o))er |jing wylny : ofer p&nne god 

will. wyle. uor hi ne habbej) betuene god and ham : bote on- 

lepi wyl. aud jiawne to pe ymage / and to pe anliknesse 


of god. ase me may habbe in erjje. and pet is fe grat- 
teste noblesse / and fe liejeste gentilesse / Jiet me may 
to liopye : and cKue. A. god / hou liy hjep uer uram Far from God are 

. , I 1 1 I T ^ n ■^^ those who are SO 

pise ne3nesse / po pet make]? Iiani zuo quaynte oi j^eilke proud of their no- 

poiire noblesse jjet lii liabbej? of hare moder pe expe j the'e^arth^^ 

fet berj) and norysse]? azewel pe liogges : ase hy def jje hogfL"weufa'''' 

kinges. and liy ham yelpejj of hare gentylete / nor Jjet ^''"gs- 

hy wenejj by of gentile woze. and pe ilke ke^zrede : hy 

conne rijt wel telle. And pe ojjre zyde hy ne lokef 

na3t / huer-of ham comp pe zojje noblesse / and pe 

gentil kenrede. Hy ssolden loki to hare zojje uorbysne we should look to 

VaesvL crist / fet mest louede / and worssipede his jesus Christ, 

moder : ]ja?zne eiire dede eny ober man. and alneway who has said that 

His mother and 

hua??ne me hi»i zede. ' sire : ]ji moder / and Jji cosyn / His cousins are 

, " tliose who do the 

pe aksej). He ansuerede. ' huo ys my moder / and huo wiu of God. 
byej) wrpxe cosynes ? hno f»et def fie wyl of myne iiader 
of heuene : he is my broj^er / and my zoster / and my 
moder.' Vor fis is pe noble zyde / and pe gentyl 
kende / Jjer-of comj) / and wext ine herte : zojje blisse / 
ase of pQ ofren ydele noblesse : wext prede / and ydele 

Gentyl GUGD. Oentle Good. 

Xou ich be habbe al iiolliche ysseawed bet ich leue. There is nothing 

worthy of hon- 

pet per ne is non guod ary^t worjjssipuol : boteui'rtue / our except virtue 

, and charity. 

and charyte. pet ys uayr lone of god. )pet fier ne is non 
ojjer guod profitable. J5is ous wytnessej) saynte paul. 
pet zayp alsuo. ' Yef ich hedde zuo moche wyt ine me / 
J?et ich coupe alle clergyes. alle speches. and speke alse Learning, speech, 

, 11-1 1 liberality, &c., are 

wel ase my3te man / oper angel, and ich coupe godes worthless without 

prtuites / and his redes, and yef ich betoke my body to 

sla3e. and yeue al pet ich habbe to pe poure. and dede 

by miracle pe helles Iheape uram one stede / to anopre. 

bote yef ich ne hedde pe u/rtue of charite : al hit nere 

me najt worb.' ISTou nim hede bet zaynte paul bet me if, as st. Paul 

■' ' r J i. r g^yj,^ j,jggg grg^j 

ssel wel yleue. ous hep hyer ynewined / pe meste gentile possessions profit 



notliing v/ithout 

how shall less 
goods avail ? 

Who that most 
hath, is worth 


[Fol. 27. a.] 

How shall we say- 
that those do good 
who shallhereafter 
be damned in hell^ 
because they have 
abused the gifts of 

Bodily works and 
spiritual deeds 
are nothing with- 
out charity. 

Charity is good 
chaffer.that every, 
where wins and 
never loses. 

guocles / J)et man may do / and Jiet mest were ywoned : 
to by woYp. and proliti. ])et byej? [fe] porueyonces of 
bodye. and sla^Jje to folyo. helpe poure. to Avende fane 
zenuoUe. and connyuge. an speches. and [he] zayj? Jjet alle 
Jjise guodes wyjj-onte charite : ne byef) na3t worj). and 
yef Jiise guodes ne byej5 na^t worj) : liou ssolde lesse 
guodes by wor]5 1 ]5is pi-zelf jje my3t yzy be skele jjet 
liyer beuore me lie|) yzed. zuo moche is worjj pe man : 
ase is worj? his land. Jset is ase zoj) / ase pater noster. 
Huo fet wel onderstaret. hou / and huer-by / ])g man is 
Avor}) / of>er na^t / ojjer zomdel / olpev more ojjer lesse / 
and fet ne is non drede / Jiet / Jjet ne by charite / and 
J)e loue of god. Vor huo Jiet mest hep : mest is wor]). 
and huo fet lest hej) : lest is worj). and huo fet na3[t]' ne 
he]? : na3t ne is worJ). Vor huo moclie J)e man het of 
timliche guodes / ase bye)) / gold/ an zeluer. an richesses. 
oJ)er guodes gostliche. ojjcr kendeliche / ase bye]) / creft / 
and queyntyse. wyt / and clergye. strengpe / and prou- 
esse. and ojjre guodes. Hou ssel ich zygge ]?et hi do]? 
guod / ]3a«ne he ssel by Jie more zoruollaker yda?;med / 
uor pet he his benotej) na^t ari3t. of Jje guodes pet god 
him hedde ylend uor to wiwne. Efterward yef he dej? 
workes bodylyche / as dop pise zuynkeres / and pise 
gememen. Opor yef lie dep Avorkes gostliche. ase byep 
uestinges. benes. ssrede pe jjoure. here pe here, yef he is 
wyp-oute charite : zop uor to zigge : hit ne is hi??i na;t 
worp. A^or peruore / pe more mede to-uore god \nm no 
worp pe rapre / yef he sterfp Avyp-oute charite : y-damned 
ha worp. Ac pe ilke pet hep u/rtue and charite guode / 
of al pet god him zent iiio pise Avordle / of al he dep his 
nyede. and of al he wynp : grace of blysee. 

Charite is a guod chaj)fare / pet oueral wynp / and 
none time ne lyest. alle pe guoda paneworpes hy bayp. 
and dep alneway his nyede. and najt uorpan : hy hep 
alneAvay hire peny ayen / pet is p _■ loue of herte / pet is pe 


codes peiiy / liuer-mide me tayb / alle be guodes of be Theioveofthe 

O y J I Jy I . . heart is God's 

wordle / and alneway ha blefj) nor euremo / me ))e penny, wherewith 
purse. Loue liej? ine eche stede liis zales. Cliarite the goods of the 
vi-jnj) ine eclie finge. and playntes. and liy lief f»e 
maystrie : ine alle batayles. Hi deb / bet asemoche charity is ever 

"^ J ; J uniform in her 

is worb to onenen neste enne day : ase to anofren : al conduct. 

ane lenten. Hi dej?' / Ipot ase nioclie is worjj o peny to 

onen ]?et lia yefj? : ase to anojjren : an liondred pond. 

Zygge a pater noster : ase to anofiren a sautyer. and pet 

ne is nor non ojjre skele : bote nor Jjet / Jiet zno mocbe 

is -vvorjj Jje man / zno moche byef worjj his workes. Vor 

J)3 more jjet he hej) zope lone : fe more he "wynj? eche 

daye. Lone is fe wy3te ine fe balance [zayf] saynt Love is the weight 

Michel, nor non ofer J)ing ne may we3e : hua?aie me 

comp to nime ech his ssepe : bote loue and charite. and 

bernore ich zipri^e / bet ber ne is non guod profitable There is no profit- 

y ao I r r or aWe good but love 

aperteliche / and a ri3t speke : bote imjr loue / and and charity. 

Of tug LOSTUOLLE guodes. Oftwolustful 

(pleasing) goods. 

Ase god made man of body an of zaule : alzuo he 
hi/?i hep y-yeue tuo manere guodes lostuoUe / nor his 
herte to lii?;i dra^e. ine huychen byep alle pe zope lostes. 
pe uerste guod wyj-oute : byep pe vif Av;yi;tes of fe J;^^;';^;'^!? 
bodye. be zy^pe be hyerfe. / be smellinge. be zuel3page. t'ody 
and be takynge. bise nif Avy tes / byeb ase uif condwys / ^"^^ ^^ ^^'^ '^^^^\ 

J ri J J I d s d I jjgig ^jiei-eby the 

huerby ])e lostuolle guodes of pe wordle guojj in-to fe lustfui goods enter 

., , li, ,ij_; t'ls heart and de- 

herte uor to dehti / and nor ham zouke to jje zope lostes / ught it. 
pet bye J) ine god to louie. Vor al fie lost of pise wordle / 
pet habbep pe vif wyttes / ne byep bote a drope of deau / ^^^^^"f/j^ig®^' 
to be zisbe of be welle. ac of be greate ze / huer-of alle world are only a 

1 ■>' ' s ^ I drop of dew, 

bise guodes comeb. be drope of be deawe hua?ine me his compared with tho 

•* ° s s i- I ^ well and the great 

zykp auer : anlyknep to ane stone, of pris. ac hua?aie sea of God's wess- 
me wenp hine nime : he ualp agrund / and to na^te 
becomp. Alsuo pe plapnges of pe wordle / and pe [FoI. 27. b.] 
' MS. de^ 



The lusts of the 
flesh are but as 
dreams that come 
and go. 

The wise men 
long for the love 
of God. 

The more they 
see the sweet 
drops, the more 
they desire to 
come to tlie well. 

the sweetness of 
the world, the less 
one desires the 
sweetness of God. 

They are fools 
and worse than 
beasts who think 
the body to be 
greater than the 

Spiritual gifts 
are the best, as 
peace of heart, 
victory over 
devils, and joy of 
the soul. 

Such bliss is not 
to be compared 
with the lusts of 
the world. 

lostes of pe vif wyttes liua/me me liise })engj) / and 
sseppej) / and sseawe]? moclie of pris : ac lina?aie me liise 
halt : alle hi byej) uorlore / and hecomej) najt / and 
metinges. )3ench of fe lost of uernyere / and of metinge 
of nj^t / J50U sselt ysy fet hit is al on. an haste gwolp : 
and zone come)?, ine none manere uelle ne may. and ])et 
ine one drope is zuo moche zuetnesse / fet hy ssel Ly fe 
zuetness of al ]?e welle. And feniore ]>& wyse and j^e 
holy man' ine fise Avordle / ine al Jjet hi zyej) and 
smackej) of fe guodes lostfolle of jjise wordle : lieryej? 
god. and Ipe more Avylne]) Ipo loue of him. and pe more 
Jjet hy yzeJ3 Ipe zuete dropes : pe more hy wylnej) to 
come to pe welle. And jjeruore Jjet hi wytejj wel / fiet 
J)e more me lone)) jjane drope : pe more me nor-yet pe 
welle. and Jie more jjet lykej? Jie zuetnesse of pe wordle : 
pe lesse me wylnef / pe zuetnesse of god. ])eruore myd 
alle Jje honden jjet hy mo3e / hi nemejj and usef. pe 
lostes ulessliche / and pe pieces, fet be pe vif wyttes 

A. god hou hi hyep foles / and more panne a best. 
J>et wytep / pet / jjet body of man : is pe meste poure 
makynge. and pe vileste |)et is. and pe spirit of man : is 
pe zaule. and ys pe nobleste fing / an pe hejeste ssepjje 
jjet may by. and na3t uorjjan / hy ino3e wene / |)et more 
byejj zuete / and lostuoUer / Jie guodes pet coniejj by pe 
bodye : parmo po pet comep be pe goste. pet byep zope 
guodes / and clene / and lestynde / and mo3e pe herte 
velle and uoluelle. Zueche guodes yefp god to man 
ine pise wordle. huanne he yefp pays of herte. and pe 
maystr/e of his vyendes. and blisse of inwyt hua?ine he 
uoluelp pe herte of loue. and of blisse gostlych / and 
hi??^ adrengp of ane zuetnesse wonderuol. zuo pet he ne 
may him hyealde / ne hi»i-zelue yuele. Of zuyche 
blisse / and of zuyche loste / no liknesse / ne non com- 
parisoun ne may by yuounde ine yoyes / and ine lostes 
of pe wordle / pot ne byep bote dropen to pe zi^pe of pe 



welle of zuetnesse. bet is be welle huer-of oure Ihord The true bliss is 

■• tlie well whereof 

spekb ine his spelle. 'Huo pet ssel drinke' he zayjj / * of our Lora speaks in 

r -\ 1M11 11/ the gospel. 

peAveterepetichwyUeyLeJuehun : hi' ssel become a welle/ 
]}et him ssel do Iheape / iii-to pe lyue eurelestyiide.' ])et 
is pe welle of blisse / and of zuetnesse. of lyue / a[n]d 
of charite. fet may uoluelle fe herte / and non opev 
])ing ]?et is. Of jjise welle liedde dauij) y-nome / pet 
zede ine his sautere. '0. god / hou is nou grat / pe ofthis well David 

speaks in the 

mochelhede / of pine zuetnesse pet pou lokest to pme Psaiter. 
seruinde / and vefst to bine uryendes.' And uorzope huo wiioso should 

I J t -J ' taste the sweet- 

bet hedde wel ytasted and ysmacked pe ilke zuetnesse ness that God 

. giveth to His 

pet god yefp to his urendes : he ssolde onworpi alle pe friends. 

lostes / and alle pe blissen of pise wordle. and wolde 

chise / and of healde be gostliche blisse / and ssolde by ^o«w '^"^pise aii 

/ / o ' " the lusts and 

ase pe ilke / pet boutep pet mele / pet to-delp pet flour blisses of the 

. world. 

urani pe bren. and ase pe ilke pet makep pe oyle / pet [Fo1.28. a.] 

nimp pe pure grece : and let pet greate draf. Vor blisse 

of herte bet comb of god to louie bet is zobe blisse and Joy of heart is 

r r o I I ^ the true bliss, 

ziker / ase zavb be uorbisue. bet non ne heb zikere which comes of 

I -''' I ^ -f love to God. 

blisse / bote yef hi come of loue. And m pe wntyngge 

ha clepep uile^ / oure Ihord by be^ pe profete / pet zayp. 

' Ich wylle' zayp he 'vile^of blisse uorwepinge. alle blisse / 

clene / and zobe of herte / uor wop of penonce.' Of pise with the oil of 

oyle byep ysmered / po pet god hep ymad kynges / and cream) aii true 

Cliristians ai-e he- 

Ihordes of pe wordle / and god zeli. and pawne is pe man smeared. 

ziker cristen / huaHuehe is ysmered myd pise holy crayme. 

Vor of crayme : is yzed crist : and of crist : cristendom. 

And huo pet is ysmered mid pise oynement : pet is pe The ointment is 

blisse / and pe loue of god. he leuep me god : and god of God. 

ine hi??i. ase zayp saint Ion pe apostel. and pet lif is of 

cristene. pet is ari3t to speke / lif of man. pet is guod 

lyf and yblyssed pet cristene ssolle yleue / and wylny to xiie christian 

. life is the good 

zeche : to habbe pet lyf eurelestinde. uor he ne is na3t ufe, 
alyue: ac ine langour / pet echedaye leuep ine bysyhede / ^^^ each day 
ine pontes / ine zor3es. ne pet ne is na3t lyf of man : ac S j,;^/^- 
of child / pet nou wepp / nou lhe3p / and nou is wel an rows. 
1 he ? - "Written for oijlc ^ So in MS. 

94 man's soul is like a gardex. 

Neither is it the eyse : and nou is euele aneyse. nou is wroj) / nou is ine 

life of man, but of . , ,. 

a child, who alter- payse. nou me blisse. nou me zorje. 

weeps. *"^^^ ^° J?a7me huo Jjet wyle lede guod lif : zeclie J^et lie 

habbe / pet zolpe guod. and Jja/aae ssel he babbe lyf 
worpssipuol lyf. lostuol. and p?-ofitable. and jianne lie 

Whoso seeks true ssel libbe asB a man. bet is to zigge : zikerlyclie. bollycbe. 

happiness shall _ 

have honourable -vvysliclie. aiid blisuolHche AA'y[b]-oute zorje. and to zuicbe 

life, life pleasant 

and profitable. lyue iiic coiuj) : ojjer be grace / ojjer be u/rtue. and na^t 


We have now con- I^ou icli be liabbe aboue yssewed generalliche be 

sidered generally ^ ^ a j 

the dignity, worth, diuguete / and be worb / and be guodiiesse : of ui'rtu / 

and goodness of ° ' r r I r & . / 

virtue, and of charite : and hueruore me ssel hise zecbe. Yor 

which leads to joy, gi'at ureiue ]jer com]) his uor to habbe. blisse. worjissipe/ 

evei-iasting. ' ^ ^^^ ^J^ eurelestiiide. Ac uor ])an / ))et me ne knau]) 

na3t zuo wel Jiet fing ine general / ase me dej) in 

special : Jjcruore hyer ys myn ywyl to spekene of u/rtue 

more openliche. zuo j^et ecli Jjet wylle ine J)ise boc 

studye : mo3e his lyf ordeyni be u/rtue / and be guode 

It is not enough to dedes. Vor ojierlaker litel hit hbn ssolde by wor]? to 

good, unless we conue jjct guod : bote me hit dede. Vor ase zayj) sayiit 

He sinnetii who iacob. He fct cau guod / and ne defi hit na3t : ]jer is 

his belief. ze«ne / ycf he niisdej). Fol he is Ipet can jjane rijte 

way / and be his wytinde mysgej). 
The Holy Writ Hg holv wi'it co??iparisoiieb be zaule and of be guode 

compares the soul ' ^ j. / / / o 

of the good man nia?me / ail of be ffuode Avyfma?nie : to ane uayre 

or woman to a fair / / o ^ -j 

garden, gardyiic uol of grenliede / and of uayre trawes / and of 

full of greenness, o >' c) ' 

fair trees, and of guod fi'ut. Huerof god zayjj iiic ])G boc of loue. ' My 

good fruit. '' T ^ I 1 

zoster / my le/zanan / J)ou art a gardm besset / myd tuo 

ssetteles.' Jiet is Jie grace of god / and of angles. )5eriie 

This garden set- gardyn zette ])G greate gardyner / jjet is god J»e uader / 

teth the great 

gardener, God the liuawue lie iilicsse)? IpG hcrte / aucl make]) zuete / and 


tretable / ase wcx ymered. and ase land guod' and 
[Foi. 28. b.] agrayfed / and worfii Jiet by by yzet mid guode ympen. 
rtSie'heart."" J^© Hke ympcu bye]) Ipe uw-tues / fet pe holy gost 
' i/deffud (digged) has been erased. 


be-deaAvejj mycl his grace. Godcs zone Jiet is fe zofe The branches are 

zonne be pe m'rtne of his clernesse : de)) ham Avexe an ed by the grace of 

, , , „ , the Holy Ghost. 

hej / and pronte. 

Of bRI biNGES NYBDUOLLE TO bs ERbB. Of three things 

J' ■>' ' ' needful to the 

J5yse )3ri jjinges bye]) nyeduolle to alle ])e f>inges Jjet rGood mould. 

in pe erjje wexef. Guod molde. wocnesse norissynde. niois'ture. "'^ 

and renable hete. wydoute" fise Jjri finges gostliche / ne ^ea^'''"'"*''''' 

mo3e fe ympen of luVtue / ne wexe / ne here fmt. >ise J^lj^^'^le boughs 

finges / niakef fe grace of pa holy gost mid herte. and f^J^'frultl'"^ ""' 
hi dejj al greny / and flouri. and here frut. and hi 
make)) alsuo / alse a paradis erplich to lykerous. uol of 
gnode tranes / and of frut / and precious. Ac ase god 

zette paradvs erblich uol of guode traAves / and of frut. As God set in 

i- J I ° ' Paradise the tree 

and amydde zette a trau / bet me clepeb : bet trau of of ufe amidst 

^ other good trees, 

lyue. hueruore ])et his frut hedde nyede to loky fet lyf / 
to fan jjet hit ssolde ete / Avyjjoute steruinge / and 
Avyjjoute zyknesse. and A^yf-oute ealdinge. and Avyf-oute 

fvehlesse. Alsuo deb gostliche to be herte be greate so God hath set 

■^ ' ^ T r ^ the tree of life 

gardyner. Jiet is god J>e nader. Vor he heji y-zet ]>e amidst the tree of 

traAves of u/rtue / and amydde fiet trau of lyue. Jjet 

is lesu crist / pet zayj) ine his spelle. ' He fet eth my ^'J^^*J^^' -^^""^ 

ulcss / and drmgj) my blod : he he]) lyf eurelestinde.' 

)pis trau grene]) and uayxefi be his uiVtue : alle fo ine 

paradis. Be be n/rtue of bise traAv^e AV^exeb / florisseb / This tree causes 

■^ ' ' . others to flourish. 

and niakeb frut : alle be obre traAA^es. Ine bise traAve al 

' ' ' ' The tree is to be 

hit YS guod al bet ber is. bis trau is to aloAve / and to praised for its 

"^ ° -■ ■■ ' root, its wood, the 

louie / uor manye binges. Vor J)e rote. Vor ])ane flower, the smeii, 

the leaves, the 

Avode. Vor bet flour. Vor bane smel. Vor be leaues. fruit, and its fair 

'^ ' ' , seed. 

Vor bet frut. And uor his uayre ssed, ]?e rote of j)ise The root of the 

traAve / pet is pe Avel greate loue /. and to moche chante God, which 

of god pe uader / hueruore he ous louede zuo moche / wicked thraiis by 

-,,-,,-, 1 f T • 1 1 ths blood of his 

pet uor his kueade prel to begge : he yat ins Avel guode good son. 

,,. ,,. 1J1 It / lii. i- Of this root spealjs 

zone, and aim delmrede to pe dyape / and to torment, the Prophet.wheu 

Of pise rote spekp pe profete / and zayp. pet ' a yerd ssel shaUgooutof the 

guo out of pe rote of yesse.' pet Avord is Avorp ase moche / '°'' " '''''''^' 
1 So in MS. 



The wood is the 
flesh of Christ. 
The pith was His 
holy soul. 

The rind was His 
fair conversation. 
The sap was His 
tears, sweat, water 
and blood. 

The leaves were 
His holy words, 
the flowers His 
holy thoughts, 
the fruit his 
twelve apostles. 

sense, are all the 

In another sense 
they are His vir- 
tues andexaniples, 
which he showed 
to His private 

[Fol. 29. a.] 

when on the 
mount He opened 
His mouth and 
said : — 

" Blessed be the 
poor of spirit, 
for the kingdom 
of heaven is 
theirs," &c., &c., 

These are the 
seven boughs of 
the tree of life. 

ase a becleppinge of loue. j)et wode / fet is Ms prc- 
ciouse uless. j)e herte of J)o traue : wes fe holy zaule / 
Ine huani wes / fe preciouse yolk of Jie wysdonie of 
god. ])e rinde / Aves fe uayre corauej'sacioun / wyfoute. 
Jpet zep : of fo traiie / and Jje tyeres / weren uour wel 
p?'eciouses J^inges / and of ri^t greate nfrtue / f)et of his 
p?-eciouse lemes yourne. \)et Averen tyeares. zuot. weter. 
and blod. ])e lyeaues : weren Jje holi wordes / J)et 
helden of alle zycnesses. J5e floures : weren jje holy 
J)03te3 / fet alle weren uayre and oneste / and berinde 
frut. J3et frut / weren Jjb tixelf apostles / fet al fie wordle 
iiedde an norissede be hare techinge / and by hare 
norbisne / mid hare guode dedes / and Jie benefices. 
)?e bo3es / of J)o traue / ine one wytte / bye)) alle Jie 
ychosene fet euere^ were, and Jiet bye J), and fet ssolle 
by. uor ase he zede to his apostles. ' Ich am' he zede 'fe 
vyne / and ye byef J»e bo3es.' Ine anojire wyt : J)e bo3es 
weren fe uayre u/rtues / and fe gloriouse uorbysnes / 
jjet he ssewede be dede / and to3te be moiife fet weren 
\)G u/rtues uol-do and nolle of fe zofe guodnesse / ])et he 
ssewede to his priue urindes / fet weren Ipe tuelf 
apostles / Jjet he ledde in-to ane he3e helle. priuelyliche. 
J)er he zet ase zay]5 Jiet godspel / and his deciples aboute 
hi»i. )2a»ne he openede his mouf) / and his trezor fet he 
hedde ywre^e ine his herte. and ham fus zeayde. 
Yblissed byef fe poure of goste / uor fe kyngdom of 
heuene is hyre. Yblissed hjelp Tpe mylde : uor hi ssolle 
by Ihordes of pe er])e. Yblissed bye]) Ipo ])et liyer 
wepe]) / uor hi ssolle habbe J)et confort of god. 
Yblissed fo fet liabbe)) honger and J)orst of ri3t. uor hi 
ssol by uolueld. YbHssed bye]) fe merciuolle / uor hi 
ssolle uynde merci. Yblessed byef fe clene of herte / 
uor hi ssole yzi god aperteliche. Yblissed bye]) ])e 
paysyble / uor hi ssolle by ycleped godes zones. j)ise 
byef) fe zeue bo3es of fe trawe of line / of godes zone 

lesu crist. 

' MS. euerfe 


Ine pe ssede of ]jise trawe / him ssel gtiocl herte 
sseduy / and yzy fe ilke uayre 130363 jjet berej) pet frut 
of Hue eurelestinde. Ine fise zeue wordes is beloke alle in these seven 

1 /in p-n TO. n words are in- 

iie3nesse / and alle perieccion 01 grace and of ^^^rtue of eluded aii higu- 
zojje biyssedhede. asemoche ase me may habbe in jjise uon of grweami 
wordle. and liabbe and onderstonde : ine Jje ojjre. }pise bus"fu|*nel™'' 
byej) fe zeue ruieles of holy lyf / jjet fe zofe Salomon These are the 
tek]) to his chUdren. jpis is fe zofe filozofie / fet fe jY;^«"™ie^°'ho'y 
mayster of angles tekj) to his deciples. Ine Jjise zeue in these seven 
wordes bye]) besset ase ziggej) fe hal3en / al fe suHime Te'suaTofThe''" 
of pe newe ^e / j^et is ],e la3e of loue / and of zuet- ^^^rorandsvi 
nesse. hy is wel yzed newe : uor lii ne may najt "^^^• 

■^ ? It is called new 

yealdy / ase dede Jje yealde la3e to be yewes. hi is i>ecause it never 

. shall become old. 

zofliche newe / and desgised uram ojjre la3es. La3e is 

yzed feruore jjet hy hare-zelue ne bynt. ake fe opve 

byndejj / and ])is onbynt. jpe ojjere charge]) : and fis in the old law we 

oncharge]). j)e opm ])reapne]) : and J)is behot. Ine fe strifeUmtcurl^S; 

o>re to strif : ine pise to pays. Ine ])e o])re to uor- JTro^srp'ac;, 

zuerie : ine ]iise to loue. Ine ofre corsynge : ine ])ise ""'^ Wessings. 

blissi?zge. })anne is pys / al uol of blissinge. and feruore 

hi bye]) yblyssed po pet hyse healde]) zayp Salomon. 

Vor J)e ilke pet his hep : he hep ywonne pet trau of 

Hue. Hueruore pise zeue pinges touore yzed byep These seven 

Till- 1 1 11-, things mal<e a 

yeleped blyssmges. uor hy makep man yljlyssed me mauWessedin 

• • n 1 • , • 1 1 this life, and more 

pise wordle ase man may by me pise lyue : and more blessed in the 
yblyssed ine pe opre. °^^^'^- 

N"ou best pou yherd huo is pet trau of lyue / pet is 
amydde paradis / pet god zet ine pe holy zaule. Ine pe , 
ssede of pise trawe / wexep / and p?-ofitep / and berep 
frut. pe traw of ufrtue pet god pe uader / pet is be God watereth ti 

. . I r r trteof virtue fn m 

greate gardyner / zet me pe gardyne / and his weterep "le well of His 
of pe weUe of his groce / pet his dep greny / and wexe / ^'^'"^^' 
and profiti. An hise halt ine grcnehede / and ine lyue. "^'^'^ "■<^" '^ 

, -i, T, , ,11. divided into seven 

pe like welle hym todeJp me zeue streames. pet byep pe streams, 
zeue yefpes of pe holy gost/ pet weterep al pane gardin. Te'vet'gTfts'ofthe 
Nou loke pe greate cortaysie of oure zuete maystre lesu Eidthf great 


courtesy of God ci'ist gocles zone / fet com to j)e wordle to zeche / an to 

in sending His '". , 

Son ! souy / Jiet / Jiet wes iioiiore. Vor Ipet he wyste wei 

He saw our weak- , / ; t n t ^ ^ i 

ness, and inability ouiG pouertc / and oure ije DiessG. and uor oure ze?«Tes / 

to eome'u) grace"^ ^^'*^ ^'^^- -^^ ^^ '^^^ ^^^ ^® ™°36 ^^^3* ^^'^^^ / ^^^ ^"^^^^ 

[Foi. 29. b.] ayen. ne out of ze«ne guo, ne uz'rtue to zeche / ne come 

to ]?e blissede lyue / ])et is of his g?-ace and of his yef]?e 

Therefore He pro- ne comb. Jjeruore he najt ne let ous uor to somoni / 

raised us His 

gifts, if we would jjet "we hjTU byddc and hezeche his yefjjes. And moche 

but ask for tliem. n i t i • • 

ous behat : |)et yef we hym bezeclnj) fing Jiet ous is 

guod : fet we hit ssolle habbe. And more he ous dej) 

Christ is our of cortaysye. Vor he is oure playtere / J)et ous makejj 

pleader, and ^ i ■> -i 

makes interces- oure bezechiuge : Jiet we ne coujie na3t maky / yet he 

[IMS. OS] nere. )5e bezechinge fiet he ous made of' his uayre 

He gave us tiie yblessede nioube : uayre. f^uode. ssorte. an cleuiynde : 

Pater Noster, "^ r J o ^ J 

wherein are seven jjet wes fet pate/' noste/'. huerinne bye]) zeue bezech- 

for the seVen gifts inges / be huicheu we bezechej) oure guode uader of 

Ghost. heuene / J)et he ous yeue fe zeue yef jjes of fe holi gost / 

Jjet hi ous delyuri of fe zeue dyadliche zennes / and 

hise strepe of al of oure herten. and ine hare stede : 

zette and uorfdra^e / jje zeue u??-tues / Jjet ous lede to 

jje zeue blissinges of perfeccion / and of holy lyf huerby 

we mo3e habbe Jje zeuen behestes f)et he make]) to 

We shall now l^ig ychosene. Huerof oure onderstondinge is niyd fe 

first speak of these 

seven petitions, holy gostos helpB. Yerst speke of \q zeue benes of J)e 
seven virtues that pattT noste?'. Efte?'ward : of fe zeue u«'tues fet bye]) 
seven^deadiy shis. ayens J)e zeue dyadliche ze?^nes / huer-of we habbe}) 
aboue yspeke. J5e zeue benes bj^e}) / ase zeue uayre 
maydenes / ])et ne lete]) na3t uor to Ihade of fe zeue 
to water the seven streames 1)8 au{k\e weteres uor to wetery ])e zeue trawes 

trees that bear the 

fruit of life ever- Jiet bere]) fict fruyt of liue eurelestinde. 

The preface of the hg UORE-SPECHE OF bE HOLY VAIER NOST£;if. 

Pater Noster. ' 

The Pater Noster Hvanue me zet a child to lettre. ate begynnynge 

is tlie first thing _^ 

we teach a child, me \i\m tek]) liis patt'/' noste?\ Huo fet of ])ise clergye 

We must know . i -i i 

it if we would be wyle conne : be-come made ase a child, uor to zuyche 
m ascu len. g(.Q|g.j.g ^^j-jj Q^^pg g^^ode mayster lesu crist / fise 

The seven peti- 
tions are as seven 
maidens who are 
ever lading water 


clergie / pet is pe uayreste / and most behofsam Jjet 

is. liuo pet wel hit onderstant and of-halt, Vor ziiyclie The mere letter of 

the prayer is the 

Avenep hit wel conne and onderstonde : J)et neuerte ne rind. 
couj?e bote pe lynde A\7]5oute / jjet is pe lettre / J^et is 
guod. Ac litel is worjj to pe Z3'3])e of pe newen fet is 
■\yy])inne zuo zuete. Hit ys wel ssort ine wordes : and This prayer is 

, , . short in words 

wel lang me wytte. Li3t to zigge / an sotil to onder- and long in wit, 

stonde. J5is bene / pasejj alle ofre / ine fri finges. ine buTharrtrundcr- 

dignete / in ssorthede. an ine guodnesse. J?e dignete '*'""^' 

is / ine fian fet godessone hit made. To god pe uader 

ine worde. God pe holy gost / fet is fet me acsej). 

He wolde j)et hit were ssort / uor jjet non ne ssolde Godwiiiedittoba 

1 . , . - short, that none 

mm Averye : hit uor to lyerny. An uor jjan jjet non ne should be wearied 
ssolde him tyeny hit uorto zigge gledliche / an ofte. '" ^''''"""= "• 
And uor to ssewy / fet god pe uader ous yhyerj) wel 
zone : hua»ne we him biddejj mid guode herte. uor he God does not earo 

■t , IIP! n 1 fo'' smooUi and 

ne hep none hede ol longe ryote of tales y-slyked / ne rhymed words, 
y-rymed. Vor ase zayjj sant gregorye. Zojjliche bidde / 
ne is na^t to zygge uayre wordes / and y-slyked myd Prayer does not 
moujje : ake keste playntes and dyepe zykynges of woTds.'bitof 
herte. j)e worj, / and >e profit of >ise bene : is zuo STghingsof 
grat / pet he beloukjj ine ssorte wordes / al pet me may *'"" ''^'''"*- 
wylny of herte. An to bydde wel to done, fet is Jjet t^'"'- ^o- a.j 
me by delyured of alle kueade : and uolueld of alle 

HyER begin]? J?ET VATEM NOSTEi?. Here begins the 

Pater Noster. 

j)vs begin) fet pate?- nostp.r. ' Vader oure / fet art "Our Father that 
ine heuene.' Loke hou oure guode spekeman / and oure BeVo"id howour 
zuete mayster lesu crist / f et is fe wysdom of god pe fesusSiT''"'' 
uader / and kan aUe la3es / and pe wones of his cort pe pTeS wisely? 
tekf wel to playty / and ^v^-slyche / and sotilliche / an l"^^^^'^^' ''"'^ 
ssortliche to speke. Vorzojje )jis uerste Avord bet bou The sweet name 

4. I n ■!•, • 1 ^ 1 , of Father givetli 

zayst / yet liit is wel onderstonde / and yuol3ed / hit us hope to re- 
pe ssel yeue al fine playnte. Vor saynt bernard jjus tTti^nf ""'" "" 
zAjp. j)et pe bene fet begynj) be pe zuete name of pe 
7 * 


xiader. yefjj oiis hope to ondcruonge alle cure byddynges. 
J?is zuete word / vader / jjet al fe remenont make]? 
zuete / J)e sseawe]) j^et J)ou sselt yleue. and fe somone]) 
to J)an Jiet fou sselt do. and Jjise tuo jjinges souef) man : 
liTia^ne lie ylefj; wel / and a-ri3t. an he dej? efterward / 
When thou caiiest ijgt ho ssel. Hua/aiB bou him clepest na<ler / boii 

God the Fatlier, ' '^ . 

thou acknowiedg- hcknaust fet lie is Ihord of house. |)e.t is of hei;ene / 

est that He is n / n • / t 11 / 

Lord 01 the and of Bvpe. and heaued / and ginnynge / and welie / 

huerof alle sseppes / and alle guod coniej?. and Jius jje 

And since He is heknaust his mi3te. Efterward / zejijje pet he ys nader / 

Father, He is also . , , -, 1 ± i ■ 

the provider for lie IS di3tere / and gon^?'nour / and porueyour / to his 

Hi's children! i! e. niayiie. ail nameliche of his children / fet is of man / 

otman, ^^^ hiiiL-zelf he]) y-mad and yssape / to his anlik- 

and loves those nesse. and J3us pon heknaust his wysdoni. Alast panne 

made! * ^^ ^ ]>^^ ^6 is uader be kende / and be ri^te / he louep pet he 

He rewards them heb ymad / ase zayp pe hoc of Avysdome. and is zuete 

and'chasteneth aiid milde. and zuo louep / and dra^p uorp his children. 

them when they _,-, i., ii, , i- 

misdo. and ham dep hare prou. and betere pa?me lu conne 

deuisi. and he his byat / and his chastep liua??ne hi 

misdop uor hare prou ase guod uader / and blopuliche 

he his onderua[n]gp / hua?me hi comep to hym. 

The word Father Nou ich pe sseawy pa»ne pis word pet pou zayst : 

Tee'XlTs"^' vader. his mi3te. his ^VJ^sdom. his guodnesse. He pe 

might, wisdom, "jjebenob of oberhalf b^ zeliie. bine noblesse, bine 

and goodness, j or r t ' ■> 

but of thy noble- nayrliede. pine richesse. More gratter noblesse ne may 

ness, fairness, and 

riches. icli liabbc : pawne to by zone to ane zuo greate emperur 

Greater nobility 

could none have pet is god. Morc grrttter richesse ne may by : pa?aie to 
Il!Tieat -m em- l^J kyug of alle ping. More gratter uayrhede ne may 
peror, that is, ^^ . j^g^^^^^g ^^ "j-jy ]^i„^ r^y^^^^ ylich. Huych uayrheds is 

zuo grat : pet hit pasep po3t of man / and of angle. 
Let the word }?a?nie pis word / uader / pe bepengp pet pou art zone. 
t^!le'of thy duty uor pet pou pe paynest him uor to by ylych. ase guod 
v^rdTa good *°' zone ssel by ylich his guode uader. pet is to zigge : pet 
pou by bold / and of grat wyl / and Strang / and mi3tuol 
wel to done, and pet pou by wys / and y-wer / large / 
and cortoys / zuete / and milde clene and wyp-oute 



uilevnye / ase he is. ami bet bou liatye zenne I and f'ee that thou 

hate sin as God 

uoiilliedes / and kueadhedes ase lie dejj. zuo Jjet J)on Joes, 

najt ne do aye kende. ]?is vord J>aHne pe de]? bej)enche / 

at alle j^e times ]?et j^ou zayst J)et pater noste?' : fet yef [^o^- so. b.] 

Ipow art ari^t zone : jjoii sselt \\\m anlykny be kende. be 

heste. and be ri3te. and jjon him sselt lone. Avorjissipe. 

and reuerence. drede. sernice. and bo3saninesse. Nou and so act as a 

good son and 

fench Jja/ine hua?ine fou zayst Jji pater noster / jjet J)ou true, 

by \\im a guod zone and trewe / yef J}on wylt ]5et he fe whose "on thou 

by guod nader. an niilde. ']3ench huas zone jjou art': me Nmvthou seest 

zayj) to ]?e newe kny3te hua?me he gej) into J)e torne- ^^^^^ ^"^^^' ^I^a^ 

me»,t. j^ou bou vzyxt wel hou bis uerste word is zuete. iiow it admonishes 

/ "^ -^ ' thee to be bold 

and hou hit fe amonestej) jjet J50u by bold and of and of a good 
guode "vvjdle. and hit ]iq telvj) huych ]io\\ sselt by. 

JN'ou icli be acxy hueruore bou zayst ' nader oure.' !^''-^l"'® ^^^ „ 

J <J r J " Father our, 

and na^t 'uader myn'? and Jjet J70u him uela3est mid Jje / ''"<^i "^t " Father 
hua/me fou zayst: 'yef ous' / and ne zayst na3t 'yef me.' 
Ich wile J)e zigge yef })0U wylt. Non ne ssel zigge / 
uader min. bote jje ilke jjet ys his zone be kende wy])- 
oute gynnynge / wyjj-oute ende / fe zof)e godes zone. 
Ac we ne byej? na3t his zones be kende / bote ase- We are not God's 

sons by nature, 

moche pet we byej) ymad to his anliknesse. ac alsuo but by adoption. 

byej) fe sarasyns. ac we bye J) his zones be gr«ce and by 

adopcion. Adopcioun zuo is a word of la3e. nor by be Adoption is a term 

of law. 

Ia3es of J)e emperurs / liua?nie an he3 man ne liejj no 
child : ha may chiese J)et child of a guod man yef he 
wyle. and niaki hi??i his zone be adopcioun. fet is be 
auoerie. zuo fet he ssel bi yhealde uor his zone auoud / 
and ssel here his eritage. jjise grace god ous made be ^od adopted us 

' without any de- 

uader wyjioute oure ofseruinge. ase zayjj saynt panel, serving on our 
Hua?me he ous dede come to Jje cr/stenedome we were Before we were 
poure and naked / and child ' of yre / and of helle. poor' Mi<ed,"na 
}?anne huanne we ziggejj ' vader oure.' and we zigge]? / '^^[^ms. ciiiudi 
'yef ous.' we gaderejj alle oure brofren raid ous of -adop- 
cion / fet byejj children of holy cherche. be f e byleaue 
jjet hi onderui??ge ine cr/stnynge. 

i apart 



102 WHAT "our" teaches US. 

God giveth net ]^oii ous sseweb / huer-of bis -word / oure. be larcresse / 

only to one, but ^ ' r I r o I 

to many. and Jje cortaysye / [of] god oure uader. jjet ous yef j) 

more blefeliclie / yno3 / panne lyte and to uelen : 
farene to onen allone. Huer-of saynt gregorie zay)?. 

T&e candle that is ' fe bene / fe inore ))et lii is co??nnun : jje more liy is 

set in the hall full , , ii-ii t , ■, , , i 

of people, "worp. ase pe candele is betere bezet jjet seruefi to aue 

let^apart for"the"' ^^^^^"^ ^^''^ ^^^^ of ^^ol^ : J)a?^ne zy Jjet ne serue]? / "bote to 

use of one man oulepy ma?nie.' }5is word liat ous to yelde jjonkes myd 

al oure herten. of ]?ise grace pet he ous hef ydo / huer- 

by we bye]) bis children / and his eyrs. and pet moche 

ardontliclie louye oure ealde bro])er lesu crist / Jiet ous 

iiela3ej) wy]3 him ine his g?Y<ce. 

Tiiis word Father u^g -yyortl OUS amonesteb bet we loki ine oure herte 

teaches us that ' ' 

this adoption is a holylycho bane holy gost bet is oure wytnesse. pis 


adopcion is ase weddes / ase zayj) saynte paul / huer- 
that we shall be by we byb zikere / fet we ssolle habbe pe eritage of oure 

sure of our heri- • n i n t • 

tage. uader. Jjet is pe blysse of paradys. jjis word ous tekj? 

It teacheth also ^j^^ 2ay]) fet we hjep alle bro]3ren / grat / and smal / 
brethren, great pourc and riclie. hcj / aiid loj / of one uader / and of 

and small, rich -^ J i ^ i i 

and poor, high ouc uioder. ])et is of gocl / and of holy cherche. and 

and low, • i • i -i 

non ne ssel ojjren onworjji : ac louie ase brojier. and pe 
and that ive Oil ssel helpe p^iiwe o])re : ase dof pe lemes of pe zelue 

pray for one an- bodye. and ecli biddc uor ojiren ase zayjj saint locob. 
HnlbsoT the same ^"^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ '^^^^'^ ureiiie wel grat. Vor hua/ine fou 
^°^^' zest fine bene ine pe uela3rede of al holy cherche : uor 

on paternoster fet fou zayst / ]30 wynst mo panne an 

hondred Jiousond. 
It teaches us to )?is word / oure. ous tek]) to hatye f ri J?ing name- 

pride, wrath, and Hclie. Prcde. vmepe. and auarice. Prede : dejj man out 
avarice, ^£ uek^rede. uor he wyle by aboue alle opren. Wre]30 : 

dejj man out of uela3rede. uor llua?^ne he werre]) wyjj 

enne : he Averre]) AvyJ) alle pe ofre. Auarice : deji man 
wiiich bring men out of uela3rede. vor hi nele ne him / ne his finges / 

out of fellowship. 

co?«muny mid ofren. And ])eruore ziiych uolk ne hab- 
The word "our" \,qU part / ine be holy pater noster. bis word / ' oure ' : 

shows that God is •• -^ ' ^ "^ -^ ' 

ours, ous ssewef fet god is oure : yef Ave wyllej). and pe 



iiader. and be zone, and be holy gost. bet is yef we if we keep His 

•• . commaudmeuts. 

loke]) his hestes. and zuo zayjj ine fe godsspelle saint 

' Yader onre / pet art ine heuene.' Hua/aie ich zigge / "Thf ^rt in hea- 
' bet bou art ine heuene ' : ich zigge tuo bing. bet he is Here we assert 

J ■■ _ that God isa King, 

kyng / and J»et he is at paradis. Alsiio hua«ne ich and tiiat He is in 

zigge / ' fet art / ine heuene' : ich zigge J>et he is / and 

fet he is ine heuene. Me vint ywryte ine fe opre boo 

of f e la3e. f et god him ssewede to Moyses ine ane ^t',",';; jjl,, 

helle / and him zede. guo in-to egipte / and zay to be He made known 

/ ° o J. / "^ •• to hun his name, 

kynge faraon of mine half/ fet he pe delyuri mi uolk "Iam." 

J)e children of y[s]rael/of J5e freldome/huerine he hise 

halt. ' Ihord ' / zayde moyses. ' yef me aksef liuet is fi 

name, huet ssel ich zigge 1 ' ' Ich am / fet am.' zayde 

god. IS^ou ziggef pe lialjen / and Jje guode clerkes. 

bet amang alle be he;e names of oure Ihorde : bis is be Tins is the first 
r o r :> r i a^d ti,g most, 

uerste / and jje mest propre. and fet mest ari3t ous proper name of 

our Lord. 

tekjj uor to knaAve / fet / fet god is. Vor alle fe opre 

names huer hi spekef of his guodnesse. and of his ^'gakofHis 

wysdome. ober of his miite. ober he is zuich / and goodness, 

•^ T } I I wisdom, &c., 

zuich. he is fe ri3t guod. fe ri3t trewe. fe ri3t wys. jje 
ri3t nii3ti. and uele ofre maneres of sj)eches pet me 
zavb of \am. bet ne ziffgeb prop?*eliche be zobe of be but these terms 

•'J -f oorii r Y r do not assert the 

hyinge of god. Ac Ave pet bycp greate / an hoystoyse existence of God. 
to spekene of zuo heje binge / speke wq of god / zuo / AVe speak of God 

^ . . o / / after the manner 

ase Ave conne deuisi ane man / of liuam me ne kan na3t of men, 

his name / ase me zayp. he is k3aig. he is erl. he is zuo 

grat. zuo uayr. zuo large, and uele of zuyche pi?zges / 

huer-by me may yA\'yte hou pet hit by pe man knaAA'e. 

Ac lie ziggep na3t ari3t his name / ase aa'b spekep of 

god : uele Ave uindep of Avordes / pet ous sseAvep huet 

pet hit bi of hi??i. Ac per ne is non zuo propre ^ ase pis but there is no 

word so proper 

Avord / ' pet art. pet zuo propreliche. zuo ssortliche. zuo as these words, 
cleuiyndelyche. zuo sotilliche / pe names ne?«nep / ine 
zuo moche / ase onderstondinge hi?H may strechche. 
Yor god is ase pe ilke / pet one is / ase zayp saint lob. 
1 MS. p;-oprce 



God alone is, for 
He is everlasting, 
without begin- 
ning and without 

He is true and 
truth above all 

[Fol. 31. b.] 

He alone is firm, 
and fast, and un- 

without end, 
without begin- 
ning, " without 
was, without 
shall be." 

There is nothing 
that one may bet- 
ter believe than 
that God is. 
Nota pit wet. 
We cannot know 
what God is, 

and it is enough 
for us to say, 
" Dear Father, 
that art in hea- 

He is the oldest, 
tlie most known, 
the most beloved, 
and the most hon- 

The word 
"Father" bids us 
■worship God ; the 
"our," to love 
God ; "is," to 
dread God ; 

He one is / ari^t to spekene. uor lie one is / eureles- 
tinde / wyjjoute beginnynge. and \vyJ)-oute ende. Jjet me 
ne may zigge : of non o]>ve l^ing. Efte?'ward lie one is 
zojjliclie. uor he is zoji / and zojinesse aboue alle Jjinges 
yssape. and zno byej) alle ssepjies ydele and ydelenesse. 
And ase zayjj Salomo[ii] and na3t to Jje zj-^jie of him. and 
to na3te ssolden come : bote yef he his ne sostyenede 
be his uw'tue. Ate laste he one is zetnesse an iiestnesse 
ine onelepi poynte -wyf-onte lii??i to trobli / \vyJ5-0ute 
hi??i to cliongi / wyf-oute him remue ine none manere. 
ase zajp saynt lacob. Alle ofre finges bye]) chonginde / 
ine eche manere of hare kende. J?anne is he propre- 
liche yclieped^ : fet art. Yor he is zopliche wy]j-oute 
ydelnesse / zetnesse / Avif-oute enye clionge eure to 
yleste : wyf-oute ende. -vvyjj-ont heaued. wy])-oute / wes. 
"vvyJ)-oute / ssel by. uor fer ne is no gelt. 

N"ou J)0u sselt onderstonde zuo Jiet fer ne is na3t 
Jjet me mo3e betere ywyte / Ipanne Jjet : f»et god is. Ac 
fer ne is no])ing zuo Strang to conne / ase huet / and 
liuet J)ing is god. )?er-uore ich fe rede wel / Tpet pon 
ne musy na3t to moclie / hit uor to zeche. uor J)OU 
my3test ly3tliche guo out of J»e ri3te waye. Hit is ynoj 
uor fe / Jjet J>ou zigge: 'lyeue uader fet art ine heuene.' 
ZoJ) hit is pet he is oueral yhered. ine erjje, ine ze. ine 
helle. ase he is ine heuene. Ac nie zajp he is ine 
heuene / uor fet he is fe eldeste / and pe meste yknawe / 
and fe meste beloued / and fie meste y\vorJ)Ssiped. 
Efterward he is ine heuene gostliche / pet is ine holy 
bodyes Jjet byeJ) he3e. clyre. and cleiie. ase is pe 
heuene. uor ine zuyche herten : he ys aid. and yknaAve. 
and ydred. and y^vorpssiped and yloued. 

l!^ou hest Jjou yherd pise uour wordes. Pater nosier 

qui es in celts. J?et uerste pe somonep / to worpssipie 

god. )?et oper : to louie god. ]>e pridde : to drede god. 

Vor pa3 he by uader oure : alneway he ys bezide / and 

1 MS. has ycheped 

THE lord's prayer : ITS PREFACE. 105 

na3t clionginde. pe uerjie ]je to strengjii. nor asemoche " heavm," to em- 
ase he is zuo lie3 / and J30u zuo I03. yef fou ne art bald / courage us. 
and of guode -w^^lle : fou ne sselt na3t come / hner he 
wonej). j)et uerste word ous ssewej) J?e langnesse of his The ist showeth 
eureolemnge. Jiet oj^er : Jie brede 01 his charite. ]je the breadth of His 
Jjridde : fie dyepnesse of his zo))liede. J)e nerjie : ])e the deepness of ' 

1 p T . j_/TT ij_ii 11- His faithfulness ; 

he3nesse 01 his mageste. Hno pet hep wel fise uour 4th, tiie highness 
finges zofiliche A^^^foute drede he ssel by yblyssed. ° '* ^'^^^^ ^' 

bE UERSTB BENE OF ])E HOLY PAT£iJ N0ST£iJ. . The 1st petition 

' of the Holy Pater 

IS'ou hest J30u yherd fe iiorespeche of fe holy pater ^o^*^'^'"- 
noster. fet is ase ane inguoinge of \>e vifele. ey god / The preface of ti^e 
huo ])et coufe wel al Jjane zang : lion he ssolde vinde as the beginning 
Tiayre notes. Vor hit ne is no drede fet ine Jte zonge / 
J)et Jie A\^'sdom of god made / fe ilke Ipet tek]5 Jje uo3eles 
zynge : ne help uele notes sotUes / and zuete / Ipa-^ per 
by lyte lettre. Ine bise zonge byeb zeue notes, bet in this song are 

seven notes, that 

bveb be zeue belies. bet porchaceb be zeue yefbes of are tiie seven pe- 

•^ '^ r r IT II J I titions tliat buy 

be holy gost. bet strepeb be zeueii haued ze?mes of jje the seven gifts of 

_ _ the Holy Ghost. 

herte. and hi zettej) / and norissefi ]je zeuen u/rtues. be 
huychin me comfi to fe zeue blissinges. Of j^ise zeue 
benes / be bri uerste : makeb man holy / aze moche ase The three first 

_ make man holy, 

man may by ine bise wordle. J»e uour efterward hi??i the other four 

make him stead- 
make]) stedeuestlyche : ri3tuol. Al Jje holynesse of man/ fastiy righteous. 

J)et is ymad to \e pnage of fe tr/nite / fet is be J)ri [Foi. 32. a.] 

Jjinges \ei byej) ine \e zaule. befenchinge. onderstond- 

ynsre. and wyl. ine bet bet be zaule bi stedeuestliche The three things 

"^ ^ "^ . . . that are in the 

yclenzed ine be Avylle. stedeuestliche ali3t ine be onder- soui are thought, 


stondinge. stedeuestHche }aiestned in god. mid god ine and win, 

be bebenchinge. and be more \e zaule onderuangj) and the more the 

soul receiveth 

plenteliche fise Jjri 3ef])es of god : and hy more prop?'e- plentifully these 
liche ne3le[c])) / to his ri3te uayrhede of his keiide. Jjet is 
to \e anlicnesse of jje uader / and of Jie zone / and of fe 
boly gost. J)et is hua7^ne god Jie uader hi?/i co?^ferme]) 
his bejjenchinge. god fie zone hi??i aly3t his onde[r]- 



the more is man 
iu the likeness of 
the Trinity. 

"Hallowed he thy 

By these words 
we show that our 
principal desire is 
to have God's 
name liallowed 
and confirmed in 

In this 1st peti- 
tion we ask for 
the gift of wis- 

which enables us 
to taste tlie sweet- 
ness of God. 

The word " holy " 
signifies clean : it 
is as much as to 
say that we are 
dipt in blood and 

Wisdom hallnw- 
eth the heart of 
man in five ways : 
By 1. Purification. 

2. Cleansing. 

3. Hallowing. 

4. Dipping in 

stoudinge. god fe holy gost hep yclensed his AvyL ])ise 
pTi fiinges Ave bezechej) iiie ])e J^ri uerste heues of J)e 
pate;' noster. 

Hua^ne we ziggej) / sanctijicehvc noinen tiuim.. we 
sseweji to oure guode iiader corteysliche cure pmicipal 
desyr pet we ssolle eure habbe. pet is pet his name by 
yhal3ed and yco?2fermetl ine ous. pa??ne hnamie we 
ziggep / scmctificetav noinen tuuiw : pet is tozigge. 'sire / 
pis is oure he^e wyl / pis Ave bezechip toppe alle ping / 
pet pin holy name / pet is pi guode los pi knaidecliinge / 
pi beleaue / by y-fo»fermed ine ous.' 

Ine pise uerste bene : Ave bezechep pe uerste and 
pe principal yefpe of pe holy gost / pet is pe yefpe of 
wysdom / pet uestnep / and co«fermep pe herte in god. 
and his ioynep zuo to hi???, : pet hi ne may by ondo / 
ne to-deld. "Wysdom is yzed of smac / and of smacky. 
Vor huawne peman onderuangp pise yefpe : he zuel3[p] / 
and smackep / and uelp pe zuetnesse of god. Ase me 
uelp pe zuetnesse of pe guode Avyne ate zuel^ / betere 
pa?ine to pe zi^pe. Ac to pan pet pou ondersta??st betere 
huet is to zigge / ' pi name by yhal^ed ine ous : ' pou 
sselt yAA^yte pet pis Avord / holy / is ase moche Avorp : 
ase / klene. ase Avypoute erpe. ase yhal3ed to godes 
seruice / ase y-dept ine blod / ase yco?;fermed. Ine pise 
uyf mane?'es hal3ep pe gost of AAysdom / pe herte of 
man. Verst he his Avypep / and clensep / ase dep pet uer 
[pet] clenzep and finep pet gold. Efterward he dep away 
al pe ilke uelpe / of alle erpliche loue. and of alle Avylle 
of ulesse. and makep to comene al out of smak. al pet 
me wes yAvoned byuore to louie. ase pet weter is out of 
smak to pan pet is ywoned to pe guode Avyne. Eft<??'- 
ward he hi??? hal^ep of al to godes seruice. nor he dop 
him al aAvay of alle Avrepe. and dep hi?rt al penche of 
god. and to louie / and serui. Ase pe cherche is yhal3ed 
to godes seruice. zuo pet me ne ssel oper ping do 
perinne : pa?aie pe se?'uice of god. Efte?'Avard he depp 



inc. blod. Yor he luse zet in ane zuo berni[n]de lone / 

and one zuo zuete deuocion of lesu crist. fet liuattne 

he f eng]) ine him / and his passion : he ys alsuo ydept / 

and al-suo dronke of j?e preciouse Islode / fet lesu c/7'st 

ssedde uor him : ase is a zop of hot bryead hnaniie nie 

hit potej) in-to wyn. pet is a newe C7'istninge. Vor 

depe and cnstni : is al on. Efterward he hi??i uestnejj 6. confirming in 

zuo ine god / pet no ping ne may him to parti ne [FoI. 32. b.i 

onioyni. j)amie The] wyle bis word nou zigge : ' bin name " Tiiy word be 

hallowed in us," 

hj yhahed ine ous.' bet is to zigge : ' yef ous bane gost of means, 

give us the spirit 

"vvysdora /be huam bi we zuo yclensed ase gold, and of wisdom, 

whereby we may 

yuayred of alle uelbe / huer-by we ssolle by zuo uol be renewed and 

fastened in God, 

dronke of pine loue : pet alle opre zuetnesses / ssolle by 
ous bytere : be huam we ssolle by zuo yyeue to pe / an 
to pine seruise : pet neure mo of opren we ne maky 
strengpe. be hnam by we na3t wypoute more yAvesse : 
ac zuo moche ydept yne gr«yne / and ynewed and eft 
ycristned ine pe bloode of lesu c?-/st be deuocioun of 
ueste loue / huer-by pe name of oure uader by zuo 
yuestned ine ous : pet he by oure uader and we his so that nothing 

. IT- ™^y separate us 

zones / and his eyrs. zuo yuestned pet no ping pet mo3e from God, 

beualle ne mo3e ous ondo of pe ilke uestnesse / ne of 

pise g?'«ce.' Wei is hit gnit grace of god h[u]amie pe wyl 

is zuo yroted ine god huich / ne may to cryepe uor none 

uondi«ge. Wei g?'«tter ping his hua?zne me is zuo 

yiiestned ine pe loue and adrayngt in pe zuetnesse of and nothing com- 

- fort us but the 

god. pet no solas ne no coraort me ne cnderuangp : bote grace of God. 
of him. Ac y-yeue is pe herte parfitliche and jco7i- 
fermed. uor pe memorie is zuo cleuiynde ine him : pet 
ne of no ping penche / bote ine him. And pet we 
byddep hhn huanne we ziggep : sancti/icetuv nomen 
tmim. ' Ihord pi name by y-hal3ed ine ous.' 

]?E Oj5EE BENE OF j)E HOLY PAT£iJ NOSTER. The second peti- 

tion of the Pater 

Adiieniad rec/num fuum. bet is be obre bene of pe Noster, "Thy 

' ■> ' ' kingdom come." 

pater noster. huer we byddep / pet godes regne come Here we pray for 



God's reign to 
couie within us, 
wiiicli is brougiit 
about by tlie spirit 
of understanding, 
that enliglitenetli 
the heart. 

and showeth man 
his many faults. 

to ous / and by wyf-inne ous. Oure Ihord zayji ine liis 
spelle to his deciples. ' fe regne of god : is nou \vy])-iiiiie 
you.' I^oii onderstand wel liou Jiet may by. Hua??ne 
god yefj) ane grace fet me clepejj / Ipe gost of onder- 
stondinge to jje lierte. ase deji Jje zo?aie fet dejj away 
j>e fyesternesse of ]?e ny3t / and waste]? Ipe cloudes / and 
f e liore urostes Li jje mor3en. Alsuo waste]? \)e holy gost 
alle ])e fyesternesses of Ipe herte. and hiHi ssewe]) his 
ze?mes / and his defantes / zuo ])et j>e ilke wende by al 
klene. paime wynde]? hi zuo uele defantes. and of 
motes, and of doust wy]3-oute tale. Ase Ipe zo7ine byam 
ssewe]5 his motes / and pet doust pet hjep henepe ine 
pe house. Efterward he him eft ssewej) of ofire half na3t 
Avy})-oute more fet / J?et is wy])-inne Iuh?, / ac ]jet / ]?et 
is bene]3e pe helle. and f)ct / fet is aboue Imn ine 
heuene. ]?et / fiet is aboute him j alle uayre ssepjies : 
]3ct alio herye]? god / and hwi wytnessef hou god is 
guod and almi3ti. wys. and uayr. grat and milde. 
zuete. and pe more me zy3t pe sseppi?^ges bri3te : pe 
more hit is wynynde hi?rt-zelue to yzyenne. Ac he 
yzy3]7 / pet he ne is clene / ne ^Yorp\ him to zyenne : 
]3a?me anhet pe guode herte and trewe / and him wrefej) 
to him-zelue. jja/me nymji he his pic / and his spade / 
and begin]? to delue / and to myny. and gep in-to his 
herte. )3erinne he vint zuo uele zennes / and vices / 
and zuo uele defantes / and zuo moche doust / and 
tr/bulaciouns of herte / and of ]303tes / and of wyckede 
wylles / J)et he him wre]5ej) / and zor3eJ). and nimp a 
wycked wy\ to hi»?-zelue. zuo Jiet he begin]? pe herte 
[Foi. 33. a.] to clensi to J?e zo]?e' / and to keste out alle pe uelfies 
fet hhn benim]? pe zi3]?e of god ine him. and fet he dej? 
mid pe spade of zojje ssriffe. Ac huanne he he]? longe 
ymyned / and he he]? / alle his uel]?es ykest out : pa,nue 
uint he pays / and reste / and solas / and Idisse / zuo 
]?et him fing]? ]?et al pe wordle by an helle to pe lok- 
1 MS. zo]>o 

He seeth that he 
is not clean nor 
worthy of seeing 

so he begins to 
cast out the in- 
ward filth which 
deprives him of 
the sight of God. 

Then he finds 
peace, rest, solace, 
and bliss. 


inge of pe ilke clyernesse / and of pe ilke pays : fet he 
iiint ine liis herte. and Jiet we oxej) : hua?zne we zigge]) 

Adueniad regnum. tuum. jjet is to zigge : ' Leue nader / " Thy kingdom 

ylyky \q / fet J^e lioly gost ous wiUe aly3te Jje lierte / afto say.^'Deaf 

and clensi and zuojje / al-hnet lii ty wor])i god nor to Ho'iy'^Ghos ""^ 

y-zy. and Jjet he wile come and wonie ase kyng / and o^r helns^ ^"''^'^^ 

ase Ihord. and gouernour / and hotere. zi:o bet al be ^° ^^^^ ^°^ ^^'j" 

O / r J come and dwell 

herte by his / and he by kyng. and euremo w^e hi?« mo3e ■^^'t'l"^ as King 

yzy. nor bet is lyf wyb-onte ende. and godes riche liabbe Gods kingdom is 

-J '' I '' -J t o as a treasure hid 

wyb-inne OUS.' beruore zayb oure Ihord in his spelle : i" a fieui, that is 

■^-f •' "^ ' ^ greater than all 

J)et godes riche is ase on tresor in Jje iielde yhed. fet is ti^e worui. 
ine herte. Jjet is gratter Jiarme al jje Avordle. 

)5E ]5RIDDE BENE OF JjE HOLY VXIER NOSTEiJ. The third petition 

of the Pater 

Fiat uoluwtas tua I sicut in celo tS* {71 terra, bis Noster. 
is J)e jjridde bene huerinne we bydde]) oure uader of done," &c. 

. . We here pray that 

heuene / jjet his wyl by ydo ine ous : ase hit is ydo me we may obey G.^d 

; ^ as do the holy 

heuene. jjet is ase J)e holy angles 01 heuene / J)et byejj angeis in heaven, 

zuo ali3t / and yuestned ine god : Jjet hi ne m03e of er 

J)ing wylny / bote Jjet god wille. )?is bene we ne 111036 but this we cannot 

habbe : bote yef we ne habbe / fe yef jje of red. ])et is of coimsei. 

fe fridde yefjje of pe holy gost / jjet oiis tekjj his 036116 

guod Avyl. and fet he ous w^ende. oure Avrechide wil / given us by the 

IT- f" ;i 1 1 J.1 Holy Ghost to 

and hise conferniy / al to fie 11636 guode. zuo fet he ne conform oiu- win 

hef ne 036116 wyt / ne 036116 wyl. ak his ojene onlepi- 

liche • / fet hi by Iheuedy of al f e herte yhoUyche. and 

iiiaki ine ous al fet hi wyle ase hi niakef ine angles of 

heuene / f et niakef echedaye liis wil wyf-oute misniiii- 

yiige / and wyfoute wyfzigginge. 

Nou best fou ylierd fe fri uerste benes^ of fe pater in these throe 

, , -, . _ petitions of tlie 

noster. f et byef f e Iie3est6 / and fe dmgneste. ine fe Lord's prayer, 

uerste / we aksef fe yeffe of wysdoni. Ine fe^ ofre : gift of wisdom, 

fe yeffe of onderstonduige. Ine f e fridde / f et guode 3 good'couuseir' 
red. ase ich fe habbe aboue yssewed. Jjise f ri finges 
"w^e ne byddef / na3t nor fet we hise habbef ine f ise 
' MS. onlepihiche - MS. bcnenes " MS. o|7e 


We cannot have lyue dyadlich parfitlyche. ak we sseawef to o[u]re iiader 

oftheli toTiiir oiu-e wylles / pet hjelp / ojjer ssoUe by / to J^an fet pise 

^'^^' pri loenes by ine ous ymad / and uolueld ine pe lyue eure- 

The remaining lestiude. ])G opve voiir pet comep efte[r]ward we willep 

four petitions are .,4. 

necessary to us in speke aiie opre spBche. A^or we ziggep aperteiiche to 

this mortal life. - , , 

oure iiader ' yef ous. uoryef ous. wyte ous. delyure ous. 
bote pise vour benes of \dm we ne liabbe : we byep 
dyade / an euele betake ine pise wordle. Tor lii byep 
ous nyeduolle ine pise lyue dyadlich. 

The fourth peti- j)E UER)3E BENE OF JPE HOLY PATEiJ NOST^iJ. 

tion of tlie Pater 

Noster. Pcoism nostruvo. cotidianum da nobis hodle. Mocbel 

" Give us this day 

our daily bread." Q^g ^gj-j, q^^^q guode uiayst'?;- / to spekene myldelycbe / 

and wysliche. hua7ine he ous tekp to zigge. Vayre 

uader / oure bryad of eche daye / yef ous to day. Huet 

What may the may pe zone betere acsy to his uader : pa?me bread wyp- 

faThe? hetter'than oute uiore / uor pane day to endy ? He ne acsep none 

''"''[Foi. 33. b.] outrage / ne wyn. ne uless. ne uiss. [ac] bread wypoute 

f'Jr wine.fleshir uiore [he] byt. najt uor ayer / ne na3t uor al pe woke, ac 

itis a great thins wyp-oute more : pane day to endy. I^ou hit pingp pet 

u mataS- f ^^^^ by wel litc piug pet we acsep : ac uor zope hit is wel 

light request, ^^^^ y^^^^^ Hua?^ne me bit pe broperhede / and pe 

uela3rede / and part / and ri3t / ine alle pe guodes of pe 

house. Alsuo hit is huose pet smackep of pise breade. 

He hep pe broperrede. and part / and uela3rede. and ri3t. 

and ine alle pe guode dedes pet byep ine heuene. }?et 

for we ask for the ^g T,et bread of be ilke holy couent. )3et bread of heuene. 

everlasting bread ' ' i j? i 

that preserves the j^et bread of angles, pet bread lostuol. pet bread of lyue 
eurelestinde. Vor hit yefp guod lyf / and lokep pe 
zaule wyp-oute steruinge. Huer-of zop zayp ine pe 
godspelle. ' Ich am pet bread of lyue / pet com doun 
uram heuene. huo pet ssel ete of po breade : he ssel 

This is true meat, eure lybbe wyp-oute steruinge.' pet bryad is mete ari3t. 

Iii'til'hunger of uor hit stouchep al pane honger of pe wordle / and uelp 

tiie world. ^^^^^ ^^^ l^g j^gjj ^^^^^ I 2T^io ne (lep non oper mete. )?et 

It is the bread and 18 pct bread and pe mete / pet pou nymst / of pe sacrs- 


ment of be wyeiiede / bet bou sselt ete ziiybe / and meat taken of the 

' "^ I i I •) r I sacrament of the 

glotounliche / ase tekjj Jie writinge / ase deji Jie lecher- altar, 

ous Jjane guode mete : fet ojjerlmil uorzuel3]j jjane guode 

siiode / wy])-oute chewynge. J3et is to zigge / fet fou 

sselt nyine j?erne mete mid greate wylle of herte / and 

mid gvat lost. And J)OU hit sselt ase hit by uorzuel^e / 

Avy]?-oute chsTvynge. and Jjet is to zigge. yleue ine grat / 

bet / bet hit is be zobe bodi of lesu crist. and be zaide. and tiie true body 

■^ ' ^ -^ '^ " of Jesus Christ. 

and ])e godhede / al to-gydere / Avyjj-oiite to zeche : hou 
hit may by. Vor god may more do : J)a?me man mo^e 
onderstonde. Efterward me ssel feme mete eft chy ewe / one should chew 

this meat again as 

ase fe oxe J)et gers fet he he]) norzuolje. ]3et is to the ox the grass 

that he has swal- 

zigge jjet me ssel recordi zueteliche and smalliche be lowed. 

little stechches / alle jje guodnesses of oure Ihorde and 

al jjet lesu crist folede ine erjje nor ous. And JjaHue 

vint ])e lierte ]jane ri^te smac of ])e ilke mete, and onder- 

ua[n]gj) ane wel greate hete of Jje loue of god, and ane wel 

greate \v;^dnynge to do yno^ an to ))olye uor hi?« al ))et he 

mi3te. and al jjis de]) fe u^Vtue of ]?o breade. Vor Jiet is fet This bread com- 

bread j^et conforte]? and strengjjej? ]je herte / to Jjet hy by strengthens the 

wel Strang uor to bolye / and do gr«t bing uor godes things for the love 

loue. Ac fet ne may na3t by wj^Jj-oute \q uerjje yefjje 

of Jie holy gost / |)et is y-cleped Jje yef J) of strengjje / j^et 

armej? godes kny^t / and hi?/i dep yerne to by martired. 

and niakeb ham le^^e betuene be tormens. IS'ou mi^t Thus when we 

ask bread we ask 

J)ou wel yzy hou corteysliche / hua/«ie Ave acsej) fet ilke for strength. 

bread : we acseJ) fane yeffe of stre[n]gf)e. Vor ase fet 

bread bodylich / sostenejj and strengfej) fet bodi : alsuo 

jje yeffe of stre[n]gj)e / make]) fe herte Strang to folye / 

and to done gr«t fing uor god. )?et ilke bread we hit This bread we call 

, . ; 1 • IP 1 1 • ours, for it is 

clepiyjj oiu'e / uor hit wes ymad of oure do3e. yblissed made of our 
by fe guode Avyfman : fet of hiren fet flour fer to dede. [FoI. si. a.] 
bet wes be mayde Marie, and yfryd ine be ]>anne of be blessed by the 

> -J J J r I Y g,„)j maiden 

crouche / ase he zayb ine be sautere. uorzobe uorzobe '^•■''■y. 

' _ •! T r r ^ and fried in the 

yfryd ine his 03ene blode. uor fet dede he / ine Jje greate pan of the cross, 
wylle of his loue / fet he hedde to ous. And f et is fet 



It is bread twice 

It is ours because 
Christ left it to 
us as His last re- 

It is our daily 
bread, because 
each day's dole 
is given us by 

Each day it is 
necessary to us, 

and each day one 
shall take it either 
at the sacrament 
of the altar, or by 
right belief. 

It is bread, not 
for churls, but for 
noble hearts, 
cleansed and 
washed by shrift. 

It is sure sub- 
stantial bread, 

surpassing all 
other substances 
in virtue and 

iDiead tuies y-bake / liuermide he astorejj his ssip. Jiet 
is holy cherche / nor to pasy jje greate ze / of jjise 
perilouse AvortUe. Hit is oure. uor he hit ous let : at 
his yleaue nymynge / and at his laste hequide / lesu 
crist pe wel large / ase meste greate tresor : fet he ous 
mi3te lete. and hit ous yaf ase J)et uayreste iowel / J)et 
he ous mi^te yene. and fet we hit ssolde loky : uor his 
lone. Hit is uorzofie oure / uor nojjing ne may / hit ous 
benime toyens oure Avylle. We hit clepie]? oure bread 
of echedaye. fet is to zigge / of eche daye. uor pet is pe 
echedayes dol / pet god j^efjj to his wel Avilynde : fet 
eche daye dojj his seruice / and ziggej? his oares. ])et is 
to alle guode herten / j^et eche daye zueteliche be zope 
lone make]? memorie / and bejjenchinge of his passion. 
pet greate of Jje p^-ouendre / we nimejj ine oure 
heruest ine heuene / hua??.ne we Imn ssolle ysy onwry3e / 
ine his uayrhede / ase he is. Hit is ysed jjeruore eche- 
dayes : fet eche daye /hit is ous nyeduol. and echedaye 
me ssel hit nyme / ofer ate sacrement of ])e wefde / ase 
dojj pe prestes : ojjer gostliche be ri3te byleaue. J3et 
bread is wel precious / an wel noble / and wel ydi^t. 
])et is kynges mete / huerinne bye]) ech manyere lyk- 
inges / and alle guode sinackes / ase zayj? ])e hoc of 
wysdome. ])et ne is na3t mete to gronies / ne to yeue. 
ne to piecaille. ne to cheuaille. ne to clierles. ac to 
noble herten and gentil. an cortays. and clene. pet is 
to J)e herte J)et is gentil be grrtce. noble / be guod lyf, 
yclensed / and ywesse be zolpe ssrifte. Of pise mrtue 
spekp saynt matheu pe wangeliste / and hit clepep ziker 
bread substanciel. pet is to zigge : pet pasep / and 
ouergep alle substances / and alle sseppes be ver. ine 
uiVtue / and ine dingnete / and ine alle opre maneres of 
worp. ne me ne may betere write / ne more yno^ : 
paHue wit substances. Me zayp pet mete is pe mi3[t]- 
violler / Ipanne he hep yno3 of niy3te. and of noriss- 
inge. and pe more pet he is norissinde : me zayp pet he 


is Ipe substancieler. and jjere-uore ]jet ine J^ise breade is 

lucre uiVtue / and of guod / and of nort^we / panne me and contains more 

„ ,1/, . , I ■, , T ■, • nutriment tlian 

ino3e fenche / ojjer zigge. ne zayf me na3t Jjet hit is anything else. 

substanciel. alsuo me zayjj Jjet hit is ope substance / 

fet is / u/rtuous / and substanciel aboue onderston- 

digge / and wenynge. jpet bread we byddejj to oure we pray for this 

uader. and him we biddejj / fet he hit ous yens to-day. TsXiumT 

ine jjise daye / ]pet is ine fise dyadliche Hue. zuo fet ^"'*'- 

we mo3e maky ane guode iornee / and to abyde fe 

gledlaker oure ssepe. j)et is fe peny fet he yefj) to his This is the penny 

1 / 1 r n . • in *^'"1 gives to His 

workmen / liLuJa?me euen com]5. fet is fe ende of pe workmen when 

i- evening Cometh, 


of tlie Pater 

Dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus Noster. 

, . " Forgive us our 

deoitonous nosivis. Ine J^ise bene we biddej? oure trespasses," &c. 
uader of heuene / j^et he ous wylle uoryeue / oure Forgive'^uTour 
misdedes / ase we uoryeuejj to ham : fet ous mis-do]?. ''*'^''' 
ofer habbejj mis-do. faraie zigge we J)us. ' Leue uader / CFoi. 34. b.] 
uoryef ous oure dettes : ase we uoryeue b oure dettours.' as we forgive our 

_ debtors. 

(Jure dettes: byejj oure ze?aaes / f et we habbeb ydo om- debts are our 

1 . 1 sins, 

wexe ope oure zaulen. Jjet is pet beste wed of fe house. 
j)e zenuoUe be one ze«ne dyadlich / pet zuo zone is 
y-pased / ase to j^e loste / ojjcr ase to pe dede / is the interest of 

-IT,, , -,. , , wliich is hell pain. 

y-0 bilged to zuo ane greate gauehnge : jjet he ne he]) 
mi3te to hit endi. fet is to pe pine of helle / fet is 
"^^'f-oute ende. Efterward / he ssel to gode / bet he ^° ™^'"' °°^^^ 

' make suflBcient 

he]j ywrefed / zuo grat amendes : ]3et he ne he J) mi3te amends for one 

11 -vr- ii-i 11 deadly sin, 

uor to yelde. Vor me ai his lyue pa^ ha leuede an 
hondred year ofier more : he ne ini3te na3t do uolueh 
linde penonce of one dyadliche ze;aie / yef god Avolde 
usy to yelde dom. And ]3eruore hit behoue}) to yerne therefore it he- 

, IP • 11-11 hovethhim to run 

to pe cort 01 merci and bidde merci / and aksy uoryeue- to the court of 

nesse. Vor be pe ri3te of pe cort of dom / pe zene- ™"''^' 
3ere ssolde by demd / and yco?ide?»ned to dya]5e eure- 

lestinde. Jjeruore oure guode mayster lesu c?'/st ous for 't ti-.e rourt 



of justice we 
should be doomed 
to death everlast- 
ing- . 

If we do not for- 
give others, God 
will not forgive 

Wherefore in thy 
prayer, see thou 
hast no wicked 
will, cast out all 
wrath, evil, and 

Think hnw Christ 
forgave Ms ene- 
mies who crucified 

It is no great 
thing to return 
good for good, 

but since we are 
God's childnen. 

we ought to for- 
give one another, 
and love our ene- 
mies, and pray for 

tekj) zuo to oxi iioryeuenesse and quittinge hua?;ne Ave 
bicldejj oiire guode iiader pet is zuete and niilde / nor to 
y[e]uene : large and corteys / J^et he ous uory[e]ue oure 

Ac nim wel liede hou jjon bidde. ' Voryef ous oure 
misdedis / ase we uoryeuejj to ham : jjet ous habbe]) 
misdo.' Yor yef we ne uoryeue]) to ham jjet ous habbejj 
ini[s]do : god ne uoryefj) na3t ous oure misdedes. ase 
he him-zelf zayjj ous / ine Ipe godspelle. J5a?me he jjet 
zay]) his pater noster / and lie]) ine his herte hate / 
wrefe / ojjer wyckedhede : he bit more aye him-zelue : 
fiawne uor hi?/i-zelue. Vor he bit god / jjet he ne 
uoryeue hi?« na^t / hua/aie he zayj). ' uoryef me : ase ich 
uoryeue.' and uor ))et at alle J»e times Jiet Jjou zayst pi 
pater noster beuore god pet yzi^p pine herte : pou sselt 
uoryeue pine wyckede wil / and keste out of pine herte : 
alle -wrepe / and alle hate, and euelwyl. operlaker pi 
bene is more aye pe : pa?aie uor pe. Yef hit pe pingp 
Strang ping and kuead uor to uoryeuene / pin euel wyl 
to ham pet pe hatiep / oper pet pe kuead Avillep / huer 
he al misdep : pench pet god uoryaf his dyap to ham 
pet him dede ape rode / pe uor to yeue uorbisne / uor 
to uoryeue to ham / pet pe habbep misdo / and more 
yet eft : ham guod do : yef hi habep nye[de] to pe. Yor 
ase he zayp ine his spelle. IS"e is hit najt grat ping ne 
grat ofseruinge aye god to do guod to ham pet ous dop 
guod. ne to louie po pet ous louyep 1 Yor pet dep pe 
paen / and pe sarasyn / and opre zene3eres. Ac Ave pet 
byep godes children be byleaue and be grace / and Ave 
byep cristene ynemned of lesu crist / and we byep eyrs 
mid him of pe heritage of paradys / of ous to uoryeue 
pe on to pe opre / and louye oure uyendes. pet is to 
zigge hare persones. an bidde uor ham / and do ham 
guod yef hy habbep nyede and pou hit mi3[t] do. Yor pus 
he hit hat ine his spelle. Jja^ne ssolle we onlepiKche 
hatye pe ze??nes / and louie pe zaules. pet byep ymad 


to pe anliknesse of oure lorde. Alsuo ase a leme of pe 

bodye / louej) and uorberj) an ofer. yef o leme blechejj We are aii one 

an ofer be cas. fe ojjer najt h.i?n awrecj? Jjeruore. We body in chnst 


byejj al o body ine lesu crist / ase zayj? pe apostel. and 
feruore we ssoUe edi louye ojjer / and najt hatie / ne 
harnii mid wrong / on / be ober. Huo bet oj^erlaker whosohateth an. 

. other is a mur- 

dej) : he is mansla3te / and hi?rt-zelue amniie]) ase zayjj derer. 
f e wry tinge. Zuych can zigge liis pater noster : bi??^ 
were betere fet he were stille. nor he let his domes- 
man : ayens hi??i. 

Ine Jiise bene jjet we do]) to gode. we him bezeche]) in tus petition 

p/^6 ask God for 

one yeffe of pe holy gost / Jjet is y-cleped / fe jeipe / the gift of know- 
of connynge. fet make]) jjane man ine fo^te and nol of ^ ^^' 
"vvytte. bes gost him sseweb hnet he is. and ine huet '^'hereby man 

•^ ' •-> I sees what he is, 

pe?il he is. and hua^nes he com]?, and huyder he gef. and in what perU 

be is, 

and fet he dejj. and pQ niisdede Jjet he hej) ydo. and 
hou moche / he heJ) hyer ywonne. and hon moche he 
ssel. And hua/nie he yzist bet he ne heb huermide and seeing Ms 

own imperfec- 

endy : J)a?aie hi??i dejj pes gost wepe / and grede merci tions, lie asks 

to god / and zigge. ' Lhord / uoryef me mine dettes. 

J)et byej) myne ze?znen. Vor ich am mochel ine dette 

ayen Jje / and nor pe queades fet ich habbe ydo. and 

nor Jje guodes fet ich habbe noryete / and ylete to done. 

bet ich myjte / and ssolde habbe ydo. And nor bo and forgiveness 

•• -J J I -J •" for his great sins 

guodes pet J)0u me hest ydo. and pine greate guod- 
nesses pet ich habbe eche daye onderuonge / huyche 
ich habbe kueadliche yvzed / and pe kueadHche 
yserued. And peruore lliord ich ne habbe huer-of 
maki pe yeldinge : noiyef me pet ich pe ssel.' Hua/me When he knows 

his faults, 

pes gost hi?n hep zuo aly3t / pet he knanp his defantes : 

and pawne him dep keste out of pe herte alle wrepe / he casts out iii- 

,,,,,., i/n will from his 

and aile hate / and al to uoryeue his euele ywyl / yef heart, 

per is eni. and yef per ne is : he is ine wylle and ine and then is he iWe 

porpos nor to uoryeuene mid herte / yef me him misdeb. *° ^^^' "'p^^^^'^- 

"^ ' "^ ' forgive us our 

And pa?me may he zigge wel. ' Vayre uader uoryef ous misdeeds as we ('o 

. to them that have 

oure misdedes/ase we dop to ham : pet ous habbep misdo.' wronged us." 
8 * 


The 6th petition }5E ZIXTE BENE OF j)E HOLY PATER NOSTEiJ. 

of the Pater 

Noster. Et 716 iios inducas in temptacione\'\\. ])e ybernde : 

" And lead us not , i -n i i n • • 

into temptation." ucp clret. and f 6 like fet ofiermiyl yualle is iii-to ze?me. 

dreads the fire, liua?nae ])e ze?aie liiin is uory[e]ue: he is ]?e more milde : 

and J»e more dreduol / and fe more he hej) grater drede 

so the sinner who of iiondi7?ge. J5eriiore hit he hier to hiiam god his mis- 
is forgiven is n i ii-ii 

afraid of falling dedes uoryeijj / Jjet he hme loky iiram ayen-iialhnge. 

Et ne nos inducas in tem2:)tacionem.. pet is to zigge. 

' Vayre zuete uader / ne led ous na3t in-to uondinge.' J?e 
The devil is the dyeuel is Jje iiondere. vor hit is his creft / huer-of he 

tempter, . , 

seruejj me godes house / nor to prom pe newe kny3tes. 

and yef jje nondinge nere giiod and uremuol to guode / 

god )jet al make]) nor oure guode / nolde na3t Jjolye pet 

but when he beat- hi come. Ac ase zay]) sant hernard. huanne pe uondere 

cth our backs, it,, i , 

he is makini; our OUS knokejj ope pane reg : he ous ssepp oure corounes 
rX?on™dubs Of hlisse. Ase fe ilke >et ope >e regge of >e guode 
a knight, by knvjte / siiiit and beat / him ssept his los : and his 

Bmiting and beat- J j I i J. 

ing upon the back, "biigse. he dveuel berto propreliche uondeb bane man : 

The devil tries to J J f i. i r r 

draw man from pet he hiue my^te wyp-dra^e uram pe loue of god. 
}5eruore hit sainte pawel his deciples / pet hi hy yzet 
ase tours, yroted ase trawes : in loue. zuo pet non 
uondinge hi?7i ne moje refye / ne rocky, beruore ine 

IFol. 35. b.] "" ) J / . , , , 

In this petition pise hezechiuge we acscp help of gode ine oure hatajde / 

Todtn our^iie. ^nd pe yefpe of pite. pet is a grace pet bedeawep pe 

as well as the gift };^gj.{;g ^ud makcp his zuete and reupeuol. and makep 

his al become grene / and berp yno^ frut of guode 

workes wyp-oute and wyp-inne erpe / strengpi his roten 

ine pe erpe of libbende. pet is ase pet guode mortyer / 

huer-of me makep pe guode walles sarzineys pet me ne 

may na3t breke / ne mid pic / ne mid mongenel. 

We say, " Sweet )5a?ine hua/me we ziggep. et ne 7ios inducas in tempf- 

Father, make our . , , • , • ^ -it i. j I ^ 

hearts fast, so acionem. pet is to zigge. ' Vayre zuete uader / make oure 
Ition may^hake hcrteu ucste / au stedeucst / pet hi ne ssake uor none 
we'do' not pray ^londynge pet to hare comp.' We ne byddep na3t / pet 
not to be tempted, ^^g ^^ ssolle by uoiided : Vor pet were a fole bezech- 


iiige / and ssamuol. Ase fe zone of a guod man fet 
ssel by a neAve knj^t him l)ezek|>. ' Leue uader icli pe 
bidde pet fou me loki Jjet icli ne guo neuremo : ne to 
ioustes / ne to tornemens.' "We wylle]? wel pet we by but we desire to 

be tempted, for 

yuonded. vor hit is oiu'e ureme ine uele nianeres. nor that is our profit, 

we byejj pe more ymylded / and pe dreduoller / and pe 

more wys ine alle Jjinges. and pe more worjj / an pe 

more asayd. Vor ase zayjj Salomon. Ze fet ne hejj jjise 

uondinges : he ne may nojjing wel co?aie. bote ase me for otherwise we 

can know notliing 

kan pe batayle of troye / be hyere-zigginge. Yor he ne of these trials, 
may hi;?i-zelue yknawe / ne hi??j uestni ine pe strengjje nor learn how to 

p.. 1/1 Til 1 1- fortify ourselves 

of his nye?zdes / ne hare sotylhede. and hou god is against the fiend. 

trewe to pe nyede / his uryend nor to helpe. ne of hou 

iiele zewnes / ne of hou uele perils / he hef pe ofte 

yloked. and uor alle fiise skeles / he ne ssel na3t ari^t 

conne god louie / ne hi?n Jjonki of his guode. Ac we 

liini biddeb bet he loky oure herten / bet hi ne guo in- '^^'e entreat God 

' ' _ •' ^ that our hearts 

to uondynge / jjet is fet hi ne consenti. Vor al fet is may not consent 

of ous : we hjep zuo j)oure / and zuo fyeble / j^et we 

ne mo^e na3t ane time of pe daye folye pe asaylinges 

of pe dyeule : wyjj-oute pe help of oure Ihorde. And 

hua?me he ous fayleb : we guob ber-in. Hua?zne he when He he!peih 

us then we fight 

OUS helpj) : we wypstondep. and we nj^tep / and we and overcome, 
ouercomejj. And Jjeruore we zigge)). ' Lyeue uader ne 
led ous na3t in-to uondinge. J)et is ne jjole na^t / ])et we 
go in-to cowsentinge.' 

])E ZEUENDE BEXE OF ])E HOLY VATEB NOSTi'iJ. Tlie 7th petition 

of the Pater 

Sed libera nos a malo I amen. Sa\Tit austin zayb. ^"f'*''; ,. 

' J •' •> "But dehverus 

Jjet pe ojtre vices ous make]? o]5er pe kueade to done : f^n^ ^vii." 
ober be guodes lete to done. Ac al bet me heb ydo. au the gifts we 

r r o y rJ^ haveofGod, 

and alle pe yefjjes pet he hej) j'-porchaced : prede is ine pride seeks to de- 

wille to destrue / and to benime. An jjeruore h[u]a/aie 

god hej) y-yeue to man jjet he him hej) ybede ine fise 

zeue benes beuore yzed. fane uerst hit is nyed uorzojie : 

pet he him delyuri of pe kueade / and of his aspiinges. ^^herefore we ask 



God to deliver us 
from evil. 

We entreat to be 
delivered from 
the devil and his 

We pray for the 
gift of fear, so 
tliat we may be 
delivered from all 

[Fol. 36. a.] 

And feruore comjj alast jjis bene / ase fe efter-warde / 
fet zayjj pons. Sed libera nos a malo. amen. Ipet is to 
zigge : 'Lyeue nader deliure o[u]s of jje kneade. pet is to 
zigge : of pe dy[e]uele. and of his sle^jjes. fet we ne lyese 
be prede / pe guodes : |)et Jjou ous best y-yeue.' Inne 
f ise bene we him biddej) / fet he ous yeiie Jie yef jje / of 
drede. hiier-by we ssolle by delyured of pe kueade / and 
of alle ojjer kuead. j)et is of alle zene / and of alle 
pe?'ils ine fise wordle : and ine pe of>re. Amen. 

Nou best ])0U y-herd pe notes / J)et me kan noty ope 
J?ise zonge pet god made, fet is fet pater noste?'. iN'ou 
loke jjet ])ou bit conne Avel zinge ine fine herte. Vor 
grat guod pe ssel beualle : yef f)ou zuo dest. 

The seven gifts 
of the Holy 

It behovetli us to 
speak with rever- 
ence of these 

1. We shall say 
what are the gifts, 

2. why they are 
so called, 

8. why gifts of the 
Holy Ghost, 

4. why seven, and 
neither more nor 

5. what good they 
do us. 

A blissful bridal 
was made in the 
womb of Mary 
when God's Son 
espoused our flesh 
and nature. 

Many fair gifts 
He brought to his 

Christ was the 
flower of Naza- 


Efter pe zeue benes fet byef y-contyened ine bob 
pater noster : ous be-bouej) to spekene mid greate reuer- 
ence / of zuo be3e matiere / ase of pe zeuen holy yefjjes 
of pe holy gost / ase be hi???zelf ous ssel teche. And 
uerst we wyllej) zigge : buyche hjep pe yefjjes. Efter- 
ward h[u]eruore hi byejj y-cleped / yef jje. and huereuore 
yefjje of pe holi gost. Efterward hueruore per byej) 
zeuen / ne mo / ne les. and efterward of pe guodes fet hi 
ous dojj. Wone is and cortayzie / Jiet h[u]a?me man is 
ricbe / and worfii / and noble / and com]) to his spouse / 
and be bise louej) mid al his herte and hire brengj) of 
bis ioiax. Ysaie pe profete yze3 ine goste pe ilke blis- 
uolle bredale / Jjet wes ymad ine fie womhe of pe blisfolle 
mayde marie / bua?«ie godes zone nom / and sj^ousede 
oure zoster and oure uless. oure manbode / and oure 
kende. Yef we teliejj pe ioiax and pe uayre yefjies fet 
be bro3te mid him uor to yeue to his spouse / and to 
his eldringes / and zayde fous Jje zuete profete wel 
corteisliche. ' Of pe rote of iesse ssel guo out a yerd / 
fet ssel here fet flour of nazaref.' J?et is to zigge : fet 
flour / of flours. Vor nazarej) : is asemoche worjj / ase 


floiu- / and grace, ase moclie ase cos. and ope fet flour : 
hbn ssel resti fe holi gost. fe gost of ^vysdome : and of 
onderstondinge. fe gost of strengpe : and of mVtue. jje 
gost of wytte : and of pite. ]>& gost of godes drede. fise 
byeb be graces huer-of he was al uol / uram be time bet From His birtu 

•^ . He was full of all 

he wes onderuonge in-to fe wombe of his moder. ase Jje graces, 

/ as the sea is full 

greate ze is uol of wetere / and welle oi alle weteres / of water. 

zuete / an zalte. huer-of hi weteref al Tpe wordle. Alsuo 

wes he ase zayj) sayn Ion / zuo uol of grace and of 

zobe / Jjet of his iiolhede : we nime]) al. ))ise zeue And we partake of 

His fulness. 

gostes / and fiise zeue yefjjes we onderuongej) al / mid we receive these 

.. 1 T TT 1 , ^ holy gifts with 

J)e holy cristni^ge. Ac ase fe graces bodiiiclie pet god uoiy christening. 

yefjj to fe childe / ine wytte / ine guodnesse / and ine 

strengpe / and ine oJ)re graces fet he yefj) to his wyUe. 

to echin he hi??^ sseweb Htel / and litel. ase bet child f^ ''""^' "^ ^ ^^^^ 

J I > degree, 

wext / and com]) uor]). Alsuo is he in his graces gost- 
liche be |)an fet ech profitej) ine guode / and agrayjie]) 
his herte / and him yef b to gode : be ban bet god \nm ^'^^ in<='-easins 

/ J r o I r o more and more in 

yefb more / and more of grace. And bet sseAveb bis those who use 

J J I ° ' ' ' them aright. 

yefjje be worke / pe on : ine Jie on. and fe ojier / ine Jje 

o]jei'. ase liit lykejj fe holy gost / pet his todelp to his 

wiUe. ase zaynte paul zayp. J^amie ine ous beginnej? These graces be- 
gin low and rise 

pise graces ase pe m'7'tues ine I03. and ssewep an hej. high. 

And pet is of drede. Jja?me ine wysdome. Vor drede 

is beginninge of -wysdom. ase zayb dauid. Ac ine him Pearls thebegin- 

" ° "^ ' ning of wisdom. 

weren echedaye alle pe g?-aces / and alle pe u//'tues wel 

uoUiche wyp-oute enie mesure. and peruore his zet pe t^^'^i- s^. b.] 

profete dounward / ech yefpe be pe ordre of hare ding- 

nete. Alsuo ase zeue benes byep yzet beuore be pe 

ordre of hare dingnetes. pe he3este beuore. and pe lo3este 


HUERUORE HI bye); Y-CLEPED YEF]^ES. Why they are 

called gifts. 

bise graces byeb yhote yefbes uor bri skeles. Verst i- These graces 
■• ° J r J J r r ^ ^^^ ^^^^ea. gifts 

uor hare dingnete and hare Avorp. yef me yefp ine pe for their dignity 

. and worth. 

kinges cort ane robe to ane childe / oper ane poure 


manne : aue dissuol of ijesen / jjet ne is no Jiiug Jjet by 

worJ)i to hj ycleped yefjje of kyng. Jjeruore saynt 

iacob clepej) alle Jje ofre giiodes Jiet god jeip / and tim- 

Aii other gifts are liche / and gostliche. nau3t yef bes : ac y-yeue. fet by 

changing and i • i ; 

going. cnongmde / and giioinde. Ac fise graces he clepe]) 

given to us by God yef|)es uolueld. Yoi lie his ne yef]) to nonen : fat he 

ne yeff) hiwi-zehie. J3e oper scele is / iior pet Jje ofre 

2. other graces g?'aces / and J)e oTpre guodes he ous leii]) uor to usy iue 
fn'thisiife.bT' >ise line. Ac jjise byef yeffes ari3t wy})-oute wypnym- 
remrin^vuruT J^ge / and wyf-oute lere. Yor liua«ne fe of re ssolle 

fayli / ]}ise ssolle ous bleue. ]5a?me byef hi zuo propre- 
liche oure : Jjet we his ne ino3e na^t lyese wylle "we 

3. They are given nolle Ave. ase we nio3e jje ojjie. )je Jjridde scele and Jie 

by love. 

hejeste is. uor Jjer byej» yefjjes clenliche be lone, and |)ou 

wost wel fet yefjje lyest Jjane name of yefjje : hua??ne 

hit ne is na3t y-yeue clenliche be loue. Vor hua?2ne fe 

A gift becomes yeuere he]) zi3]ie to his 03ene prou : fet ne is no yef])e : 

giver has an eye ac TalpYQ is cliapuare. Huawiie he yzy3]) guodnesse 

to his own profit. , , , ■ / , , • p, i t -j. ■ 

OHderuonge / o])er seruice / pet ne is no yeipe / ac hit is 

ra])re dette y-yolde. Ac hua^ne Jie yeffe com]) p?'opre- 

A gift comes from liche and clcnliche ' of be welle of loue wili-oute ijrou. 

the well of love, ' ' 

without reward, wy])-oute ycf])e. wy])oute drede. wy])-onte enie dette : 
J3a??ne is hit ari3t ycleped / jefpe. Huerof pe filosofe 
zsijp. fet yef])e / is yeuynge : wyfoute ajen-jeipe. ])et 
is \vy[])]-oute onderstondinge of ayenyef])e. ac wyfoute 

God gives us His more : uor to zeche loue. Ine zuyche manere god yef]) 

gifts for the love 

He hath to us. ; OUS liis yeffes clenliche / uor pe loue ]3et he he]) to ous / 
and uor to gaderi oure herten. and oure loue. and uor 
])ise scele : p>'oj)reliche hi bye]) y-cleped / yef])es. 


called gifts of the 

Holy Ghost. ^p hueruore hi byef y-cleped / jeipe of fie holy 

1. Works ot might g^gj; . h-^niiG^ vef be of be uader / and of lie zone, uor alle 

belong to the '^ ■» J r r I r 

Father: works of 1^]^^ dedcs / and liire yef bes bye]) co???mun. (?) })er-to 

wisdom to the ' J r J r \ ' ' 

Son: works of \)\-q\, tuave sccles. \iQ oue. uor ))an pet ase Avorkes of 

goodness to the d t j ' j j 

Holy Ghost. niy3te / bye]) appropred to fie uader. and pe workes of 
1 MS. chenliche ^ more ]panne ? 


wysdom / to jje zone : alsuo Jje ^vorkes of guodnesse : to 

J3e lioly gost. vor' guodnesse is / ase zay}) sanyt denys / [' ms. wor] 

to lere him-zelue. A-^or yef a man yeff) Jiet him na3t ne 

costnejj : fet ne is najt grat guodnesse. Ac uor jje 

holy gost. be pjse zeue yef Jjes / spret him-zelue ine oure These gifts spread 

herten / ase zayjj zainte paul / ase be zeue streames. by seven streams. 

])eruore hi bye]) propreliche y-cleped yefpes of fe holy 

gost. A^'or he is be welle. hy byeb be streames. And The Hoiy Ghost is 

be ober scele is / uor bet be holy gost is p?'opreliche be are the streams. 

^^ I r r J o II Y 2. 

loue / bet is betuene be uader / and be zone, and beruore is the love be- 

' •• _ ' I r T tween the Father 

bet loue is be propre / and be uerste / and be hejeste ami son. 

'' r i 1 ' r / -"^ . -^ Love is the high- 

yefjje : j^et man may yeue / Jiet ari3t yefj). and ine fise est of all gifts. 

yefjje : me yef]? / alle J^e ofre. and wyboute Jjisen : non 

ober yef be ' ne is na^t arijt y-nemned yef be. beruore is The Holy Ghost 

is gift and giver, 

arijt be holy gost prop?'eliche / yef be / and yeuere. Yor for he giveth and 

is given. 

he \\\m yef J7 : and is y-yeue. Ine echen of fuse zeuen [Foi. sr. a.] 
Jiet he yefj) uor to co»fermi oure loue to his / fet hi 
by feruent / and guod / and zo])e / and clene. 


Vor tuo J»inges is ])e man yborje. be fe be-uliynge why man is 


of kueade : and do Jiet guode. jjet kueade beuly / and i. By eschewing 
hatie : ous de]) fie yeffie of drede. ]5e ofre zix dofi ous 2. By doing good. 
fie guodes to done. J;e yeffie of drede is Je doreward causes us to flee 
to fie greate fireste. fiet is to zigge : to Je greats fireap- The other six gifts 
ninge of godes dom / and of Je pine of helle. fet is good.^"^ 
eehedaye / aredy and arise. Jet is Je wayte of Je 
castele / Jet neure ne slepj. Jet is ]Je wyed hoc of fe ^'^hfdoor-*^'^*'"^ 
gardine fet uorde]? al Jet kueade gers. )3et is Je hor- ^^rwatchofthe 
dyer bet lokeb be herte / and alle be 'guodes bet byeb castie, 

•J ' 1 > I JO -■ "^ -^ the weed -hook of 

ferinne. )3e ojre zix yefjes / ous makef Je guodes to the garden. 

ISTou sselt bou ywyte / bet ase be brisTtlnesse of be The sun gives 

r J -^ l_ '^ f -"-J J- light to the world. 

zo?me bet bou izixt yefb liit to be Avordle and u//'tue / and virtue and 

^ ' J s J I strength to all 

and stre?igje to alle Je Jinges Jet wexej and comej to things in it; 

... so the Holy 

])e wordle. alsuo def» Je holy gost Jet ali3t in lieuene ohost gives light 



to those who are 
in grace. 
There are three 
stages of folk in 

1. The nearest to 
God see and hear 

2. The middle 
ones are like 
barons and 

?,. The lowest are 
as Serjeants (serv- 

So are there three 
states of God's 
sons on earth. 

1. Those who live 
by God's behests. 

2. Those who 
have their hearts 
in heaven and 
their bodies on 

3. The third 
govern them- 
selves and others 
by God's behests. 

The two first of 
these six gifts 
(knowledge and 

belong to those of 
the first state. 
The two middle 
ones (counsel and 
strength) belong 
to those of the 
second stage. 
The two last 
and wisdom) be- 
long to those of 
the highest state. 

and ine erjje alle po pet hjep in grace / and men / and 
angles. And al alsiio ase ine lieuene / hep Jjri stages 
of nolke / ase zayt saynt denys. liuer-of pe on is 
lie^ere. pe ojjer men. pe ])ridde lowest, pe he3este / byej) 
ase )30 / ])et hjep of pe kinges consayle. pise bye]? 
alneway mid god pe nixte panne pe ojjre / and jzjep 
and yherejj / and hivi : and his p?-2mtes. ])e men 
[midliste] / hjep ase pe barouns / and pe baylifs ))et 
gouernejj and wytyejj pe kingriche / and giiojj / an 
comejj. and lyerniep of pan of pe consayle. an pet hi 
hotep and makep hit do opren. })e lo3este / byep ase 
sergons. and po pet byep ine office / and habbep pe 
mestyeres / and dop pe offices / and pe messages ase 
me ham zayp. In po manere / and in po uorbysne hep 
he pri states of godes zone ine erpe. Hiiiche pe holy 
gost / let / and condnep / ase zayp sainte panel. ])e on 
stat is of pan / pet byep ine pe wordle and libbep be 
godes hestes. and be pet hi lenep / and yhyerep of hyre 
ouerlynges. )5e oper stat is of pe stedeneste / pet of al 
habbep pe herten ont of pe wordle / pet ysyep god ase 
moche ase me may ine pise lyne. and habbep hire con- 
uersacion ine heuene / and pe bodyes ine erpe. and pe 
herten mid god. pe pridde byep ine pe middel stat / 
pet gouernep. wel / oper ham / oper opre. and libbep 
be pe hestes of god. )?ise pri maneres tekp pe holy 
gost / and let / and gouernep / be pise zix yefpes. and 
ham to-delp pise g?-aces to echen to liis wylle ase zayp 
pe apostel. J5e tuo uerste of pise zix yefpes / belangep 
to pan / pet byep of pe nerste stat. j)e yefpe of con- 
nynge : ham tekp. And pe yefpe of j)ite : makep hain 
to bidde. j)e tuo midleste / belo??gep to ham of pe 
middel stat. j)e yefpe of red : ham gouernep. And pe 
yefpe of strengpe : uoluelp pe nyedes. J?e tuo laste / 
belongep to ham of pe he3este stat. J2e yefpe of onder- 
stondinge : his aly^t. J?e yefpe of "wysdom / hise makep 
stedeuest / and his co?^fermep / and ioyuep to god. An 


opev skele per is / hueruore .pev hjep zeuen. Vor jje 

holy gost be fise zeue yef]?es : bestrep]) Jie zeue zeiines The seven gifts 

, T . 11 / 1 • ^'''■'P away the 

uram pe nerte. and plontej) / and nonssef zeue uo'tues seven sins from 
co??,[t]raries / jjet make]? man stedeuestliche yblyssed. [Foi. sr. b.] 
J5ise byejj pe guodes / pet pe holy gost makef ine herte 
huer he descendeb be bise zeue yef bes. Ac erban ich ^ ^i" no^ speak 

'of seven other 

decendi to pe mVtues J)et byeb con[t]raTies to be zeue virtues, wiiereof 

three are godly 

zewnes : ich pe wylle speke ssortliche / of zeue o])re and four cardinal, 
uw-tues. huer-of pe fri hjep yclieped' : godliche. and 
pe uour bye]) y-cleped cardinals. 

Of ]3E pRl UERSTE U/iJTUES. Of the three first 


])e Jjii uerste clepe]) saynte paul : beleaue. hope. Belief, hope, and 
and charite. and bye]) ycleped / godliche. Vor fet hi gokiy, they direct 
ordayne]) hare herten to god. Beleaue / ase zajp saynt By be'ifef w°e ac- ' 
austin : ous zet onder god. and hi ous de]) beknawe / °"^ e ge o . 
and to byknawe. to pe Ihorde / of huam we healde]) al 
])8t we habbe]). of guode. Hope : zajp. hi ous arere]) Hope raises us to 
to god / and ous make]) Strang / and hardi / nor to on- 
dernime uor lii??i ])et hi ])et j)ace]) ui'rtue of man. 
Charite. f)is zajp. hi ous ioyncb to god. Vor charite ne charity joineth us 

to God. 

IS o])er ])ing bote dyere oninge. uor hi de]) of pe herte 
and of god : al on. ase zajp saynyte Pol. Beleaue / 
y-zi3t ine gode pe hejeste zojjnesse. Hope, cuerlyche 
hejuesse. and ouerliche mageste. Charite. ouerliche ft three things 

one loveth a man. 

guodnesse. jjise fri ui'rtues bye]) to-deld be fri degres i. Having heard 

J. , TT 1 • . • 1 . ^ . ^°™*' sreat good 

Oi loue. V or pTi ])inges me lone]) ane man. 0])er uor of him. 

,, 1,11, ir.1- ^ 2. Having learnt 

pet me hep y-lierd grat guod of mm. Oper uor fet me great good of him. 
onderstant grat guod of hi??z. Ofer uor pet me hep on- ceived gieat good 
deruonge grat guod of him. \)[se Jiri maneres of loue : ° ^^' 
bye]) ine ])ise firi mrtues. Loue of beleaue : hjerp ine 
dede. Loue of hope : uelb bane smel / and zekb. Loue These three kinds 

^ ' f I J of love are m 

of charite : nim]). and zik]). and zuel3}) / and halt. ^hese three vir- 

1 MS. i/cheped 


Ofthefourcardi- Of j)E UOUR U/JJTUBS CARDINALES. 

nal virtues. 

Of Jje iiour u/rtues cardinales spekejj mocne fe 

God giveth and 
teacheth us thei 
a hundred times 
better tlian tlie 
old pliilosopliers 

teacheth us tiiera yeaUe philosofes. Ac fie holi gost liise yefj? / and 
better than tiie [jgjjj, J j^etere an liondredsijje. ase zayj) Salomon ine fe 
boc of wysdome. Of J)ise uour mrtnes f»e uerste me 
1. Sleight (Pru- clepe])/sle3])e — . ]>e oper tempe?'ance. fe Jiridde/strengfie. 

dence). 2. Tem- , r-,n -it- • , it 

iierance. fe uerjje / dom [ri3tuolnesse]. pise uour mrtues byep 

Doom (Justice), y-cleped cardinals, nor fiet hi byej) liefest amang fe 

dinai virtues?'^'^ UM'tues / huBi-of ])G yealde filosofes speke. Vor he 

jjise uour u/vtues fie man gouernef lii?«-zelue ine fise 

wordle. ase fe apostles gouernef holy cherche be his 

1. Prudence keeps cardinals. Slcjbe : lokeb bane man bet he ne by be 

niau from being ■'' ' ' ' 

beguiled. none slesbe of be kueade y-OTled. Temperance, bet 

2. Temperance 7r r J OJ x i 

preserves man he TIG by be none kuede lone amerd. Strengbe. bet he 

from being 

marred by wicked ne by be tyene. ober be drede. ober be zorse : ouercome. 


3. Strength bears bise bi'i hyeldef) man ine guod stat aiiorye hi???-zelue. 

him up against 

sorrow. Doiii. liine zet ine ordre and ine ri^t stat a-yens of re. 

Vor hi to echen al fet his is. Jpise byef f e uour 

These are the four tours ine fe uour coriiyeres of fe house of fe guode 

towers that make /,, t,.,i •^ ti cni 

the house of the majiiie / fet makcfi fet hous ziker and Strang. !bie3]3e : 
and'^steong'*'"' ^it werejj wyjj jjet yeast be porueynge aye fe perils, 

Te??^pera?^[ce] / aye fet zouf). aye fe wykkede hetes. 

Strengf . aye fet norf . aye f e wyckede cheles. Justice. 

ay[e] fe west, a-ye f e Avyckede raynes. 

Of the office of the Qp Jje OFFICE OF bE UOUR U/iJTUES. 

four virtues. 

Thesefour^virtuea J^^^^ uoiir ui'rtues habbcf diuersc offices / and 

offlce^.^^^"^^" mochel ham diuersef ine hire workes / ase zayf an aid 

filosofe fet hette platoun ine his boc fet he made of f e 

uour u/rtues. and hise to-delf Avel sotilliche. and zayf. 

Prudence hath fet sle3f e lief f ri officcs. uor be f ise uwiue al fet man 

direct man'ar'ight tlcif / and zayf / and f engf. al lie di3t / and let / and 

word, and^deed. Tculef to f e lyne of scele. ne nof ing he nele do : bote 

ri3t and scele. And ine alle his workes he him porueyf 

fet hi by do / by f e ordinance / and by f e Avylle of 


god / Jjet al y-zi^jj / and- clem]?. A grat Uiord ssokle lie 
hj ase me fingji / jjet J)ise onelej)i uzVtue liedde : and 
be fise fri jjinges Iwn gouernede. 

TEMP£iJANOE. Temperance. 

pe u/rtue of te/?zperance hef fri offices. Vor herte '^eranre hath*^^'"' 
pet pise office hep ne wyle / ne ne wyliiep ping : pet ^^'^^ °®<=^^- 
makep to uorpenclie. Ine none pinge lie ne agelt pe 
la3e to louie zikerliclie. and onder him of scele lie zet / 
and dret alle pe couaytises of pe wordle. ])et is to 
zigge. lie bet lieb bise u//'tue. he him loki / bet he ne it keeps man from 

°° J X J I ■> bemg marred by 

by amerd be bise bri biiifjes bet be wordle ssent. ase tuesmoftue 
zayb saint Ion. ze?me of ulesse : and prede of herte. '>eart, and the 

■* covetousness of 

couaytise of pe wordle. the -world. 

StRENgJPE. strength. 

j)e nirtno of strengpe / hep alsuo pri offices. Vor .troSam. 
huo pet pise mVtue hep : he him a-rerep an he^ a-boue ™e pe^J-uroftii'u^ 
pe perils pet byep ine pe wordle. ISTo ping lii??i ne dret / '^°'-'^'^- 
bote vileynie. 

Aduersete / and prospe^-ite / he berp / and polep 
Avyp-onte wepinge. ne ari3tlialf ne alefthalf. "VVel ssolde 
he by gtiod kny3t / pet uie pise pri pinges were wel y- 
proued. pise pri u/rtues armenp / an ordaynep. and JhrTfaTitils of 
agraypep man / ase to pri deles of pe herte / pet me son/love^'^'r' 
cliepep • scele. loue. and strengpe. Prudence / lokep s'^i'<=°sth. 
pane scele ^ / pet hi ne bi beca3t. Temperance / lokep 
pane loue / pet hi ne by amerd. Strengpe. lokep pet 
wyl : pet hi ne by ouerconie. 

E13TUOLNESSE. Rightfulness. 

Rijtuolnesse^. makeb bane man ordeneliche libbe Rig'itfuiness 

-' ' ' makes man to 

amang obren. Vor ase zayb platoii. bis is be u/rtue / nve orderly 

° J J r i r r 1 among others, 

pet makep pet pe man a-yens echen dep pet he ssel do. to yield reverence 
Vor hi yelt reuerence to ham pet byep a-boue. loue to 1^"^^*^°^^ ^^'""^ 

' MS. chepefj ^ MS. sclele 3 MS. pi3tuolnesse. 

126 'the necessity of charity. 

IndTo^howlmd- ^^^^^ f®^ ^^'^f bezide. grace to liam Jjet bye]) benefe. 

nertrhim'" ^^' '^'^ ^^^^ ^°^^ UM'tues yclo / is jje man wor])i pet be by 
gouernour uerst of bim-zelue. and efterward of ofren, 
Ine fise nour uiVtnes ham studede fe yealde filozofes 
f)et al fe. wordle onworJ)ede / and uorlete / nor uirtue 
to zecbe and wysdom. and feruore hi Avere y-cleped : 

Philosophy sig- filosofes. Vor filozofe is ase moche worb : ase lone of 

nifies the love of 

■wisdom. Avysdome. A. god bon bit ssolde ous ssende and astonie / 

The old phiioso- liua?aie bo bet weren ijaenes / and \vyb-ont lase v-Avrite 

phers who strove •" ■■ ' ^ ' J J 

to climb unto the ijet najt ne conbe of be zobe grace of god / ne of be 

Hill of Perfection ' ^ I Y r ^o O I V 

by strength of holy gost : ne wenden. hi clinen in to be belle of per- 

tbeir own virtue, «.«■,. 

put so-called leccion of huo be strengjie be hire 036110 u/rtue / and 

Christians to - - 

shame, who, hav- 110 daynede na3t to loki ope jje wordle. And Ave bet 

ing the true '^e- -i ,.,/,,, , 

lief, yet wallow in byej) c?7steiie / and haboet J)e zojje beleaue and comie 

the mire of this ,i,n -,-,-,-,-, 

world. be hestes ot god and habbeb be grace of be holy gost. 

[Fol. 38. b.] ' ,^ „ . 

Yet we yzeje fet we mi3te more me one daye pj-ofiti / 

J)a?me hi ne mo3e ine one yere y-liol / we walewej? ase 

Wherefore saith zuyn hyer benebe / ine bise wose of bise wordle. bernore 

St Paul, that the ; 

pagans doing the zayj) sanynto paul / fet fie payens bet byeb wyb-oute 

law without the -t i ^ -i 

law shall judge us la3e / and do)) J)e la3e. ate daye of dome : hi ssolle ous 

tliat have the law , 

and do it not. dcmo / j)et liabbet |)e la3e / and na3t bise do]). Ac nor 
])aii ])et hi ne hedden na3t ri3te byleue / ne fane holy 
gost / ne none lu'rtue. ne lyf / ne zo})e beknawynge : hi 

Virtue without ne ' 111030 y-wy to hou moche bet hi weren uayre / nor ase 

charity is like a ? J ^ r J I 

dead coal or dead moclie aso for is bo-tuene dyad col / and qnyk / man 
dyp.d / and man libbinde : ase moche ])er is be-tuene 
UM-tue ])et is wy])-oute charite / ])et is Ipe guodnesse / 
and ])e wor]) / and ])et lyf of pe o])re n^rtues. Huer-of 

The four cardinal sayiit austin hua?^ne he spec]) of J)ise nour uiVtues / he 

virtues are four _ j- t r i 

kinds of loves. his to-dolf) be uouT mane?'es of loue. and be nour finges 
])et zof) loue make]). j)anjie he zayJ) / ])et Jie mrtue of 
love of the heart pi'udcnce : is pG louo of hcrte. ])et wyslyche uorlet / al 
IkerauthatTnay f^t him may derie : and chyest al fet him may helpe. 
J'*''™- and habbe bet he loue]) / ])et is god. he mrtwe of te^n- 

Temperance en- ■" j i j o j 

abies man to give perauco is he louo of he herte / liuerbv he hi?>i vef b v- 

himself wholly to ^ ' ' -' J r J 

God. 1 MS. «0 


holliclie and wyjjoute corrupcion to Jjet ha loue]? / pet is 

to god. pe ii/rtue of stre?;g|)e / is pe loue of lierte / strength enables 

huer-by he folej? strongliche alle finges Jjet 111036 come / things. 

uor bet he louejj. lustice / is be loue of herte / luier- Justi-e is the love 

whereby he serves 

by he serueji onlepiliche and wyjj-oute more / to fet he God and putteth 

,,,...,-, ., , all other things 

louep. pet IS to god, and uor zuo moche dejj onder uot under foot. 

aUe ofre |)inges. j)anne dom zet man / ine his ri3te stat. 

pet is aboue aUe binges / and onder god. Wyb-oute bise Without these 

four virtues non« 

uour u»-tues non ne may cliue in-to be helle of perfec- may ciimb unto 

^-^ - , , T 1 ,,,.-,-, theHiUofPerfec- 

cion. Vor huo pet wyle zuo he3e clyue / him behouej) tion. 

ate uerste Jigt he habbe prudence / Jiet hi»i makie to 

onworpi pe wordle / and strengjie jjermide / fet him 

yeue grat herte / of g?'at ])ing to onderuonge. and uol3i. 

Of ojjerhalf Jjet he habbe temperance / uor Jiet he ne 

by to moche y-charged. and ri3tuolnesse J)er-mide / Jjet is 

pe ri3te pej). and hi?7i ssewy godes riche. ase god dede 

to lacob. ase zayjj jje boc of wysdome. Huo J»et Jjise whoso had these 

uour uirtues nii3te zuo habbe / he ssolde by Avel per- blessed and per 

feet / and yblissed ine fise wordle / and more ine pe world, and more 

opve. Vor he ssolde by ine payse of herte. and ine 

blisse gostlych / na3t ne sso[l]de liim faily / ac wexe ine 

god Jjet he ssolde habbe ine hhn / ine huam he him 

ssolde lyky. 

ISTou Ave ayen comeb to oure kende. and bidde we Let us pray the 

' Holy Ghost to 

mid al oure herte / bane holy gost / bet tekb be hertes. teach and show us 

' ^ J o / r r r how He, by these 

jjet he by oure auocat / and ous teche to sseawy hou he gifts, strippeth 

. the seven sins 

be Jiise zeue yeijjes : bestrepej) pe zeue ze?^nes of oure from our hearts, 
herten. and he zette / and norissy pe zeue uiHues. 

Of bE YEFbE OP DREDE. Of the gift of 

■" ' dread. 

j)e yefjje of drede : is pe uerste / of pe yefjjes. fet The gift of dread 
kest out alle jje ze/ines of pe herte. ase we- habbe]) yzed the sins from the 
beuore wel propreliche. He bestrepb be rote of prede. it strippeth the 

■" •"_ root of pride, and 

and zet in his stede : be u/rtue of mildenesse. l^ou setteth in its stead 

^ . [Fol. 39. a.] 

loke and onderstand wel hou. be zene3ere bet slep]) ine the virtue of 


dyadliche ze?ine / is ase pe ribaud and dronke / fet hejj The sinner is like 

the drunkard. 

128 THE sinner's unconsciousness. 

who knows not al uorlore ill Ipe tauerne / and is zuo naked and zno 

hi3 nakedness and 

poverty. poure : jjet he ne lie]? na3t. ac najt he hit ne neljj ne 

playne]?. Ac he wen]? by a wel greet Ihord. 

Ac fanne he hejj y-slepe / and conif to hi?»-zelue : 
panne he yuelp his kuead / and knaup his folye / and 

The first good that hi???, playiieb of his harm, bet is bet uerste giiod bet 

the Holy Ghost ' . 

doth to the sinner pe holy gost de]j to ]}e zene3ere / hua?ine he him uisitejj. 

his senses" Vor he hi??? yelt his wyttes / and his onderstondinge / 

80 that he may and him breng]) ayen to hi??i-zekie. zuo Jjet he hi??* 

has faiTen!^^ ^^ knaujj / and hi??i reuertej) huet guodes ne hej? iierlore / 

and how waste- ^nd inc huct poucrte he is y-ualle be his ze??ne. ase 

sqnand'ere'tihis dede jje guode mannes zone pet his eritage wastede and 

leniage. dispe??dede ine ribaudie and leuede lecherusHche / 

alhuet hi??z behouede to loki zuyn. ase oure Ihord ous 

make]) |)ise uorbysne ine his spelle. Atenende pe 

zenejeres ^ ase zayji Salomon is ase pe ilke J)et sleji]) 

amide pe ze / and Jiet ssip spilj? / and he na3t hit ne 

The sinner is as ne\p j lie iioiie dredc ne hej). Ac hua??ne pe lioly gost 

irons and fetters, hi??? awakcj) : J)a??ne ynelj) he and zi3j) his pe?'il / and 

guarded, as was begin J) to habbe drede of hi??^-zelue. And yet eft pe 

St Peter in . , -n t j • • • • i 

Herod's prison. zene3ere IS ase pe like pet is me p?-?sone m ysnes and 
The wretch in 6 uetcres / and ine greate lokinge / ase wes saynte 

thinketh not of . , , . , , , 

the gibbet, but peter Hie hcrrodes prisone. and pe wrechche ne j?eng]) 
dreameth that he of hi??z J)et hiiie halt : lie of pe gibet j^et lli??^ abit. ac 
and weddings. slepj) and met fet ha gej) to festes and to bredales. Ac 
a3'the°auge/ti'iar p^ gvcice of pe holy gost is ase pe angle Jjet awakede 
ard delivered Mm zaynte pctien / and \\\m deliurede of pe hand of herrode. 
Herod, fo*!- he" ^ ^^'^'^ ^^^ awakcj? Jjane zene3ere / and hi???, deliurej) of pe 
ne^and deiivexs" ^'^^^^^ ^f pe dyeulc. Ateende^ pe zene3ere is ase pe ilke 
poweTofUie'*' l^^* '^^'^^^l' ^J Strang / an hoi / and he hej? fane dyajj 
Thl'sinner ween- o^^^^^^r liis clojjes. Yor he \\ep pe kuede humours and 
"^-et he hlthX ath coiTuptes iiie pe bodye / liuer-of lie ssel sterue \vy]3-inne 
under his clothes, j^j-^g moiijje. aiid lie weiif libbc yet uourti yer / ase 
zayj) elyuans ine uers of Jie dya])e. Do away pe scoffes 
The Holy Ghost aiid pe scomes. uor zuich me wrikjj onder his clobes 

is the good physi- 
cian. })et weiij) by Strang and hoi. Ac pe lioli gost is fie guode 

' zcucyre ? - Atenende ? 

THE sinner's sickness. 129 

leclie / )?et amaystrej) his ziknesse / and clionge]) liis that masters the 
humours, and hi???, yefjj zuycli a byter medecine : jjet g\vetrman such 
him help, and him yefjj pet hf. Alsuo troblejj oure t\''^"t''hTaieih"' 
Ihord pe herte jjet he \vyle hele. ase zayjj daui]? in pe ^}'^ ^^^'"^'^ 
sautere. and him wyb-nynib' / and deb him come ay en om- Lord troubles 

J r J r I r J the heart that 

hi?n-zelue to knawe / ase he dede adam : oiu-e uerste ^e wiu heai. 
uader efter pe zenne |)o he him hedde / ama??g pe traAves 
of paradys. Hueruore he him zede : 'ada?/i huer art bou'?' 

•' Three questions 

)?ri obre acsi??gges made he be enne of his angles to be asked tiie augei 

of Hagar, when 

jjierne [of] saynt abraha??i / fet hette agar j)o hi ulea3 uram she fled from her 
hare llieuedi. Agarhezayde/'hua/^nescomstjjou. Huj^der i. whence comest 

., ttjti. nil-.- • 1..11 thouP 2. Whither 

gest pou. Jluet dest pou i pise pri acsmges make]? pe holy goest thou ? 

,,, 1 1 111 111-3. What dost 

gost to pe zene3ere huanne he awake Ji and arerej) and mm thou? 
openejj pe e^en of jje herte. and him yelt his wyttes and Tjjg^g^^'jj''''-' 
his onderstoudinge. ' Huer art bou 1 ' zayb he : bet is to questions the 

^ r J r r Holy Ghost puts 

zigge : ' Yzij- wrechche ine hiuche zorjes / and ine huiche *■« ^^'^ s'™*"" 

when he awaketh 

perils jjou art in Jjise wordle. Vor jjou art ase pe ilke him and openeth 

his eyes. 

fet slepjj me pe ssipe / fet is yspild / and na3t hit not "Look," he says, 
ne onderstant his peril.' ' Huamies comst poul ' fet is to thoVIn "'^'^" 
zigge : ' Loke wrechche bi hf ca' arrieres / uor bou comst ^f"^ and seeiiow 

"" ' I ' thou oomest nxau 

uram pe tauenie of pe dyeule / huer jjou best / J?i lif "-e Jevii's 

y-wasted / and y-lore jjine time / and alle pe guodes 

jjet god pe hedde y-yeue.' 'Huet dest fou?' pet is to g.^ how brittle 

zigge : 'Ysy hou pow art fyeble / and brotel / and a- and feeble 

uorye jjet body / and a-uorye Jje zaule. fou wenst by ^^^ jj^^ tj,y 

hoi / and Strang, ac par auentwre fou best pe humours [^^ th^'to'^* 

ine pe bodye fet pe ssoUe lede to pe dyafe. And ine "^^ath. 

pe zaule Jjou best kueade jjeawes / jjet pe ssolle lede to 

pe dyafe of belle : bote fe gmce of god : fe ne werie.' ^ook and under- 

Efte/-ward. ' buider gest bou f bet is to zigge / 'wrechche stand that thou 

bench / and loke / and onderstand / bet bou gest to be and shait fail 

■^ ' ' / / X o J into the hand 

dyajje. oJ?er J)ou sselt ualle ine pe hand of herrodes / ofthedevii. 
jjet is pe dyeuel / and to bis mayne.' And jjeruore zay]? 

. L-^ofte wel hyerr^ 

pe guode man. ' Man may longe bis lyues wene / and Man thinks his 

pji'1,1- 1 1 L • L. life ^^'ill ''e long, 

otte hi?/i iye3ep his wrench, ase uayr weder went m-to i,ut ottgn jg j,e 
1 nnj\>-nyn\> in MS. 2 go \^ MS. ' ta in MS. 




All shall drink 
of deatli's drink, 

wherefore repent 
thee, ere thou 
fall from tliy 

Thou fjoest into 
heU where is fire, 
brimstone, and a 
thousand ever- 
lasting pains. 

These four 
questions are 
like four strokes 
of thunder, that 
astound and 
terrify the 

How mildness 
waxeth in the 
The four 
thoughts above 
mentioned strip 
the garden of 
the heart of the 
four roots 
of pride. 
These roots are 
the four horns 
that God showed 
to Zechariah the 

The four smiths 
are the four afore- 
said thoughts. 

When man 
thlnketh whence 
he cometh, and 
and knoweth the 
poverty and vile- 
ness of his birth, 
[Fol. 40. a.] 

then the grace of 
God enables him 
to feel his own 

rcne / and iierliclie makeji his blench. )?er ne is no])er 
king ne kuene / fet ne ssel drinke of deajjes drench, 
maw jjeruore Jie he])ench / er jjou ualle of jji bench / ])i 
zenne aquench.' Jjou gest to fe dome / huer )30U sselt 
uinde : jjane domes man zuo sterne / and zuo stout / an 
zuo strayt / an zno nii3tuol. fou gest in-to helle / huer 
J)ou sselt yuinde : ver. and bernston. and a fousond 
pinen / fiet neure ne endej? fe u.or to pini. And Jious 
de]) J)e holy gost to ]je zene^ere / Jje e3en openi and [he] 
yzyj) a-boue / and benejje / and beuore / and be-hynde. 
)?ise byeji uour strokes of Jjondre / ]jet astonej) jjane 
zene3ere / and makeji ssake / and habbe drede. And 
Jjise uour to z^ye, / byejj Jie uour smale roten of Ipe rote 
of mildenesse. J?et Ipe yefjje of drede zet ine Jie herte of 
Jie zene3ere hua?nie god liim uisitej). 


j)e uour J)03tes be-uore ysed strepe]? of J»e gardine of 
Jie herte / fe uour rotin of prede fet jjer bye|). huer-of 
Jie proude wenj) / of azemoche ase can habbe. ojier 
azenioche he is of mi3te. ojier azemoche ase he can 
conne. ojier ase moche ase can by worji. Jiise byeji Jie 
uoru" homes. Jiet is to zigge : Jie uour cornardyes J»ct 
amerrej) Jio contraye / J)et god ssewede to zakarie Jie 
P'/'ofete. Ac Jie uour smijies Jiet he hiin ssewede efter- 
ward / fet comen after fe uour homes to uelle : byejj 
Jie uour Ji03tes be-uore yzed. Yor huawne Jie man Jiengji 
huawnes he comji / and onderstant and knauji his 
pourehede / Jie vilhede / Jje brotelhede of his beringe / 
hou he wes beyete in zenne / and of zuo uoule matere 
y-mad And y-ssape. and ine zuo poure house y-her- 
ber3ed. ine zuo greate pouerte y-bore. and rajire dyad 
to Jje zaule : Jia?me yliore to jje wordle. in huiche 
zor3es he wes y-norissed. ine huet trauail he hej) 
yleued. hou he he]j his time uorlore. and he yzi3j» 
Jiane gTeate heap of liis ze?mes. and Jie guodes Jiet he 

he J) uorlete to done. pa)ine hi?« dej)' Jie grace of god 
' MS de^ 


yuele mid herte : fet lie ne is na3t worb. Efterward Afterwards when 

... , he thinketh 

hua»[ne] he fengj; liner he ys / and 7-213]) fise wordle / wa^t he is, that 

,. •!, -IT liioi j> this world is bwt 

pet lie IS bote an exii and a dezert uoi 01 iyons an 01 a desert fuii of 

lipars. a forest nol of )jyeues an of calketreppen / and of forestXii^'of 

grilles, ane ze nol of storm / and of peril, a fornays anhet ""e'^es, 

mid uer of ze«ne and of zor3e. a iield of uiy3t huerinne 

him be-houej) eure to libhe ine werre and wy3te^ mid 

dyeulen fet zuo nioche bye J) wyse / and sotil / and 

Strang. J?a«ne hi;^ de> fe grace of god yuele to zo>e / IShis own" 

and to aparce'iuy his onconnynge / and Jiet he ne can y«^i^"«ss and 

na3t. Ate laste h[ii]a/me he fengf and onderstant his 

zennes and his defautes ase he is nol of zennes and ydel 

of alle guode. |)a»ne him yefjj J)e holy gost y-uele his 

poiirehede / and ])et he ne hep na^t. Efterward hua?aie 

he j-zi^p be-iiore hi7?i huiderward he gejj. and he y- 

zy^p peaie dyajj to huam noii ne may wyjjstonde, he 

yzi3j) his demere god / zuo ri3tuol be huas hand him thought of ids 

be-houejj guo. he J-zi-^p pe pinen of helle / liuiche no« shows wm Ms 

ne may ascapie. panuG yef]) him god iuele j^et nia;mes Thus theris^the 

mi3te ne is na3t / and Jjet he ne may na3t. IIua?ine he f,'""^J o^l'^h-it'" 

y-zi^j) p'dnne / and uelj? / and onderstant ])et he ne is 

najt worj) / fet he na3t ne hej). J)et he na3t ne dej? / 

and fet he ne dej) na3t / and jjet he ne may na3t. 

panne begin]? he uor to byeniie poure of s^^irit. Ine 

bise uour bojtes / byeb be uour bo^es of be rote of pe 

■^ r -> I ■J r r ? r -^ The tree of meek- 

trawe of mildenesse. j)is trau is yzet bezide pe welle of ness is set beside 
godes drede. huer-oi hit is echedaye y-wetered / me God's fear. 

, I ■ 1 J. • ■ 111 J • The seven virtues 

wyntre : and me zomere. pet is me wykkednesse and me ^^.^ gg^.^,^ g^^pg 
guodnesse. Nou sselt jjou conne fet ecli of ))ise zeuen cmrbeThto good 
u/rtues. huerof ich onderstoncle to spekene of his stapes. ""^^6^ ^^'^ 

-^ ^ good deeds. 

huer-by profite]) an clif}? / and wext ine pe herte. and virtue growetii 

,., , -^ as high as a palm, 

his dedes / and his guode ))eauwes / liuerby hy hare a cypress, era 
ssewej) wyjj-oute. Vor u/rtue wext an he3 ase palme / ^nj spreadeth 
o]jer ase cipres. ofer ase cedre. and panne spret and ^ndTe^ff '^ "^'^''^ 
keste his bo3es : an ech half. 

' ut/^fe ? 
9 * 



Of the steps of 

This virtue, hath 
seven steps. 

The first step is 
to know one's 
poverty and 
defects, and to 
feel one's own 
and vileness. 

Some kiioic their 
faults but do not 
feel them. 

The second step 
is to feel and 
bewail one's sins, 
and to endeavour 
to get rid of the 
sorrow and 

The third step of 
meekness is to 
confess and shrive 
and cleanse our 
hearts of sin. 

The fourth step 
is to desire to 
make known 
one's un- 

The fifth step is 
to hear willingly, 
gladly of our own 
failings and 

The sixth step is 
a willingness to 
endure reproach. 

Of ))e stapes of mil[d]hede. 

Of jje u/^-tue of mildenesse spec]) saynt ansalin. and 
zayj) fet M he]? zeue stapes huerby liy clif)j an lie^ / al- 
huet fet hi come / to perfeccion. l!^ou onderstand wel 
hou. }3e uerste stape of mildenesse / is to knawe his 
ponrehede. and his defaute. Yor ase zayjj saynt 
hernard. Mildenesse is jje uiHue jjet makej) fane man 
hiw^-zelue to onworpi / and healde uor vil. Hua?ine he 
\\\m knan]) zojjliche. )3is kaiaiilechinge wext of noiu' 
roten beuore yzed. Ac j?er bye]? zonie jjet wel conne 
hyre defautes and hire pouerte / ac na3t hit ne uelejj. 
jperuore is Jje ojier stape : piele / and playni his de- 
fautes and his poiierte. And Jiet he yuele his zor^e and 
his zicnesse / he yernjj blejiehche to j)e fisiciane / and 
zai]) jjet he y-neljj fe kueade humours ine ]je bodye. 
bli])e he is hua;ine jjet he may his purgi and keste out. 
and Jjeruore is Jje J)ridde stape of myldenese / his zennes 
and his kueade wylles blejjehche beknawe / and ssriue / 
and his herte clensi. Ac J)er bye|) zome Jjet beknawe]) 
hare defautes / and y-uele}) / and zor3Uolle byef / and 
wel ham sriuej». Ac hi nolden anone manere fet o])re 
hit ^vyste hou hy do)). }?eruore fe uer]?e stape is of Jiise 
u/rtue : wyhii to by y-knawe / and y-healde uor uyl / 
and onwor]). Ac ])er byef eftsone some ])et wel 
yk[n]awe]) and uelej? / and zigge]) here defautes / and 
ziggej) wel : ich am a kuead / and zenuol / and zuych / 
and zuych. ac yef an oJ)er hi???, zede : uorzo])e fet is 
zo]) / ]3et })0U zayst : zor^uoUe hi wolden by / and 
wolden by Avrojje to ]>q dya]3e. )3eruore is })e vifte stape 
of fise trawe / yhere blefehche of him-zelue. and fet 
me Yarn zigge his defautes. and Jiet is ])et saynt bernard 
zay]? / pet Jie zojie milde : wyle by hyalde uor vyl. 
na3t ase milde y-praysed. ]peruore is ]?e zixte stape 
hua?me Jje man Jiole]) in ])olemodnesse ]3et he by uoul- 
liche y-dra3e / and ase pe?*sone onwor])lych / ase dede 


be !?uo(le king dauid / bet bolede ziieteliclie / and Iheste as did David when 

^ ° ° / J- J- ^ I ^ Shimei tlirew 

ane sergont jjet hette semey / J)et \\\m Jireii mid stones / stones at him, and 

spoke evil of 

and hi;?;, niissede / and laiin zede al jjet he conpe of uoul. him. 

Yet eft ])er is a stape / hueri?nie is fie nolle of pe?'fec- Tiie seventh step 

. , . ,isa willingness to 

cion 01 J)ise Ui?*tne. pet is Avjdny to zojie / and mid he esteemed viie, 
herte ^vylny ^vyjj-onte fayntise : to by y-hyealde vjd / JeitmitedV''^^ 
and villiche to hy y-dra^e. )3et is ari3t ponerte of gost. Thisistmepoverty 

1 -m 111 PI •KT 111- / of spirit and meek- 

and mi[ljdehede oi herte. Moche louede fise ponerte ))e ness of heait. 

riche king of heuene. huawne zno uer he com hit nor 

to zeche / ase iiram henene : to fe erjje. "Wei he hit 

lonede ine herte / fo he hit zno dyere bo3te / fet al fet 

he hedde / and J)e robe of his regge he yaf / nor ]jet he 

Aves zoJinoUiche poure. Mochel he lonede mildenesse / Much did chnst 

, ._ love meekness 

hua?me pe uke ]5et nenre ze?me ne dede. fe ilke ine when he came 

hnam nes nenre defaute / him dede amang fe j^yenes. rauramongst' 

fet Aves amang adames zones / and him cloj^ede mid fe t'^e sons of Adam. 

clofe of jje zennoUe / and of ])e misdoere / nor fet he 

Aves villiche y-dra3e ase a j^yef. Huernore he zede to 

his apostles ]je ni^t of fie sopiere / mid gr«ate AAdlle. 

Ich habbe feme paske y-Avylned. jset is to zigge : jjerne 

dyajj. fiise ssame. Jjise Avendinge. Non he^ere ne may 

Jjis trail arise. And hiio jjet Avere al-to J?ise stape of 

mildenesse y-cHne : AAr^f-oute drede : he ssolde by y- 

blissed ine fise Avordle. Vor be ilke bet bis zede : ne Christ teaeheth us 

to be meek, and to 

may lye3e / Jjet ])e he3este zo]) zaij) mid his moufe. leamofHim, 

' Y-blissed byef jje poiire of gost.' And hou jjet ]?is by / 

he him sseAA-ej) hna??ne he zede. ' Lyerne]) of me : and 

na3t of ojjren / nor to by milde of herte ase ich am. ^o *'»»* ^'e may 

find rest for our 

and jjon sselt uinde reste to fine zaule.' ]5is reste is jjis souls, 
bhssinge. Ac huych fet hit is / ne hnet hit hatte / ^j,^, ^^ 
non ne Avot : bote he f et hit nimf. J5a7aie yef fon wiJthouilt 
Avylt yAvyte huet fet is : do fi mi3te of fine herte zno "th!tep'of 
moche ouercome / bet bon by y-cHne to be zenende ""i'i"ess, then 

' ■• •• "^ "^ •" thou mightest ga- 

stape of mildenesse. and fawne f on mi3t friiyt gaderi ther fruit and eat 

jj, n -,• I ■. " of the tree of life. 

and ete ol fe traAve of hne / ase god zayf ine f e boc of 


Of the seven ^F ]5E ZEUE BO3ES OF Mi[l]dENESSE. 

boughs of meek- r\ j. p 1 ± p-it 

ness. Uvt 01 fe trawe ot mildenesse wexej? zeuc 00368. 

1. To honour God, 1-101 jjis iiiVtue hwi sseawej? ine zeue inane?-es. be god to 

2. to praise others, , • • i , , -i t ■ i , 

3. to despise one's woipssij^ie. be opreii to prayzy. be him-zehxe to on- 
seif,4.toiovepo- -^yoriji^ \,q pourelicde to louie. be blebeliclie to serui. be 

verty, 5. to minis- J ^ J 

terjoyfuiiy, 6. to lieriynQ;o to byuly. be him-zelue of al / ine god y-leue. 

betiee praise, 7. to J b J J ^ / & J 

be in good belief. Jpe zojje inilde : worjjssipej) god in fri maneres. Vor ho 

ylefjj simpleliche. He jjonkej? treweliche. He him bit 

The man truly dcuouteliche. He lii??i woissipeb uerst / ine bet he lii?7i 

meek honours God ' ' ' 

as a child doth its lefjj simjDlehche of al fet he zayb. ase deb be Htel child 


his mayster. and nor Jjis skele / heJ3 oiire byleaue 

merite. J?a?me huo fet Avel ylefjj : god grf<t worjjssipe 

He believes His hxm dejj. alsHo aso he dejj to jje niawne worj^ssipe jjet 

simple word, and -l •-, o -,-,.- -, -, , . ■,. 

that is the begin- liiHi lei]) be his Simple woi'do. and jjet IS Jje beginnynge 

doing.' to done wel / fet is nyeduol to alle pan / J)et \v3dle]) 

ham boiier^e.' ase zaijj zainte paul. Jjet me ylefjj god 

ope his simple worde jjet al is zoj) fet he zay]). onlepi- 

hche nor jjet he zayj? wyji-oute ojjre skele to zeche. and 

The heretics will ^vyjj-oute ojjre proeue zeche. Vor Jjet bye]) fe bongres 

without good and pe heretiks proude norlore. nor hi nolle]) ylene 

evidence. god : wy^i-onte guod wed. j)et is to ziggene : bote-yef 

hi y-zy knik scele / ac hi ha?/i hyealdep / and zigge]) 

ase ]3e gauelere he hi??^ halt to pe ^vynnynge fa^nie to pe 

Of this disbelief simple worde ne wyle nonen yleue. And ))erof byef» 

comes all manner ni ^ /ni?'T_i- 

of heresies. y-come alle pe maneres 01 eresye / and 01 misbeleumge. 

Vor ])e blynde proude / ])et hare "wj^t w-ylle]) emni to 
godes wysdome / hi nolle]) y-lene ])ing ])et god zayj) / 
bote-yef me ne betoke ham guod wed. fet is to zigge : 

True believers ojier fiane quicke scele / o])er aperte miracle. Ac we 

have a hundred 

times more faitii J)et \q ri^tc byleaue hyealde]) / yleue]) betere an hon- 

in God's word than t-,. ,■,.,, ,■, , i, 

in any miracle] drcd zi])e mm ])et HO may na3t lye3e : ])a?me we ne dop 

ley may see. ^^ miracle / ne scele / ne hi?n-zelue pet we yzej). God 

zay]) he wile deme euri??ne / be liis dedes. and of eche 

ydele worde / pe behouep yelde scele to \\\m / ate daye 

of dome. )3e milde pet pis yherp / hit ylefp. and dret / 

1 hou-ie ? ox bor-ie ? 


an dep payne to loky Ms lierte / and his nioup / and 

alle his workes. Efterward Jje zo])e mikle / Jjonkej? god The truly miw 

. . ,. , ,; thanketh God for 

trewehche of alle his guodes / jjet he him hejj y-do / aii His gifts that 
and Jjet he him def echedaye / and jjct he vryle do. of Him/""'*' 
Efterward ase we habhejj y-sseawed / ine J^e zigginge of 
prede. Vor jje milde is ase fe poure man / fet of 
little ehnesse : help greate blisse. and yelt fonkes mid 
herte / to his guod doere. ba«ne huaHne be milde / ne 

' , for all that ho re- 

yzijjj ine him na3t / hner-bi he hi worfy to fie breade ceiveth comes of 

,■,-.-, ^■ T I 1 • 1 I ^ pure grace and of 

fet he et / he be-knau]j trewehche / and j-zi^p / and gift. 

onderstant / and ylef)) / ])et al hit is of klene grace / 

and of yefjje. and na3t of him. al fet god him zent / 

and yefjj / and lenjj. And uor pet he ne lefjj na3t of 

him-zelue / of Jje guodes of his Ihorde / pet be his hand 

pasep : pernore is pe sergont trewe / ase zayp sant 

bernard. Efterward pe zobe milde worp ssipep god / He prays to God 

meekly, with true 

and him byt mildeliche. pet Ms to zigge mid zope tears and simpu- 
teares / pet comep of godes grace / and mid ri3tuolle ^^^^^ ^^ {^^ 
omnge of herte. Vor hit Mm pingp / pet he is ase pet for it seems to him 

I J , that he is as the 

child pet is echedaye beuore Ms maistre / and na3t can child, that is each 

-..-. ^ ,11 1 -ij-j- day before his 

Ms lessoiin. Oper pet he by ase ys pe ponre me dette. master and know- 
pet is y-ualle me pe hand of gaueleres. and na3t ne hep l^^^° 
huermide Mt may endy. Oper pet he by ase is pe pief or ju^g ^ thief 
yproued / and y-nome and mid mo pa^ne an hondred fii"n a hx^dred 
misdedes pet hep Me3 pe wyppe ine pe nykke. And pet ZX',:^::; 
he is ase be y-maymed ate porche of be cherche / pet "ear his neck. 

r J >' ^ -» ' -■ He IS like the 

ne hep none ssame nor to sseawy alle his maimes to maimed at the 


aUe pen pet per guop / uor pet me ssolde habbe of mm hath no shame to 
pite. Yef pou wilt pa?me lyerni god to bidde. and to [„ exdte the pity 
aouri ari3t : pise uour hit wytnessep. pet child, he pet ^vL enter? 
is ine dette. pe pyef. and he pet is ymajTned. 

bfl obER BOJ OF MILDENESSE. The second bough 

■^ of meekness. 

Wone is of pe zope milde opren to herie / and The meek in heart 
praysy. and poty hi7n uorp / an worpssipij. Praysy ine hearotherspraised 

herte / herie ine moupe. and be dede : worpssipe / here. 

and honoured. 


He is like the bee He is ase ])e smale ule^e Jjet makej) Jjet liony. and 

that seeketh the , ipt 

flowery fields and beuly3j) stencli. aiid zekJ3 fe ixeldes ynoured. and oi pe 
floures zoucj) jjane deau huerof hi make J) Jiet hony uor 
Ms hons to astori. pet dejj ]je milde herte fet na3t ne 

Hetakethnoheed nymj) hede of stench.. ne of ))e lackes of ojjren. ac alio 

of other men's iin tiiiiJ 

faults. Jje guodes Jjet ofre naoDeJ) y-rewarded. and iouep. and 

here]), and prayzej) and co?iceyue]j fe zuetnesse : of 
deuocion. hueruore his "bodi is ondo : and his in-svyt 
nolneld. ' Vor-zo])e zoj) hit is y-bore of stones and of 
nlyntes/kan he zouke j?e oly / and fet hony :V ase ous 
tekj) Jie sauter. Vor he ne wille ne;nie zuo kuead / ne 
zuo hard / ne zuo zenuol : Jiet he ne can dra3e mate>ie : 
He praiseth others god uor to herie. Ine his herte he prayzej) o])re / ine 
1. He beiieveth fri niaiieres. Vor he ylef j) more olpmmamie wyt : 

other men's wit , , . tt -i i ^ i -i j? i i • 

more than his ])a7me his 03en. He Avile J)et j)e Avii ol o])ren bi more 
2^He desires the J-^o : fawne his. He hi??? fye]) more in o])res Uirtue : 
will of others to i,j^,^-^g [j^q j-^jg^ ^1 i,e cojitmrve deb be proude / ase we 

be toUowed more •» J ki t r j. i 

than his. hahbej) be-Hore yssewed. Efte?'ward he here]) / and 

more in others' prayseb be obre be speche. fe giiodes jjet opre doj) / and 

virtues than in his 

own. habbe]) : he hise he-^ep / and Jiere]). ])e kueades : he 

Themeekexcuseth Jiig excuseb / and lojeb. and lesseb. be myddelguodes : 

and palliates the ' ' ^ ' I f J <=> 

faults of others, he onderstant ine guodc / and went alneway in- to ])e 

guode half. And jjet is aye J)e jjri qneade techches of 

The proud man, j)e misziggeres / jjet arerej) ])et quead : an loje]) Jiet 

on the contrary, . . . . - 

delights to hear of guod. and ])e middel jjinges ouerfirawe]) and mis-wend- 

defects. 6}». Be dede he worjjssipefi eurinne / and praysej) ase 

nioche ase he ssel and may do. Avyji-oute misdo. j?et ne 

de]) na3t fe proude. ac al j)e contrarie / ase we habbe]) 

be-uore y-sscAved. ine fe chapitele of prede. 

Of meek heart. Of MILDB HERTE. 

The meek heart 

keeps all his vir- "Woue is of niildc herte. bet alle his guodes he heb 

tues behind his j "j j 

back, and his de- bchindc his Tcggc. and alle his queades : beiiore his 

fects before his « p / f> 

eyes. e3en. An ferof com]) / ])et of asemoche ])et he prayze]) 

[ o . .. a.] -p^yQ^Q }pQ Qijpg . j,g more he hiwi-zelue misprayseb. He 

He is like the CO- r r r i j r 

vetous man, he is ase ])e wel couaytouse wrechche / fet alneway he]i 


p^t eje to J)e guodes : fet opve liabloeji / and do]) alneway. hath an eye to the 
and make]) alneway se?/iblont : fet lie ne lief najt. Vor (for there is a 

. holy covetousness 

asemocne ase per is an holy prede : akuo pev is an holy andahoiyenvy). 

coueytise / and an holy enuye. Hit is ase hit is of fe 

litel childe / pet is pe hinges zone / and ejT of pe Iciiig- 

riche ]»et wepji ine his Crete, and na3t ne kan of his 

he3nesse / ne of liis richesse. He is ase ])et simple ssep. He, like the simple 

. n 1 sheep in whom all 

me hua»i al hit is guod and profitable, and wolle. and is good and i)rofit- 
skin. and uless. and melk. and friit. and dong. and ne flesii, miik, fruit, 
wen]) / and ne kan na3t. ne na3t ne fengf. Ine fise ^'LtirAoS? 
mane?'e zayb saynt abraham be greate patn'arche. bet he ^J^'^^f"^- 

•J J J TO sr I In this manner 

nes bote esssse and doiist And saynt lob. bet wes zuo ^''''"t J"^ speaks 

of himself as but 

moche grat to fe wordle. and holy ine god / ])et zayde ash, sparks, 

n -, • 1 ^ttj -11, T t filth, stench, ver- 

01 him-zelue. ' Huet am ich bote esssse. and spearken. min, wind, sha- 

ji ij.1 111 1 dow, and smoke. 

and hor. and stench, wermes. wynd. ssed. and smech. 
peX pe wynd ber]) and gadere]) draye. fet to na3t ne is 
wor]) : bote to pe uere.' And alsuo ase pe zo])e milde As the true meek, 

, i-itj; 1-1 ;i °"8 praises others 

here]) pe opre and nud herte / and mid mou])e / and iti a threefold 

mid dede. ase we habbe]) ysed. alsuo he blame]) him- so in three ways 

zelue ine })ise fri mane?-es. he \\\m fing]) pe\, leromes ^^ blames himself 

zay]) of lii?/;zelue. pei yef he eth / ofer yef he driiic]) / 

yef he wakef / yef he slep]) / pet pe ilke orible bosyne 

him went to pe yeare : 'com to fine dome.' And feruore 

pe illie pet nele na3t by fer ydemd : he ne endi neure 

hiere : lii?rt-zelue to deme and damni. wib-nyme his anti coiKiemns his 

■" '' deeds, words, an.l 

dedes. and his Avordes. and his J)03tes. and clensi. and thoughts. 
telle, and weje. and wyberweje. and wyb-nime. Vor he ^^ ^^"^ "^"^ 

■' "^ ' ■' '' ' chaflf tlian corn in 

y-zi3}) more yno3 of chef : fa/aie of corn. And ])eruore '"» lif^*. 

fet he ne by y-demd ine pe cort of ri3te / ne he nele 

na3t lete ne smal ne gr«t / pet ne ssel by examened / 

and y-zed / and y-demd / ine be cort of merci. het is f"'^ '>^;.^amines 

•J I '' IT >'^" -^^ himselt in the 

ine holy ssriftte ine pe> cort. liuo acounte]) ari3t : he is '':°"''' "^ ''°'^' 
al quit. Ac ine pe cort of ri3te / fet ssel bi ate daye of 
dome / huo fet ssel a3t : him behoue]) paye. ne neure bedamnedT/thf 
aq?r/tti he ne may. and feruore ha ssel by ydammed. !j|^«"rt of Risw .it 
Vor he mot yelde : ofer hongy. A. alias huet ssel pe 



Woe to the man 
whose neck shall 
then be loaded 
with deadly sin. 

The sinner must 
shrive liim gladly 
and oft. 

He must doom 
himself as a thief 
to the gibbet of 

The fourth bough 
of uieeliness. 
[Fol. 42. b.] 

The true meek one 
loveth poverty, 

for three reasons : 

1. For the perils of 

2. for the virtues 
in poverty, 

3. for God loved 

Grod hears the 
prayers and de- 
sires of the poor, 
and is their refuge 
and safety. 
God is Fatlier to 
the poor. 

Christ blessed the 


and cursed the 


The world does 
not believe that 
poverty is blessed. 

ilke paye : fet ua^t ne hej) Lote Jjane nhicke y-carkcd 
niid ze?aie dyadlich ? Hue jjet onderstode and yuelde 
J)ise ])inges / lie him wolde liyealde / and wyj^draje 
iiram scornes and urani leazinges / Ipet he hejj yuounde / 
aye Ipe zojje niilde / J?et god drede]?. ]5et uor fan hy 
wylloft ham loki clenliclie / liy ssriiiejj ham blejjeliche / 
and ofte. Ac htel is worjj to niaky guod dom : bote 
jje demere ne by efterward yprayzed trewehche. and 
feruore al-zuomoche ase ])e zojje milde / make]? of Idm- 
zelue gnod dom / ine zor^e of herte. and ine ssrifte of 
monjje. and zuo dej) be dede zoj? dom. Vor he him 
demlp ase ane fyef. and he him dejj zojjliche to fe 
gybet of penonce wyjj-oute slacnesse / and wyf-oute 

j)E uerJ?e B03 OF mt[l]denesse. 

Hvo J)et hate]) prede : he louelp pouerte J?et zet j>e 
herte lo^e / and ])eruore alle zofe milde louyef pouerte / 
and byejj poure of gost. fe zojje milde louej? pouerte 
uor Jjri sceles. Vor J)e perils fet bye]) ine richesses. 
Vor pe guodes fet bye]) in guode pouerehede. And 
uor ])et god louede zuo moche pouerte \>o he wes ine Ipe 
wordle / and yet hit loue]) / ase fe holy wrytiMge wyt- 
nessef in uele stedes. |?a?me zay]) he in fe sautere / 
J)et he y-her]) Ipe benes / and fe wylles of ])e poure. and 
ham poruay]) / and agray])e]? hare lyfno]) zueteliche / 
and mid guod sauour. and he is hire refu / and ha?ft 
ssel souy. lob zayp / pet god is pe uader to pe poure. 
and ham he]» y-yeue mi3te / o])ren to iuggi. And oure 
lord ate biginnynge of his uayre sermon zayj). ' ])et y- 
blyssed bye]) pe poure : and a-corsed bied ' pe riche / })et 
habbe]> hyer hire paradis.' Ac fie zo])e paradys / he]) 
he y-yeue pe poure. zuo : })et hi hit mo3e yeue / and 
zelle. Ac pe wordle nele y-leue / fiet god zigge zo]) / 
fet pouerte by fing y-bhssed. Ac ])et is of pe rede of 
god pe uader. ])eruore Icsu crist zay]) ine his spelle. 
1 bk\^} 


' Vayre uader ycli yekle Jie Jjonkes and heriynges. pet Jjise 
Jiinges y-hed / and y-hole best : to fe Avyse. and hise 
hest y-sseawed to be milde.' be niilde his y-zyeb / and ^iie meek man 

'' ^ _ d df I jj,^,gg poverty a 

wel his yleueb / and louieb / an hondredzibe more hundred times 

more than the nig- 

pouerte : J3a«ne f>e nijjing dej) hia richesse. Ine fri sard his wealth. 

, , This he shows 

Jjmges ssewej) pa man / ])et he lone]? pouerte. Hua/me intiireeways. 
he louej) and halt blejjeliche pa uela3rede. and fet lyf. ^ ^^ j^^,^^ ^^^^ 
and be wones of be poure. Hire uela^rede he loueb / ''"^'^^ communion 

■' ' '^ ■' ' ' witli the poor, as 

ase iesii crist dede jjer hiiils ha wes ine ]je wordle. Yor Christ once did, 

kende wyle fet pQ lambren louie ham togidere / and 

beuly ]je wolues. and ]je children \vAm louie to-gidere. 

and beuly jje uela3rede of jje greaten, and fe milde 

hawi louie to-gidere / and become uela3es to-gidere. Lif ^"^^ ''of the 'great' 

of poure man is poure. uor he ne ze3|) / ne metes of grat ^"'^ "'^'^• 

pn's / ne robes out of scale, ne non host hi ' ne zechejj / [ » Ae ? ] 

ne ine robes, ne ine ridinges. ne ine maine. ne ine 

festes. ne ine uelajredes. Blibe he is yef he heb his : ^i^'' '^ '^^ ^^ ^^ 

■^ / >/ / have his susten- 

sostino/ice. ac he soffrejj and honger / an jjorst. and ^nce. 

chald and hot. and cheastes / and manye biternese^. 

and alle zuiche finges fet fie kueade poure deji / and 

})oleJ7 : wille he nolle he. jpe zojje milde wilne]) / and 2. He suffers and 

jjolejj gledliche uor god. a-last hit is wone of fe poure meekly for God. 

ma;zne / jjet yef he ne he]) na3t / ne na3t ne may 

. . 3. He has no shame 

Wynne: henehejjnone ssame to acsi. And fe zojie to ask for what he 
milde: beggej) echedaye. ])e benes and ]?e oreysons of "ifd hogs each day 
guode uolke / and of uryendes of god. huer he wen]) £,^1' i"''^'"' '° 
mest of guode. and more he be-lef)) ine hare helpe : 
])a»ne he do ine his 03ene guodes. 

I, The fifth bough of 


Meekness loves 

Prede / loue}) wel 11036 stcdes. Mildenesse : ])c 1030. low places. 
}3is is ])e dyamod^ of noble kende. ])et nele na3t sitteine that needs not to 
gold, ac ine poure metal ase yzen. And zuo hit is of ThrconUs ever 
fe hyeape of huete y-})orsse. })e cornes bye]) benefe / a|°st"hau ' fan' 
and ])et chef a-boue. Ac oure Ihord ssel ua?mi his com / J^'^ '■°™ ^^ 

' I Doomsday. 

ate daye of dome / ase zayj) fet godspel. and ssel frav/e [^"i- *3. a.] 
» So in MS. 



The chaff shall go 
into the fire. 

The meek man 
prefers low places, 
and follows the ex- 
ample of Christ 
and His sweet 

MeoUness is the 
mother of obedi- 

and bedeckethher 
witli all her orna- 

Jiet chef in-to Tpe uere : and f)et corn in-to fe greynere. 
j)e more Jjet / Jjet gold is clene : Jje more hit wec|). and 
f>e more ])et hit is heui : Jie ra))re hit ualj? to fe botme 
And pe more Ipet Jie man is milde : fe more he lone}) 
1036 stedes. ase dede lesu crist and his zuete moder / 
J)et ous yeaue norbisne to serui and to bon3e. na3t wyJ3- 
onte more to Jje gratteste : ac to Jie leste. and ]?e mora 
jje seruise ys onwor]? : ]?e ble])elaker j^e milde him di^j) 
jperto. )3eruore Avyle teche oure Ihord lesu crist / pe 
net to wesse to his poure. jjaHue mildenesse / is moder 
p?"opreliche / of bo3sa??^nesse. and hire norissejj / and 
tekjj / an lokejj / Jjet lii ne by y-coru??iped / ne by 
ydele blisse / ne be 20136 / ne be grochchinge / ne be 
03ene \\^tte / ne be 03ene wille. ne ine o])re manere. 
Hy hise agrayjiejj and azet : mid alle hire oiirneme?zs. 

Of obedience. 

There are seven 
ornaments of obe- 

That is, thnt one 
obey, 1. readily, 2. 
gladly, 3. simply, 
4. cleanly, 5. ge- 
nerally, 6. swiftly, 
7. willingly. 
The meek obedi- 
ent one is like a 
sailor ever ready 
to obey the cap- 

He is as obedient 
as the ass is to its 

David preferred 

(iod's behests to 

gold or precious 


He obeys simply, 

as doth the horse 

or the sheep. 

Holy simplicity is 
the character of 


J?e ournemens of bo3sa/??nesse : byejj zeuen. ])et ys : 
Jiet me bou3e prestliche. gledliche. simpleliche. kle??- 
liche. generalliche. zuyftliche. ' and wiluolliche. )3e milde 
y-zyjjj beuore^ his e3en : jjet he ys j)onre and naked, and 
ne liej) niede bote nor him-zelue. and Jieruore he is 
ahieway agrayjjed / ase byej) Jie ssipmen ine ssipe. fet 
ase zone ase he^ y-hyerjj pane smite of Jie lodes-mavaie : 
hi yernej) / hi Iheapef ase wode. ])e milde bou3j3 gled- 
liche / uor he is ase pe hassasis. J)et ys blijje huaHne he 
hej) pe heste onderuonge of his maistre. J^et pe perils / 
and ]3e pinen / an ])ane dyap he onderuang}? pevwjp j 
mid to greate l)lisse uor Jie loue ])et he he]) to pQ obedi- 
ence. Jjeruore zayde dauij? ine p& sautere. ]jet he louede 
betere po, hestes Jiet god him made : Jjanne he dede / 
g(dd / ojier stones of pr/s. J?e milde him bou3j) al 
simpleliche ase dej» J>et hors / oJ)er Jiet ssep / Jiet Jie 
ssepherde let huer ha wyle / Jiet ne zayj) neure huer- 
uore guo ich hider : more Jia«ne Jiider. A^or one of pe, 
guode do3tren Jjct mildenesse he}) : is holy simplesse. 
1 Zni/fihche in MS. - bo-uore in MS. ^ hi? 


be milde is wel trewe to g;oil I ase is a rruod Iheuedi to The meek man is 

'^ I <=' true to God. 

hire Ihorde. pet nelo to noneu qixenie folliche bote to 
hare lliorde onlepiliche. and Jjeruore non ne bou3]j zuo 
clienliche ^ / ne mid zuo clene onderstondinge : ase dej) 
bezobe niilde. bet ne hateb bote nor to kueme be ^e seeks not to 

■" •■ •• , ■• •> please the worla. 

"wordle. Efterward be milde is wel zuift and wel ingnel / "e is swift to 

obey God, and 

hua?me ui'rtue of obedience and fie "\vyl of god / mid his slow to obey his 

ouerimg mm berj?. Ac hua«ne his 03ene wyl him berjj 

and let him. he is slac an sleuuol wel to done. Ase is 

J?e sterre pet hatte satwrne make]? ]jet asemoche yernfi He is like the 

in onelepi daye mid pe firmament ase pe firmament ^t^''^'**"™- 

hine let : ase he dejj ine jjritti yer ine his o^ene sercle / 

and ine his 03ene yerninge. Ate laste pe milde boii^f 

generalliche oueral Jjer he ylefj) ]3et he queme to god / 

and ine alle binges ase deb be asse of be melle. bet ase He is like the 

'' ^ ^ mill-ass that will 

blejjehche berjj bare : ase huete. and lyad. ase J)et corn, as lief cany 
to Jje poure : ase to pe riche. Efte/'ward pe milde is '" ^^ '^^ '^°'^"' 
wel Strang, nor he chongej) his strengjje mid godes [FoI. 43. b.] 
strengfe. ase zayjj ysaye ];e profete. Jjeruore nis he na3t : "^Lnge" hi!"' 
|)et ne may here. Vor god berf and him and his ber- God"s^ltren'°-th 
done / hueruore he bo3]5 wij) guode wille and bleui?i- 
deliche. nor he ne is neuremo weri / ne pe zonne fet He is like the 
god let / and breng], uor]). and fe more ha leuej? / pe ^^ a^y."' '^ "'^■"' 
more him wext his stre[n]gj)e. alsuo ase pe litel amote. 
l^on ini3[t] fou wel y-zy / hou mildenesse pe tekj? wel to 
serai / and parfitKche bou3e. 

1, The sixth bouKh 

J?E ZIXTE BO3 OF MILDENESSE. of meekness. 

j)G greate maister of mildenesse lesu crist bo he chnstwasthe 

great master of 

hedde y-preched / and y-ued jjet uolk / and pe zike / meekness. 

and pe ymanied y-held. ])o he iilea3 aboue pe uolk in-to 

Jie helle / uor to by ine bedes / ous uor to teche to He taught us to 

avoid praise and 

beuly J)et ios and pe biondmgges. and Jjeruore pe trewe flattery, 
herte niilde / ase hiin pineb to done wel hua/me he "'''erefore the 

' _ ^ ' mild heart 

bou3j). alsuo him paine]) to be-uly Ios / of lii/zt-zelue strives to befly 
ausuerie uor fane wynd of ydele blisse / and pet 
1 MS. chenUche 



His trust is in 
a roek. 

Tills rock is Clirist. 

Our Lord is a 
wherein resteth 
the meek lieart. 

In recording tlie 
life of Clirist, the 
mild heart forgets 
all his sorrows. 

He desires to be 
lost to, and for- 
gotten by the 

When alone he is 
with his two 
best friends, 
with God and 

He takes delight 
only in what is 
pleasing to God. 

Thus the soul 
loves solitude and 
Modesty is one of 
the fairest 
daughters of 

A maid in love 
hath great shame 
v/hen she is 

gaderej) uor jje rage / and uor j^e te?)rpeste of euele 
tongen / ine }»e ssede of fe roclie. ase zayj? ysaye. j)e 
like roclie is lesu cr/st him-zelf. fet his reste / and 
bri[3]tnesse to fe milde. jjer lii??i reste]) pe ircliouon. ase 
zay]) Jie sauter. fet by f e milde herten y-carked mid 
fornes of ssarpnesse of penonce. An jset is fet coluer- 
hous / huerinne restejj and him def fe colure oure 
Ihord. \)et byej) fe milde lierten and simple uor Jje 
ii03eles of praye. pet bye]) pe dyenlen. Hna?me Ipe 
milde herte / hep zuo moche y-do / pet he is y-guo in- 
to pe hole of po roche ase pe colure ine his coluerhous. 
pet is huawne he recordep pet lif of iesu cr?'st / and his 
holy passioun : uor pajme he uoryet alle his zor3es / 
and praysep lite al pet pe wordle hep. and is worp. and 
may. Herte pet pis hep a-sayd / na3t ne williep more / 
pawne uor to by uorlore / and uoryete to pe wordle. 
j)e wordle is him prisoun. onhede / paradis. Vor ase 
zayp pe wyse of him-zelue. pet he ne is neuremo lesse 
allone / bote huarene he is one. ne more ine niedes : 
bote huanne he is ydel. Vor he ys pawne mid his 
tuaye beste urie[n]des. pet is mid hi»i-zelue / and mid 
god. ])ev tretep he of his greate quereles hueruore alle 
opre niedes him pingp trufles. per he him to god / and 
god to him / be holy p03tes / and be stedeuest wil. 
J?er he uelp ' pe greate zuetnesse of confort / pet god 
yefp ine prme stedes / to pan pet him dredep. ase zayp 
pe sauter. and parene alle speches / and alle wordes liim 
tyenep / and greuep / bote-yef hi ne by to god / oper of 
god / oper uor god. )3ous biginp pe zaule to louie on- 
hede / and stillehede. and pa?zne him wext ine herte 
ane holy ssamnesse / pet is one of pe uariste dopter^ of 
mildenesse. Vor al ase a mayde pet be greate loue 
louep / hep'^ grat ssame hep^ pa?zne lii is aspid / and y- 
herp pet me spekp : of hire, alzuo hep pe ilke huawne 
hi y-hyerp pet me spekp of hire : and of pe guodes pet 
god him hep y-do. And na3t uor pan hi dep ase dep 
1 An s has been cancelled before u. - So in MS. 


J>e ilke inayde strongliclie opnome of loue.^ nor liuet jjct and she seekeUi 

, retired places. 

jje wordle zigge / ojjer co«ne speke : alneway zecjj hi jje [Foi. u. a.] 
lialkes and jjo derne stedes. ase fe ilke pet ne zecj) bote so dotu tiie 
uor to by y-rauissed ase wes say[n]te paul. ruymec . 

bE ZEUENDE B02 OF MILDENESSB. ^'"^ seventh 

•* / '' bough ot 

Of bise aouayntonce and of bise priuite be ilke holy meekness. 

r i- J Y r I J ,j,]jg jjpjy g^jjj 

zaule be-ginb to habbe of god be-tnene hire / and an is proud of 

her acquaintance 

holy prede. Vor hna»ne hi is y-reaued / |)a?me to withood. 
heuene / hi lokej? ope Jje erjje uram uer / ase zayj? ysaye / ^i»e looks upon 
and hise yzyjb z[ii]o lite to jje zi^jje of J)e gratnesse of f>e afar, and sees its 


heuene. zuo y-zic]: Jje ilke greate nayi'hede / zuo dim / 
to fe zi^Jje of fe grate bri^tnesse / zuo emti. to jje zy^^q 
of fo greate blisse : jjawne onworjjcj) and mispraysej) to 
be zobe al bet he heb ine be wordle of richesses and of The world's riches 

•'■'■' ' ' and honour 

worbssipe / of uayrhede / of noblesse, zuo moche \{\m appear to her 

utterly worthless, 

J)irtng]j J)et hit is ase Jie play of cliildren a-niidde jje 
strete / huer y-no^ hi trauayle]? and na3t ne wy?2nej;. 
Hi?« hit bingb bet hit is al \vynd / and nietinge / and and as wind, 

' > > ' ^ dream, and lies. 

lyesynge / ase zayj) salomo/?. And ]ja?aie he be-ginji Then she begins 

Ti ; T TT T • 1 ; to die to the 

ari3t to sterue to Jje wordle / and libbe me god / ase world and she 

, . , , • 1 • f , becomes poor 

zayJ) zaynte paul. And J3a?me is hi zuo poure oi gost : of spirit. 

fet hi ne hejj na^t. Vor god hi?/i he]? zuo his 03ene 

gost y-reaued and be-nome. and ayen y-ueld of his 

03ene / ase he dede Jje apostles at lokes. )pa?aie hi»i 

yef]) ]je holy gost ane zuo greate herte : fet ne pros- i'forThe worid, 

perite / ne aduersete of fe wordle hi ne prazejj ane 

nliote. Ane zuo greate zikernesse of inwyt : bet hardi- ^"^ prefers 

® . death to life. 

liche abit jjane dya]?. ane zuo greate hope hejj ine god : 

Jjet Jjer ne is na3t / jjct lii ne dorste ninie anhand uor she is ready to 

J)e loue of god. Vor lii hejj jjo byleue huer-of god spekjj thhig for'thr'^'*^ 

ine pe godspelle. J)et is ase J)et zed of mostard huerby hi ^^^^^^-^ fg i\er 

may bote to be stones an to be belles / and hi hi;/i i^l^'^^J'I.^.'™' 

J I r I This beliet is as 

bouieb. bet zed o mostard is wel smal / ac hit is wel ^^^ srain of 

^ •* ' mustard-seed, 

Strang / and wel bitinde. u.or hit is hot ine be uer be spoken ofiu tiie 


degre / ase ziggejj Jjise fisiciens. be hete : me onderstant / 
1 MS. has lone. 



The first kind of 
love is to love 
only oneself. 
The 2n(l is to 
begin to love God. 
The 3vd is to 
know God better 
and to love Him 
for his goodness. 
The 4th is to be 
so possessed with 
love as to love 
God only. 
This last love 
hath the true 
meek one. 
The poor of 
spirit are blessed 
in this world. 

Hope makes the 
meek men to be 
kings of heaven. 

[Fol. 44. b.] 
The kingdom of 
heaven is theirs 
by behest and 

The full posses- 
sion shall take 
place in the next 

Of the virtue 
of love. 

Dread makes the 
heart mild(meek). 

Pity maketh it 

sweet and 


It is an antidote 

to envy. 

It bestrips the 
root of envy from 
the heart. 

It produces the 
root of good lovei 

from whence 
comes a 
fair tree. 

loue. )?e uerste stape of lone aze zay|5 saynt be[r]nai'(:l 
is / hua;nie J)e man ne can na3t lonie : iDote liim-zelue / 
and his 036110 guod. j)e olper hua?me lie begin]) god to 
lonie. ac hit is nor his 03ene gnod. ])e Jjridde / 
hna?zne he knanj) betere god / and hi«i lonejj j)ropre- 
liche nor his guodnesse. ])e nerjje. hua?me he is zno 
ynome of pe holy lone / pet he ne lonie ne him-zelne / 
ne god : ' bote nor god. j)a7ine hyer let zoj^e mildenesse 
f»ane man. Xon mi3t Jiou y-wyte openliche hou pe ponre 
of gost bye]) y-blissed ine ])ise wordle. Vor hi ham 
bye]) zno moche ylo3e(l / and emti / })et hire gost is al 
to na3te be-come.^ and pe holy gost hop })et hons ayen- 
yneld ])et is Ihord of pe herte. and uelp zno moche ])8t 
hi Help pe mylde. })8t hi his make]) king of heiiene / 
be holy hope / and be zikernesse of inwyt. And ])er- 
nore zay]) onre Ihord fet pe kingdom of heuene is hare / 
na3t wy])-onte more be beheste : ac be saysyne zykere 
ase pe ilke pet begin]) to ondernonge fet frut and fie 
rentes hon hi ssolle by y-blissed ine pe o])re wordle. ]pet 
ne may non parfitlyche y-wyte / al-hnet he is pev. Vor 
herte of man dyadlich / ne may hit Jienche / ne mou]) 

Of )?e u/ktue of loue. 
j)e nerste jetpe of pe holy gost : make]) pe herte 
milde and dreduol. and Jieruore he]) he ])ane name / pe 
yeipe of drede. ]5e o])er make]) pe herte znete and milde / 
and pitens. and ])eruore he hatte : pe yetp of pite. )5et 
is propr-eliche a dyan / and a triacle a-ye alle kiiead- 
nesse / and nameliche aye ]3et uenim of ze/me of ennie / 
huerof we habbe]) beuore y-speke. Yor J)is jetpe be- 
strep]) pe rote of ennie of pe herte / and hire hel]) 
zikerliche. j)anne pe herte ])et ondernangji fiise jetpe / 
ondernangji ane znete dean / ])et his make}) springe / ane 
zofte rote / and wel y-te«2pred / fiet is gnod loue. ]?a?nie 
])er wext a trau nair and he3 and wel berinde frnt. pet is 
1 (jHod? -l)o-come\n'^\B. 


a guod u?"/'tue and uayi- / fet me clepeb ine latin / ma/i- winch is caUed 

" Sweetness of 

suetudo / ojjer beningnitas. pet is zuyetnesse of lierte. heart." 
pet makej) man zuete and milde / manhede : and 
charitable, louiinde / and lonerede / nor hi dej) man 
parfitliche louie his nixte ase him-zelue. J3is tran hejj This tree hath 
zeue stapes / hnerby hit clyfjj an hej. Jje ilke zone which we cfimb 
stapes ous sseawejj saynte paul / Jjer he ous amonestej) **" '"^'*" 
and bit / Jjet we do oure payne / jjet we by al on ine god. 
Jjet is Jjet we habbe one herte / and enne gost / an one We should try to 

, . , , , , . . - , be all one in heart 

ioue m god. pe uerste scele hueruore we ssoile by al and spirit. 

on. and pe he^e / and pe lo3e / and pe riche and pe 

poure / is nor j^an / Jjet we alle habbe j) enne uader ine Because, ist, we 

1 I • ^ 111 Ti ^ • ^^^^ °"^ Father, 

heuene / fet is god Jiet ous made alle comunliche to ms that is, God, 
anlicnesse an to his ymage. Jjernore panne pet we alle in ws own uke- 
habbe)) enne sseppere / Jjet ous made alle of one "®^^' 
materie / and hej) yssape. and to onelepi ende. Jjet is 
fet we by al on ine hbn / ase he zayj) ine his spelle. 
Mochil is grat scele fet we to-gidere louie. nor ech best 
ase zayJ) salomouns louej) his anliche. pe o])er scele is secondly, we are 
uor we byejj alle cristene ine one cnstenedome / and ^jjg Christendom 
riche and poure. Jjet is Jjet we byef alle y-wesse of one- 
lepi le^e. bet wes mid lesu cristes preciouse blod. and and are aii washed 

. with the blood of 

ybo3t mid onelepi moneye. and asemoche costnede pe Christ. 
on : ase pe ojier. Moche ssel pmine pe on louie pe oj?er 
and worssipie / j^et god he)) ' zuo moche yloued and y- [' ms. he^] 
prayzed / and ymad of suo greate dingnete. pe firidde Thirdly, we aii 

, iiTn 1 ^ II have one belief, 

scele / uor jjet we healdeji alle one beleaue / and we and are bound by 

byejj alle ybounde mid one la^e jjet is al uolueld / ase 

zaij) sainte paul ine fise worde. ' Lone pine nixte ase 

J)i-zelue.' Of jjise dette ne is non (\uit / uor jjing pet 

he dep. Jjise dette ssel ech to ojjren. and hue mest his [FoI. 45. a.] 

yelt : mest he ssel. pe uerpe scele is. uor we habbep Fourthly, we 

1.111, • i,>i 1 11 n liave one Lord of 

enneiepi Ihord / pet is god of huam we hyealdep aUe whom we aii hold 
and body / and zaule / and al pet we habbep. alle he goui, ° ^ ^° 
hep imad co??imunhche / alle ybojt co?«inunliche / to 
alien porueyp communhche / and alle ssel deme corn- 




and by whom we muiiliclie / and alle medi largeliche / jjo }jet habbef y- 

all shall be pun- tit • i i j 

ished or rewarded, liyealde his hestes / and ]30S ssolle by to-gidere yloned 
Fifthly, we are treweliche. j)e vifte scele is / nor \)et we bye]) alle 

all fellow-soldiers . ., ,p ni ii-i-j./3 

ill the host of our uela3es me fe ost ot cure iliorde. and tiis kni3tes / and 
amfaii look for ^^^^ soudeuTS / jjot aUs we abyde)) on-lepi ssepe / ])et ' is 
one reward. j^g ]3iigge wijj-oute endo / huer Jje lone and fe nela3rede 

ssel by noldo and y-cowfermed / Jjet hier ssel by wel y- 
sixthiy, we all hote. j)e zixte scele is nor ])et we libbejj alle of one 

live by one spirit, iiti t> 

goste gostliche / ase we libbej) of on eyr bodylicn. Be 
and are all God's ba goste we byeb alle godes children be adopcion / Jjet 

children by 

adoption. is be anouerie / and children of holy cherche / brojier 

germayn of nader and of moder / be ane broferhede 
gostlich / Jiet asemoche is worfi betere : jja/me J)e 
brojjerrede nlesslich. ase pe gost is more worjj : fawne 

Seventhly, we are Tjgt bodi. be zeuende scele is nor bet we byeb alle 

all limbs of one -* i ^ j 

body, whereof leniBS of One bodyc. huerof lesu cr^'st is bet heaned / 

Christ is the head. 

We all uve on the and wB byej) JJB lemes. jjet we libbej» alle of onelepi mete. 

is, the flesh and ]5et is of Jje holy uless and of fe holy blod of lesu cr/st 

Christ? "^^^^ j'et ous zno nioche lonef / and zuo moche halt ous worjj : 
jjet he ous yefjj his blod to drinke / and his uless to 
etene. peruore zuo ofte sainte paul def ous to be-j5enche 
Jjise loue / fet he ous ssewe]). Yor more quia scele / 
ne more uayrer uorbisne he ous ne may sseawy of zoJ>e 

Seven steps of louerede. Yef fou wilt wel fenche to fise zeue sceles. 

pity.^^""^ ""* "^ J'O^i sselt Adnde. zeue stapes of loue / pet come]) of })e 
jefpe of pite. 

The boughs of j)^ BO3ES OF LOUEREDE. 


ofthis stock come Of })ise stocke wexe]) zeue bo3es. Vor fise uw'tue 

seven boughs, . i , , i 

for this virtue Is hi??z ssewc]) luc zeue mauercs. ase me knau]) pane loue 

seen in seven ,,-i, ,i p,ii 

w^ays. Jjet IS be-tuene pe lemes of fe bodye me zeue manyeres. 

1. One limb for- Verst ])G ou leme uorber}) / and lokeJ> an o])er / fiet me 

bears and bears ^i- ■ -1 / • ■ 1 i ■ 1 x. i • • j. 

the defects of an- 11^3^ ^1"^ misdo / ne ang/'isi / ne harmi / be his nu3te. 
°'^''®"'" and ine ])ise we onderstonde]) ^ fe i?mocerace fet we 

We should do to ssolle loki ])& OU a-ye pe olpve. Vor })is heste is y-write 
would bTdlne by. ^^^ ]>e herte of eurichen. pet fou ne do to ojjren : pei / 
pet ]30U nolde&t pet he pe ne dede. ne pm ri3t hand 
MIS. be I, ~ order St ondi)> MS. 


dede to bine left hand. Efterward be on leme boleb 2- One Umb does 

■• t J I jjot wreak its 

ziietliche ' / of jje ojjre Jjet he him dej? of angWce / and spite on another. 

na3t him ne aw[r]ec3]j. ne non arizinge of wrejje ne 

uelj5 jje leme fe on aye ]je ojjer / ne ne of-hyealde]). Ine 

J?isen we onderstondejj to uolueUe mildenesse fet he]) 

jjri stapes. J3e uerste is ])et man him ne awreke na3t. )?e 

o])er pet me ne hyealde najt ire longe. )?e jjridde / Jjet 3. The limbs 

T . . £• • I p 1 i 1 • obey their head 

man ne ueie none arizmge 01 u'e / ne 01 hate aye his (i. e., the iieart 
nixte uor na^t Jjet he dej?. Efterward jje lemes ^" t'eeye). 
boii3ej) aUe to hare ouerling. Vor M do]) alle mid hare 
mi3te jjet jje herte acsej? / and ))et e3e ham tekjj. Ine g ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ 
ban we onderstondeb be u^rtue of bo:jsamnesse huerof stand the virtue 

•' ' ' ■' of obedience. 

we habbejj beuore y-speke / fet he ssel bi ine loue [Foi. 45. b. 
agrayjjed / and ine charite / ase zaijj zaynte peter. 
Efterward jje on leme helpjj and seruejj jje ojjren wyjj- 4. one Umb helps 
onte grochi/ige and wyjj-oute wyjjzigginge / and wyfi- otiier wiiungiy 
oute auarice. Ine jjisen we onderstondejj jje u^>tue })et j„ tifis^we'see the 
me clepejj charite. jjawne a man hua??ne he help}) and virtue of chanty, 
\n.m a-corde]j blejieKche jie ojjre mid j)e helpe jiet god whereby one man 

,., ,1- 1 I ■, 1 1 ■, f -I ■ helps his fellow 

hi?/i hej) y-yeue. jjer him ret / ojier tekf) / 01 his wytte christians by his 

jjet he he}». Ojjer yefj) andto-deljj largeUche uor god ms riches, or ws 

jje guodes jjet he hejj. Ojjer he chastejj and di3t })e foles a""'0"ty. 

be })e autorite jjet lie hej>. Ac j)a/aie zayji me jjet he is 

uol of charite. And jjoiis hit hat zaynte peter / jiet jje 

gtiodnesse jjet god ous hejj y-lend jiet we hise di3te to 

oure nixte. jjawne tulles jje filozofe zayjj. 'wessolle The philosopher 

jjenche jjet al })et is ine jje wordle and wext : al hit is shoiUd aii seek 

ymad man to helpe. an }»e man uor to helpe jje on / jje profit,^""""''" 

ojjren. bye}> beyete.' 'do we jjajine' zayji he / ' jjet : huer- 

uore we bye}» ybore / and jjet kende ous tekj>. and as Nature teach- 

zeche we alle jjet commun profit.' Vor ase zayjj zaynte 

paul. ' we byejj alle lemes of onelepi bodye.' Eftenvard / 5- ah the limbs 

■* feel what is done 

alle jje lemes ueleji / and dra3ej) to ham jiet me deji to to one of them, be 

echen / by hit guod / by hit kuead. by hit blisse /by 

hit zor3e. hua?ine me smit jiane uot : pe movijj zayji / 

jjou me blechest. Be Ijan we onderstondejj be uw'tue By this we under- 

■* ' ■ • stand the virtue 

10 • 


of pity, that hath of zojje pite / fet we ssolle habbe commmAiche j Jjet 

hejj tuaye offices / ase zay]j zante paul. Blisuol sselt 

the one to be glad uq^ -j^y / ^q uq truodes bet obre habbeb / and dob. 

of others' prosper- r ^ / r o r t i j 

ity, and to be sor- Zor juol sselt boFul by / to be kuedes bet ofre uelef and 

rovvful for others' ^ ^ ^^ \ , c, \ ■ ■^ i ^ 11 

woe. do]). Efterw^ard / yef fe on leme is zik / ofer y-wonded : 

Liuie othS '' alle pe of re hiw helpej) to fet he by held. Ine f ise we 
^®''^''" onderstoFnldeb be uiVtue of doni / and of amendement. 

In this we under- L J i i ' 

stand the virtue wijj-oute huam / jjct body of holy cherche ne may 
amendment, yleste. Voi J)e leme uorroted ssolde ssende jje hole. 
Huo Jjet wile panne conne hou he ssel his broker chasti. 
and we-ieani how his nixte / ojjer his seriont wyfnime / and punissi : nime 
to reprove, cor- | ^ ^ hlm-zelue / huawne on leme is zik / ober y-wonded. 

rect, and punish / I J -J 

the faults of one j-^q^ moche zorje heb be herte and grat compassion 

another. ;> s s 

y-uel]). and be fe greate lone fet he hej? ine him / he 

Mm def ])e hand wel zueteliche. And aze zayjj senekes / 

ase of Jje bodye / alsuo of \q herte me ssel zueteliche Jie 

Faults should be -\vonden ao;raybi. Vor of zobe loue / and of grat com- 

eorrectedby o Jr r I o 

love and com- passion ssoUe J)e amendes by y-do. and mid greate 
First, we should drede he ssel fe honden do ferto. Verst he ssel ]?erto 
of sweet Itoo-"^ do fe smeringes / and fe piastres of zuete warningges. 
aftirwardsthe Efterward yef fet ne is na3t wor> : fe pondres efter- 
wtake^^ °^ ^^^^ ward and prekiinde / of harde wyjjniminge. Efte^-ward 
Next, the deeds of t,g (jedes of techinge. and yef he ne deb wyb-oute 

teaching. > a •/ j ^ , 

Then, if these fail, empapement : panne behouejj come Jjet ziiord hit uor to 
roi!;i"of"xcom- ' dele / of er be manzinge / of er be hotinge out of con- 
munication. trayc. of er him do uram liim-zelue. Efterward f e lemes 

7. The limbs hon- worssipeb be on / be ober. and uorberef. uor ase zayf 

our one another, T i i f • / j 

and have a kindly zay[n]te paul. we ssolle here ech of ren worf ssipe / and 
[Foi. 46. a.] reuerence. and nameliche f o / f et habef mest nyede : of 
feeling for each uorberinge. fo byef fe meste foles / and fe fyebleste. 
The good man zuiche me ssel mest uorbere. j?a?me fe guode man and 
wltrfooisT^ ^ f e wyse beref / and uorberef alneway f e foles / and f e 
as the hones bear fiebles / asc f e buones beref f e tendre uless. and f e pos[t] 

the tender flesh. , • • , • • , , t 

fet hous. pis IS aye f e missiggeres f et zuo moche 

gredef blef cliche f e kueades / and f e defautes fet hi 

8. The limbs pro- zyef iuc of Ten. Eftcrward f e on leme weref fet of er 

tect each other. 


ate nyede / and liim. zet uor him. uor ate niede me 

y-zi^J) huo is urend. Huawne pe on uot slyt : jje oper when the one foot 

.. . , - slips the other 

mm helpjj. An haste hua??ne me wyle smite J)et heaued : helps it. 

J3e hand hire dejj be-uore. Ine Jjisen we onderstondejj / in this we uuder- 

. -.,. stand pure love 

uoluelde / and clene lonerede. jjeruore zay]? god m his and friendship. 

spelle. ' Jiet more louerede ne may by : fa/me zette his 

zaule uor liis urend.' Jpise urendrede ous ssewede lesu This friendship 

11- Christ showed for 

crist fe zolpe urend Jjet uor ous layde his zaule and his us. 
body to ]je dyafe. and fet dede he ous uor to yeuene 
uorbysne. ase zayj) zaynte peter / and sain Ion zayjj. wherefore we 

ought to be wiU- 

yef god layde his zaule uor ous : and we ssolle legge ing to give our 

, . •J' souls for our 

oure zaules uor oure brofren / Jjet is uor oiire nixte. yet brethren. 

we byejj a ri3t leme of fe bodie / huerof is jjet heaued. 

Huo ))et jjise m'rtue hedde / ich wolde zigge openliche 

])e[t] he ssolde by Jje ri3te yblissed. }pis is J)e u^Hue fet tws virtue Christ 

oure guode maister lesu crist ous to3te / f)o he zede. said— 

' YbHssed byeb be milde : uor hy ssolle by in sayzine of "Blessed be the 

' . . mild, for they 

jje erjje.' ]3et is to onderstonde ine j)ri mane/'es. Verst / shaii possess the 
of J5e londe of jje hbbinde Jjet is god zelf / Jjet is i. They shau have 
woniynge of Jje libinde / Jjet is of jje hal^en / and of ° ^®^ 
guode men. Ase Jje erjje is woniynge of bestes and of 
men. And Jieruor Jjet god J)et is Jje land of Jje libbinde : who is the land 

11 ,. ii.,.,. . ,. 1 of the living.^ 

he hej) his y-blissed m his saysme. uor hi ne makejj 
none stre[n]gj3e Jjet quemejj god ine hire sayzyne / ase zayJ) 
Jje sauter. J?e milde zayjj / he ssel habbe Jjet land ine None shau have 

11 1 , . , / . J 1 this possession 

kende. and saynt augMstm zuo zayJj / Jjet now ne ssel unless they are 

habbe god ine possession. Vor hi byeJj ri^tuolliche hearts? ^^ 

Ihordes of hii-e herten. ac ire / and felonie liis 

amaystrejj. )pe milde amaistrejj Jje queade Jjeawes. And The meek man " 

betere is worjj / Jjet zayJj Salomons / huo J)et ouercomjj habits. 

wel his herte : Jja?me Jje ilke Jjet nimj) be stre[n]gjje / 

casteles and cites. Efte? ward / Jje milde byeJj lliordes 2. The meek are 

lords of earthly 

01 Jje erJje / Jjet is of erj^liche guodes. Vor yef hi hise goods. 
lyezel) : hi ne wrejjejj ham nast / ne ne troubleb. Ac bo They grieve not 

' -^ ^ ^ ■'^ ^ at the loss of 

Jjet ham wrejjej) hua?ine hi hise lyezejj / hi ne ne byej) them, 

najt Ihordes : ac rajjre Jjrelles. and Jjeniore he zayJj / hit ^^^ are not slaves 


to worldly pos- is ri^t / pet ])o Jjet habbej) hier pe timliclie guodes and 

gostliche / and hani-zelue ine possessioun. Jjet hi habLe 

ine fe ende : fet land of fe libbinde / fet is god him- 

The poor shall zelf iiie possessioun. Ac nou onderstand and loke / 

anTt'eTe^k the ^t / >et god yef> to fe poure f e heuene. and to ]>e 

land where the -^j^ . . ^^ j^^^ / ^^^^ gg^^g ^ 1,^ 13^^^^^ ^nd be felle 

" bitter and feU r 1 '' > ' 

shall beunknown. -v^yjjonte / Ine ])Q zoi^e of helle. 

[Fol. 46. b.] 
The first step of )?E UERSTE STAPE OF BI3TUOLNESSB. 

Theist"giftofthe J?e uerste yeffe of jje holy gost/makej) man milde/ 
Sakrth'man ^nd dxeduol, j?e ofer him make]) zuete / and pitous, 
tt**9^nd iteous J^^ J^idde hi??i make]) hri^te to zyenne / and nol of 
and the 3rd full of -^yytte. and feiuore hit hatte : fe yef J)e of wytte. 
Vor he make)) man wytuol / and wys. and ame- 
This last gift cast- surej) alle fing. )3es yefj)e hnawne he com]) in-to ])e 
of ir* *^' '°°' ^erte : bestrep]) and kest out fe rote and ])e ze?2ne of 
that driveth a ire / and of felonye / ]»et trouble]) Jie herte / and make]) 

man out of his 

wits. }>ane man al oute of wytte. zuo fet he no ping ne yzi3]). 

This gift eniight- ne uor him / ne uor o])ren to lede. Ac pes yeffie ah3t 

that*n is'no't b'^ Jje herte of ech half / zuo fet hi ne may by y-gyled of 

gulled. nonen. Ase fe yef])e of pite him make]) innocent : zuo 

])et he nele gyly nenne. )?a?me saint Ion zay]) ine ])e 

boc of zi3])e ine goste. j?et ])e holy man fet wes uol of 

])ise goste / wes uol of e3en be-uore and be-hinde. And 

The good men an angel ssewede to zacarien fe profete ane ston huer- 

sights." iii6 werin zeue e^en. ])et bye]? fe zeue zi3j)es fet fe guode 

For they see into men habbe]). Vor hi zye]) bri3thche / and ine hare 

all about them, hertcu / and al abo[u]te ham. ])et is to zigge. be-ne])e / 

and aboue / be-uore / and behinde / and of ri3t half / an 

This gift is the " of left half. )5es yef])e is fe maister of workes. ])et is to 

zigge / of ])e mrtues of man. uor he dep al to wylle. and 

itTs the line, rule, to ])& Huc / and to ])e reulc / and to pe leade / and to 

Jie leuele. He nim]) uerst liis pr^cke. and his boune and 

pet is pet pe -wyse zayp. ' Of al pet pou sselt beginne : 

loke pane ende. and to huet heauede pou sselt come.' 

It makes the line Efterward / he halt his line, uor he ne hep beuore be 


rijte way / and be ri3te onderstondiwge. na^t ase Jje of conduct to be 

eddre / ojjer ase pe uox. Efte?-ward. he dej) al be reule / 

Jjet inakejj fane wal emne / and man be J»e comvxune 

lyue of pe guode / wy]j-oute vinde newe hedes. Efter- 

ward he proueb ofte his work mid lead, uor he nimb i* ^^^^^ t^e life 

' _ _ _ of the good even 

hede bet his tour / ne hongi / ne stoupi / ne ari3[t]half and uniform. 

., .It makes him firm 

be prospente : ne aleithalf : be aduersite. pes yeife is and upright 

pnonr ine ])e cloystre of Jje zaule. fet lokej) fe ordre / ^d^dvwsity!" ^ 

and def hi loki oiieral. Verst ine pe herte [Jjet] hef tuo ^'^ff^i'^*''^ 

zides. J5e onderstondinge. and Jjet wyl. Jje skele / and cloister of the 

be afFeccionn. Hiia?ine bise tuo ziden / acordej? : hi The heart hath 

two sides : 

makej) wel zuete melodie / and moche uayr seruice. pet i. The mider- 

, If- standing and will. 

IS hua?uie wyl wyle / al fet onderstondinge tekp oi 2. The reason and 

guode. and guod wil uelj) : fet scele onderstant. nou wiien these ac- 

onderstand wel fise tuo ziden / fet byeji ine Jte zaule / g^'jet melody ^'* 

hou hy ssolle acordi. Ine be one zyde byeb uour lokes / i" each sideiare 

four locks. 

and ine pe ofre : uour. Vor Jje skele he]? uour offices.. Beason hath four 

offices : 

jjet is uor to acsy. Vor to deme. Vor to bejjenche. 1. To question, 
And to ssewy jjet hi onderstant be worde. And pe ilke 3] to bethink, 
yefjje te^ fane scele / fet hi ssel lyerni / and acsy. thought^words. 
and ine huyche ordre / and ine huiche manere / and to '^^^f ^'/'^ (doom) 

•^ I I teacheth reason 

huet ende. And bet is Avel grat nied. Vor to misdo ^'^^ ^° ^^am and 

. to ask, 

ine zuiche finges / is wel perilous. He def fane sck[e]le 
onderstonde / and to lyerni bet /bet is nieduol and a"<i what is need- 

' '' r I r ful, profitable, and 

profitable / and oneste. and hire wyfdra^f of fe eon- honest. 
^rarie. A. god hou me lyest fane time and costni[n]gge ^^°^- *''• *-J 
uor to lyerni fiag f et na^t ne is worf bote to ydele 
bhsse / ober to zerene Ac be holy gost be bise yefbe By this gift the 

' ' r J & r J r Holy Ghost teach- 

tekb liatliche. and makeb man lyerni ordeneliche / bet ^^'^ ™an ^^ii"* '^ 

•^ -^ X ^ IT most needful for 

is mest nyed to fe zaule to fe loue of god. and al the soui to leam, 

makef to done ine ri3te onderstondinge / and to ri3te 

ende / bet is be worssipe of god. and uor be profit of ^'"" "'*^ iionour of 

his zaule. and uor to helpe his nixte. Efterward he p^'o^'- 

def fane skele wel to zeche fet zofe of finges. and 

nameliche hou lii ssel beleue. Wel beleue is hua?me ^^ teaches the 

soul right belief, 

me belef f simplehche al fet god made, zayf . and hat / ti»at is, to believe 



without doubt 
whatever God ha8 
made, said, or 

True belief is not 
hasty or slow. 
It examines and 
desires right judg- 

It does not meddle 
with matters that 
do not belongto it. 

This gift enables 
reason to distin- 
guish between 
good and evil, 

between little 
goods and the 

It causes man to 
remember all 
needful things 

To understand 
things present, to 
see the things 
to come. 

It makes man to 
speak or to be 
sUent in season ; 

so that each word 
is of its right 
weight, neither 
too much nor too 

Throw not pearls 
tefore swine. 

■wyjj-oute to moche acsi / and wyjj-oute to zeche Jie red 
of god / and pe dyepnesse of his domes / and Tpe 
lie3nesse of his mageste / and Jje skele of his ojjes. Wei 
beleue is / hua?me me ne lefjj ne to rafe. ne to late, ne 
to alle / ne to nonen. nor J)e on and fe oJ?er : zuo is 
nice / ase zayjj seneke. Efterward wel acsi : wile wel 
deme. Wel to denie be-longe]) fet me na^t ne anfermi : 
bote me hit habbe wel of-acsed. and J»a?^ne bote-yef me 
by ziker : Jjet me ne entremetti to deme ])ing J)et na3t 
to Mm ne belongejj / ase bye]) Ipe finges anliyalde. Jje 
onderstowdinges of herten / of Jjinges jjet ne moje torni 
to Ipe rijthalf / and to fe lefthalf / fet me his onder- 
storade arijt ine ]je guode half. j)anne fes gost / be fise 
yefjje / makejj fane scele wel to deme / and knawe 
arijt. and to destincti be-tnene Jje gnode jjinges and Jje 
kueade. be-tuene pe greate kueades and fe lesse. be- 
tuene fe little guodes / and ])e more. Vor he de]) ech 
Jjing praysy / ase hit is be ri3te worjj. Efterward he 
dej) fane scele bejjenche. nor he be-fengf to Jie mawne / 
al fet him is nyed / ase god zayJ3 ine his spelle. j)e 
finges J)et byef y-pased / he hise dej? befenche. j)e 
finges Jet byej) present / he def his onderstonde / and 
to y-zy. fe finges fet byef to comene : he def pornay / 
and ordayny. and fise byejj fe fri deles of fe u/rtue of 
prudence be fe filosofe. Efte/Tvard he make]? fane 
scele be mesnre speke / and blef ehche by stille. and 
speke onnefe. zno fet fe speche come rafre te f e uile : 
fawne to fe tonge. fet hi by y-we^e ase guode moneye 
and y-proued. ase zayf. Salomon, f et is fet hi by of 
guode matire / ase of guod metal, and of gnode ssepf e / 
f et is of guode manere y-speke. and hi habbe his ri3te 
wy3te / and his ri3te tale, fet is fet fer ne by ne to 
moche / ne to lite / and fet hi by wel bezet. uor guod 
moneye / ne guod word / me ne ssel na3t y[e]ue nor 
na3t. Huerof zayf ous god ine his spelle. fet we ne 
f rauwe na3t oure pre-ciouse stones to-uore f e zuyn. pes 



yefjje acorde]) / and ordeynef / jje ofer half of ]je herte. ™^|^^ governs 
beFtl is be wvl / huerof ber byeb uour deles. Lone. The wui hath 

r ^ -i r •" I . I four faculties, 

Drede. Blisse. and zor^e. fet is/ fet he liabbe Jiet he love, dread, wiss, 
ssel / and ase he ssel / and asemoche ase me sseL when these four 
and Jjet me yleue alsuo fet me ssel / and ase me ssel j^^jftion, t'herthey 
and ase moche j ase me ssel. HiiaMne fise uour '"'e" tempered. 
deles hye]) atamed / Jjanne zayj; me fet fe man is 
attempre. Ase me zayJ? of one rote / ojjer of one herbe / 
jjet hi is attempre / hua?zne hi is ne to chald / ne to 
hot / ne to wet. Alsuo ase to fe bodye of man / comejj [Foi. 47. b.] 
aUe eueles nor be destempringe of Jjise uour q?/ahtes / As aii toduy evils 

arise from the 

ofer of ))ise uour humours : alzuo 01 Jje herte 01 pe "distempering" 
mawne come]) alle ]>e uices / and alle jje zeranes be J)e humours, 
distemperance of Jjise jjeawes. Huanne fise tuo ziden fr^m the "dfstlm' 
of Jje herte bye)? acorded and y-ordayned. fet is fe ^^'^^^rtiies '^''^ 
scele and J)et wyl. ])a?me is ])e man ordine wyj)-inne 
him-zelue. )?et byeb be tuo roten of ])e rote of ane wel The roots of the 

tree of " right- 

uayre trawe. fet is of ane wel uayre uw'tue fet me fulness " are a 

. T 1 / J. weU-ordered rea- 

clepej) ri3tuolnesse. Ki3tuolnesse is propreiiche / pet son and a subdued 

me de]) be dome ri3tuol and trewe / ne to nesssse / ne to '^ 

hard / wyb-oute boujinge to be one half / ne to Jje Rightfulness is 

. true and uniform 

ojjren. Huawne me gejj uorjj onlepihche / and a-rijt ase conduct. 

line. Vor rijtuolnesse ne is ober bing bote oninge / it is nothing else 

_ *^ _ , than union and 

Jjet is trewjie. Huo J)et hej) Jjise mVtue : he is guod truth, 

iustise and wys. uor he ne dej) nojjing bote hit by wel yi^ue is a good 

ofacsed and y-trid / ase ssel do J)e guode demere. '"'d ^^^e judge. 

Jpawne J)e uerste stape of Jjise utrtue is / Jiet Jje The first step of 

this virtue is that 

man by guod demere of his o^ene herte. uor he ssel a man he a good 

. . X- 1/1 x.- • i 1 1 judge of his own 

guo m-to hl??^-zelue / and ysy his mwyt and wel ex- heart, 
andni his ])03tes / and his wylles Jjet hi bi guode : ojjer 
kueade. and al ordayny to Jie lokinge of scele / zuo Jjet 
J)e w^l and Jje scele : by of one onynge. Yor ase zayjj virtue, saith st 
sain bernard. 'uzHue ne is non oJ)er Jjing : bote Jie union of reason 
onynge of scele / and of wille.' J)et is huanne wyl comj) ^ ° '^^ • 
wyjj-oute wyfiziggi/jge. speke / and maky / and do to that is, when the 
worke J)et scele zayjj / and ssewej) / and tekj). ^ reason. 


The second step Jje ObER STAPE OF RI^rTluOLNESSE. 

of rightfulness. ' ' -"-J 

The second step Of j)ise mVtue ]je ojjer stape is. jjet me by ri^tuol dem- 

is to hold the , ,. . -,-,•-, i t p- i. 

body in proper ere / and healde n3tuolliche / Jje line ot ri3te. betnene 
su jec ion. j^^^ _ ^^^ ^^^^ ^ onder him. J>et is his bodi ]jet he he]) 

to loki. huich he ssel zuo norissi : Jjet he moje serui / 
Reason should be and ZUO teche / and chasti : ]jet he wyle bou3e. Vor 
tween the spirit \^ scelc ssel by ase a trewe arbytres be-tnene jje goste 
an t e es . ^^^ ^^ ulesse Jjet byej) alneway strfuinde. jjet ssel lold 
So that the spirit bet lijt / of one half: and of obre. Ine zuiche manere 

be lord of the ' ^ i i 

body. Jiet ]je gost by guod Ihord / and Jjet body : by guod 

For there is great s^rgont. :N"ou is hit g^'ot nyed to hyealde in fise half 
need that moder- oueral rijtuolnesse / and mesure / ine mete / and ine 

ation should be -^ ' ' 

observed in meat, drinke / and ine clo binge / and ine hosiynge / and ine 

drink, and 

clothing. ssoinge. and ine alle jse Jjinges fet / fet bodi acsejj. 

. Yor hit wel ofte bou3]) more to / to ^ moche : far^ne to 

The five wits of ]je litle. Efterwaid hit behouej? fe vif wyttes of ]je 

under the author- bodie wel lede / and rede, be scele / and be rit3nol- 

lyo leason. nesse / ZUO Jiet ech serui of liis office wyjj-oute zewne / 

and wyjj-oute wyjjniminge. Ase jje 63611 : to zyenne. 

|)e yearen : to hyere. )3e nase : to ssmelle. })e moujj : 

to zue[l]3e / and to sspeke. )3e honden / and al jjet body : 

When these five to vele. Hua^me Jjise vif wyttes byeb wel y-loked 

wits are well . i -n / t 

guarded, then is j)a? IS ]je castel ziker / and ysset. jpet byeji j?e gates 

the castle secure, n, iij.ii, i i i ,•/, 

for they are the ^i \q zaiue. jjet bye]) J)e wyndowes huerby com]) m / ])e 
of fhe\"o^J.''"^'"'' dya]) ofte to ])e zaule / ase zay]) ])e profete. 

The third step of )3E jjRIDDE STAPE OF RI3[t]u0LNESSE. 


[Foi. 48. a.] J5e fridde stape of fise u^Hue is. ])et \q man by 

The third step of gnod demere. and hyea[l]de ri3tnesse be-tuene \i\m : and 
man^miges be-''' \^'^ j'st is beuore hi?». ])et bye]) \q ])inges of time / ])et 
^nd'the'th'togs destrue]) ofte and bodi and zaule / hua?me me de]» ferto 
that''is'bet'ween ^° moche / ase do]) fe nijjinges and fe coua}i;ous. and 
himself and tern- alle bo bet be wordle louieb to moche. bet habbeb zuo 

poral possessions. j j t j i r 

The covetous are ^e herten engrmed ine be dyeules nette / ase zayb lob. bet 

ensnared in the 

devU's nets. to tiwHche [eyse] ^ / and to nyedes wyf-oute / ])et to hare 
' eyse or lost seems wanting here to complete the sense. 


herten hi ne 111036 guo in / ne liare lif ordayny. )pa?me 

hit jaalj) fet hit is zojj / ]jet senekes Jje wyse zayjj / jjet au sin who take 

.,,-„. . „ more care for the 

"we be Jjan zene-^p aile / and loriuons Jjet 01 J)e pames 01 things of life than 

Jje line ech fenche / and is soigneus. ac of al pe line to °^ ^^ e 1 se . 
ordayny non ne Jjencjj / ne stude]). Xon is J)a?me wel 

g?*at nied pet me ne do na^t to moche fe herte ine Jtise set not the heart 

f inges AvyJ3-onte. Yor lino )?et him dej? to moche ferto : ward things, lest 

he ualp in Tpe hate / and ine fe couaytise of Jje wordle / covetoirsneTs,"^ ' ^ 

fet is pe rote of alle nices / ase we habbe]) be-uore lulices!" '°°' °^ 

j)E UER)3E STAPE of RI3TUOLNESSE. The fourth step of 

„ . . . . rightfulness. 

J5e uerjje stape of |)ise mj-tue is. )?et man clierHche -rjjg f^^^j^ ^^ ^j. 

yzi ane his ri3thalf jjet is jjet he nime hede to ham fet hee"to tholfwho 

byejj guode / jjet bye]? ase ane his ri3t zyde. and fet of ^^^ sood, and foi- 

]je guode / and of Jje wyse / he nime wyt / and uorbysne. ample. 

Ac ine ])ise zide hit be-honeb hyealde ri3tnolnesse and Discretion is here 

. "^ very needful. 

discrecion. Vor al nolc ne mo3e na3t gno be one waye. aii folk have not 

ne alle pe guode / ne alle pe wyse / ne habbejj na3t one- nor have^he"''^' 

lepi grace, alsuo ase fe lemes of jje bodie / ne habbef iKnelffid''"'^^ 

na3t onelepi office, and jjerof hjep uele herten nouices 

of Jjan / ase zajp pe boc of collacions of holy uaderes / 

fet drajt of pe perfeccion of uiVtue. Vor hua?^ne hi 

jzep ane man wel y-mad Jjet wyle p?-ofiti ine on stat / Some novices en- 

. • 1 -n . / 1 1 • 11 deavour to follow 

ojjer me one grace : anon hy mllej) / and him y-lyche the special virtues 

wyUef by. And hua«ne hi eft jzjep anofrene / fet °"°° ^'^^y^^r^, 
ine anojjer stat / dej) manie guodes : alsuo hi wyllej? 

and yernejj efter. an alsuo to pe jjridde / and to be and so attain to 

, ; , , , J , -1 none. 

uerjje / ne to nonen ham ne zettejj. )3o byejj ase is. jje They are like the 

yonge grihound / >et is yet al nouis / Jjet yemj) efter thTfunrafter '"^ 

eche beste / jjet jexnp beuore him. and ne make]) bote ^ sels!""'* '^''* 

him weri and his time lyese. j?erof zet ysopes pe fable lexempUm.] 

of pe Kttle hounde and of pe asse. pe bond at eche time ThefeWeofthe 

jjet he yhyerjj [Jjet] his Ihord comef horn, he jemp to-yens ^^ '"^ "^^"""^ """^ 

him / and Uiapb aboute his zuere. and be Ihord him The hound wei- 

■" comeshismaster's 

make]) uayr chiere / and him frotej) / and makeb ' him home-coming by 

,,.,,„ fawning and rub- 
' nuiker in MS. 


biiig and fair greate feste. pe asse him be-J)03te / fous ssolde ich 
do / and zuo wolde mi Ihord me louie. Betere lie ssolde 
me maki ioye / pet ich serui eche daye jjawne jjise 

The ass attempts hounde bet him serueb of najt 1 hit nes nasftl longe efter- 

to follow the dog's '^ ^ ' . 

example, ward Jjct Jje asse ne yze3 liis Uiord come horn : he negm]) 

and throws his , i i • 

feet about his to Iheape / and yer«]j to-yens \i\m. and mm fraujj pe 

and is weu bekten net ahoute liis zneve / and beginjj zinge grat-liche. J2e 

forhispams. geigons jjet hit y-ze^e / nome stenes / and byete ])ane 
asse rijt to fe nolle. And J)erof fet he wende habb[e] 

By such fables worjissipe / and guod : he hedde ssame and harm. Be 

[Foi. 48. b.] zneche fables wes y-woned fe -wyse man teche his 

taugTuhiT'irouse- niayne / and be Jjise uorbisne / he ham ssewede fet hi ne 

nott desire vir- ssolle na3t wylni to >e graces hner hi ne mo3e na3t 

tues that were be- ^^^^ ^q_ ^^^ Vp^ -jj^e ^elue tekb salomon. 'zone' zayb 

yond theirpowers. ' •» '' ' 

Wherefore take j^g / <■ j^e arere najt bine e^en to richesses ' / bet is to 

heed of whom ' ^ j / it 

thou takest pat- graces bet be ne mi3t najt come to. }?eruore hit is grat 


nyed to habbe discrecion pet me zi -of huam me may 
uorbysne nime. 



It is necessary Alstio hit is grat nycd pet pe man yzy bry[3]te ane his 

see clearly right left half and pet is pe vifte ioyel / and pe vifte stape. 

and left of him. tii;i 

On the one side he nor he ssel yzy pe foles and pe kueade / pet byep ase 

sees fools of whom ti^iiiji ii»» -ij-i 

he should have ^ P^ ^^^^ hall, uor by hyp a pe worse zide. to ham me 
^'*y' ssel nime hede uerst / nor pan pet he habbe pite an cmn- 

and should avoid passionn. Efterward uor pet me be-uly3t hire folye / and 

their follies. , . - . , 

Solomon took hire uorlyczmge / ase zayp pe wyse salomow. 'Ichwente 

gard and his he zayp ' be pe nine / and be pe ueldes of pe fole sleii- 

°'"^^" nolle, and ize3 pet al lii weren noUe of nettlen and of 

pornes / and of pise uorbisne ich habbe y-nome wyt / 

and po[r]ueyonce.' uor me kan zigge : pet zofte he him 

chastep : pet be opren hi??z chastep. Efterward / uor 

Discretion is here pan pet me louep more god / be huam man is qm't of 

necessary. - i i •, t i 

zuycne zennes. Ac mocne hit behouep me pa zyde / to 
We must pity and loki ri3tuolnesse / and discrecion. Yor huawne ich yzy 

not deride fools 

and sinners, pane fol and pane zene3ere / ich ssel habbe pite / and 



mid jjolyinge. and na3t niaki jjerof bisemers an scornes. 

Ich ssel alneway hatye be zenne : and louie be kende. Let us hate sin 

J <) ' ' but love the sin- 

and wel me behouejj to loky fet ich. ne wille ine mine ner. 

herte nenne deme. ne me anlicny to nonen. nor jja^ he 

by kuead to day: he may by s^od to morse, and zuich The had man may 

•^ J J J ^ ^ l,e good to-nior- 

is to day guod : ha may by kuead to mor^e. Efterward row. 

ich me ssel ase moche ase ich may wyb-oute misdoinge Try by kind 

'J "J 1 "- actions and words 

a-yens ha??^ paye. and co«.decendre ine dede / and ine to win uie sinner 

J ^ <> backtoUod. 

speche / ham uor to wynne to god. and \vyj5-dra3e uram 
ze?^ne. Vor ase zayjj senekes / and saynt gregorie. ' we 
ne mo3e najt / fo pet biej) yualle : a-rere. bote-yef we 
wylle hou pet hit by to ham bou^e.' 


■^ rightfulness. 

J3e zixte stape is / pe zixte 630 : pet habbep pe guode The sixth step is 

,.,.,,,., . , tlie sixth eye tliat 

men. pet is pet m yzy bri3tliche be-hinde pe grmes and the good have, 
pe dyetdes giwnes / pet byep ous ase be-hinde. Yor pe the^evii's sifares. 
vyend ous y-zi3t / and we hi?/i ne more ' ysy. Oure 
vyendes : pet byep pe dyeulen / pet byep wel stronge o«r enemies are 

the devils, that are 

and wyse / and sotile and soigneus ous to gyly. Vor strong, wise, snb- 

. . tie, and busy us to 

hy ne zuykep neure ni3t ne day / ac alneway biep me beguUe. 

way tinge uor ous to gily be hare crefte / an by hire They never cease, 

•^ '-' o ti I ^ J l,ut are always m 

ginnes / huerof hi uzep more pawne a posend maneres. wait to deceive us. 

and ase zayp saint gregorie. )?e dyeuel yzi3p wel sotil- 

liche be stat of be mawne / and his manyere / and his The devu knows 

ill J I what IS man s be- 

co?rtplexioun / and to huet vice he ys mest bou3inde. setting sin. 
oper be kende / oper be wone. and of po half him Some he assails 

[Note hyer wel. ] 

asaylep stranglakest. pane colrik : mid ire : and mid with anger and 

T 1 1, .• .,.,.,, , ., discord, others 

discord, pane sangMinien : mid lolmete / and mid with luxury, 

luxurie. Jjane fleumatike : mid glotonye / and be ""'"^ '"'"' ""^y- 

sleaupe. ^ );ane melanconien : mid enuie / and mid [Foi. 49. a.] 
zor3e. And peruore hi??i ssel enrich more defendi of po 

Therefore man 

hall huer ha yzi3p pet his castel is mest fyeble / and must defend the 
aye pe ilke vice ui3te / huer ha zi3p pet he is mest wscastie. 
asayled. ine zuyche guod / pet he / ne spari nerene. uor 

' ? mo^e = may. 
2 At bottom of page are the catch words and mid slen\,e. 


he is hardy / and bold, ase fe ilke Jjet assaylejj godes zone 
his Ihord lesu exist. ' Yef ]jou [wosf] ' / zede oure lliord to 
iob / ' ine hou uele wyzen he hhn desgyzejj ' / alsuo ase 

The spirits of J^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^°^ ^"^^^ ^^^- ^^^ ^^® ^^yf ^^T'^^ 

men and angels clenvs. ' alflle be angles and be guode and be kueade / and 

are a spiritual '' LJro ro r i 

mirror. alle fe gostes of men byejj ase a ssewere gostlich. 

The soul receives panne ase a ssewere onderua[n]gJ3 anhaste alle jje ssepfes 
jects be it sleeping ^h^. jje prientes Jjot coniej) hi7H be-uore : alsuo dejj jje 
orwa-ing. ^^^^ ^£ ^^ ma/me / by hit slepinde by liit wakinde. 

One mirror will ]^ou nim hsuine ane mirour and zete liine to-ayens an 

reflect the forms ■• 

seen on another, ojjren. an liaste alle jje ssepjjes jjet byef) ine jje onen ])on 

sselt yzy ine fe ofren.' Ine zuyche wyse me zay]) f>et 

Divers forms are fe dyeuel ssewe]) to fe goste zuiche sseppirages and 

reflected from the • ^ n -i ii ti-.,i,; t 

devil upon the zuiche ttgures asB he wyle huawne god hit jjolej? / and 

man, ^^ zaule hit onderuangj) al a-ye his wyl. and ojierhuil hit 

just as one re- ^^ ase to Jie j^o^te / oj)GT ase to Jje ymaginacion ase a-ye 

ofJbjl'cTirthe"^ ^^i "^^yl / ^^^ be-houej) to zyewne and o[n]deruoHge ine pe 

pearl of the eye. perle of Jje eje Jje ssepfe of J)e jjinge fet is him be-iiore. 

!N"ou is liit a wel grat grace of god / and a wel grat 

yefjje of fe holy gost / onderstonde wel pe spcches alle / 

of J)e dyeule / and knawe wel alle Jje uisages. Vor ase 

It is a difficult zayjj sajQit bernard. hit is wel sotil fiiig / and strang to 

Kiiish betwee'n the co??ne / distiiicti be-tuene J)e ])03tes Jiet Jie herte fengj) : 

heart midihose ^^^^ P^ f®^ f ^ ^^^^^ ' ferinno zet. Hua?^ne he com]) 

set there by the g^gg uela3e / ojjer ase uriend / ojjer ase chapman, and 

They may easily ggeweb be zewnes / hou hi byeb likinde. and lostuolle / 

recognize some of 

the devil's li^tKche me may hit knawe. Ac hua?zne he comb ine 

thoughts, I 

but others are gysc of angle / and ssewejj Jjet guod : nor to dra3e to 

more subtle and ,,, -,,,• ,j at 

dangerous. kueade. pa?2ne is pe temptacion mest Strang. And 

Jjereuore zayjj saynt Ion. }3et me ne leue na3t jje gostes / 
ac bet me hise prouy erjian jjet me hise onderuonge. zuo 

One must; try the -i ^ • 

'ghosts "ere one doj) ])0 / fet make)) hire srifteuader guod / and holy 

man / and wys / and wel yproued ine zuiche jjinges 

timHche / to huawi hi ssewe J) ofte / and grat / and snial / 

alle Jje Jio3tes fet to j)e herte comej? and guode / and 

1 This word is necessary to the sense. 

receive them. 


kueade. Vor ase zayj? Solomons. ' y-blyssed he is : jjet " Blessed is he," 
alnewayis dreduoL' and ine an ofre stede zayjj he. 'Do « thatauvays^is 
be red al Jjet jjou dest / and efterward hit ne ssel pe "^"^ '°'*^' 


of rightfuhiess. 

be zeuende stape / is be zeuende eje. bet hit hehoueb The seventh step 

' . -^ ^ ' is the seventh 

habbe pet wile haboe fuse uiVtue. j?et is pe ilke ]jet an eye that one ought 
hej lokejj / jjet hej) god alneway to-uore him. Of jjan and which hath 
zajp oui-e Uiord ine his speUe. 'Yef fine e^e is simple fore S'"'''^' ^" 
and clene : al bi bodi ssel by clyer and brijt. And yef if the eye is dim 

^ ■' ■' -* "^ thy body will be 

Jjin e3e is wycked and dym : al |)i bodi ssel by ))yestre dark. 

and dim.' bet is to zisge / yef bin onderstondinge of iftheunderstand- 

j 00 I J I o uig IS clean and 

fine herte is clen • and simple / and gejj norjj fane ri3te simple, 

way ase streng al a-midde fise stapes alle / fet we 

habbeb y-nemned / be hyap of bine workes ssel by uavr t^^y ^o""!^" "'"Hje 

. /XJi-r J J fair and clean. 

and clier / and lykinde to god. And yef fe onder- 
stondi[n]gge is wi-ong. ofer yef hy tuystef of er wyf went C^°'- *9- ^•'^ 
ayen ase def f e q?^arteus al f e inwyt ssel by biestre / without right 

'' > I understanding 

and f e hieap of im-tues. Yor wyf -oute ri3tiiolle onder- aims become sin. 

stondinge : elmesse be-comf ze?ine / and n/rtue vice. 

J?e onderstondinge is simple / f awne f e maw def guode 

workes ri3tuolliche uor god. Hy is wrang / huanne he '^^^ understand- 

, . IP '"^ 's wrong when 

hise def nor fank of fe wordle / ofer nor ydelebhsse. it tries to please 

-TT , , . - the world instead 

Hy tuystef me tuo : huawne me wylnef of one half to of God. 
god : and of of erhalf to f e wordle. Ac lii went ayen : 
ase def f e cerceans hua7^ne f e man zekf his 03ene note 
in a] f et he def. JSTou best fou y-herd f e zeue staples 
hnerby fis trail cliff an 1193. 

Of ]3E BO3ES OF RI3TUOLNESSE. Of the boughs of 


\)Q bo3es of fise trawe : byef fe zeuen principals There are seven 
u/rtiies /fet ansuerief 2 to fe zeue vices, ase def bo3sam- f.Tbedience. 
nesse a-ye prede. Lone : a-ye enuye. Mildenesse : 3; ^^l^^^^ 
a-ye felhede. Prouesse : a-ye slacnesse. Largesse : a-ve *• P^wess. 

° >' 5. Liberality. 

scarsnesse. Chastete : a-ye lecherie. Sobrete a-ye glo- 6. chastity. 

, -,„ . ^ , . ,, 7. Sobriety. 

Written clene in MS. 2 Written answerie\> in MS. 



These seven vir- 
tues leadeth 
aright tlie ghost 
of wisdom. 

Biscretion is the 
carter of virtues, 
and the rudder of 
the ship, that is, 
the soul. 

Without dis- 
cretion virtue be- 
comes vice. 

These seven vir- 
tues before men- 
tioned are the 
boughs of equity, 
and they produce 
the fruit of good 

" Blessed be 
those," said 
Christ, " who in 
all things hold to 

He does not say 
blessed be they 
who sin not, 

but " blessed be 
they who weep," 

that is, who see 
and know their 

and are sorrowful 
because of their 

The world is call 
ed the vale of 

because none may 
live without tears, 
that hath the gift 
of wit. 

tounye. Jjise zeues uw-tues lokej? and ledejj wel ri3te 
and wel zikerliche jjane gost of wytte Jjet hise let be pQ 
waye of ri3tuolnesse. ase zayj) salonio?i. be huiche waye : 
discrecion and scele / Jjet is Jje cartere of mVtues. ase 
zayjj sant bernard. and j^e rojjer of ])e ssipe of Jje zaule 
his let and breng)) uorji. |)et hi ne guo na3t amis ari3tlialf 
ne alefthalf. and jjus lii profitej) and wexejj and bere]) 
frut to ]5e nolle. )?eruore Jiawne fet pe uiVtue of ri3tuol- 
nesse / be discrecionn ssewej) ine alle jje workes of 
ojjre mrtues. and wyjjoute fise / aUe J»e ojjre ui'rtues 
lyezej) Jjane name of uw'tue : and become]) nices. Zigge 
ich wel / pet in on wjt j Jjise zeue m/'tues be-uore yzed 
byej) fe bo3es of ri3tuolnesse and al j)et frut of guode 
workes Jjet of ham wexeji / belongejj to fise trawe. 
l!^ou onderstan[d] wel hou Jjegreate maister of uw-tues ous 
spek]) of ])ise uw't[u]e / nor hi ne is na3t ine his reule. 
' Yblessed byeji j)o fet ri3tuolnesse hiealdej? oueral / and 
ine alle finges habbe]? discT'ecion and mesure Avy]j-oute 
misnimynge.' Vor we ne habbejj hire onnea]?e y-wonne. 
Yor non ne is Jjet ne misniniji ine uele maneres. And 
Jjeruore ous conioriep wel zueteliche oure zuete maiste[r] 
lesu crist hua/me he ne zayf na3t. 'y-blissed byej? ]jo ])et 
ne zene3ej) ne misnimejj / ac doji al be ri3tuolnesse / and 
be lingne.' Ac he zayj) wel cortayshche nor to coHforti 
Jje zenuolle. ' YbHssed bye J) Jjo pat wepe]) / nor liy ssoUe 
by co?i!forted.' Jjet is to zigge : fo byej) ybhssed : jjet 
yzyej) and onderstondejj and knawej) wel hire defautes : 
ine alle Jjise zeue poyns of ri3tuolnesse Jiet we habbejj 
hier y-nemned / and feruore wepej) and bye]) zor3uol 
fet hi uinde]) zuo ofte onri3t / huer hi ssolden healde 
and uinde ri3tuolnesse. Vor feruore is ])e wordle 
y-cleped ])e dane of tyeares. and non ne may ine fe 
wordle libbe : wyf-oute tyeares ])et he]) onderuonge fe 
yef])e of "vvyt / huerof we habbe]) yspeke. jjanne be- 
houe]) ase zay]) Salomon, uor huo fet mest can / and 
mest zyj]) ])e 201303 and ]>e kueades of }>e wordle : )>e 


more lie|j zoi^e to his lierte / and tyeares / and wepinges. [FoI. 50. a.j 
And Jjus beginj) Jjis wordle to tyeny . And be more bet sorrow causes 

man to dislike the 

tyenej) jjis lif : jje more me wyLnejj Jjet ojjer. And world, 
ferof wexejj ofre tyeres nor ))e wylninge of J)e ojjre Hue. and to desire the 
JSTou sselt Jjou fus fenche. Zix maneres of tyeres pet six manner of 
pe holy man he]j ine fise wordle be >e yefjje of wytte. IheddeTh!"'^''"'"" 
J?e uerste come]) of jjet me zy3t pet me he]) god ofte i;ruL*^o?GoTr 
ywre])ed be ])03te / be speche / and be dede. j)e oJ)er ^'"f^- 
com]) ])erof ])et me yzhp be greate torme«s hidouse come because of 

the torments 

an eurelestinde of helle. Huerof ech man ssel habbe ofheii. 

gr«t drede. j)e ])ridde wexe]) of pe kueades / ])et me 3. The sufferings 

.,,, of the good. 

yzi3]) pe guode poiye. pe uer])e come]) 01 pe zennes fiet 4. The sins of the 
pe kueade do]), pe vifte nor fise line fet tyene]) / and ^' weakness of 
uor pe o])re ])et de]) auerst. )3e zixte com]) of deuo- ^^g^i,!fofth^ 
cioun and of grat plente and of blisse of be p?'esense of °*^«''- 

'^ ^ r r g Devotion and 

lesu crist / and of be uelinoje of be holy gost. and bise wiss caused by 

. , '^ o r J o r the presence of 

bye]) ari^t ybhssed ])et zuo wepe]) / nor loi ssolle by Christ and the 
y-conforted ase pe writinge. Alsuo ase pe norice as the nurse com- 
conforte]) ])et child fet wep]). uor hi wype]) pe ejen / SfeyTsSe' 
and hi7?i kest / and lii de]) hi»i le^e be streng]3e. alsuo '^'''^'''^ ''^^^• 
ssel do om'e Ihord to ham fet wepe]) ine ])ise wordle ase so om- Lord com- 

. forts the moum- 

ich habbe yzed. Vor he wyle zuo wypi hare e3en / ])et ers. 
nem'emo ne ssolle wepe / ne ne ssolle yuele kuead ne Evermore shall 

they be with God, 

zor3e. Ac euremo ssolle by myd god ine paise and ine in peace, laughing, 

, . -I ■ 1 T 1 *nd bliss. 

Ie3mge and me bhsse wy])-oute ende. 

Of j)E YEFJJE OF STRENG]5E. Of the gift of 


IS'ou we habbe)) yspeke of jeipes and of uiHues / We have spoken 

., ,.,,• , 11T1T ., , already of the 

fet goueme]) Jio fet me pe wordle hbbe]) mid pe lo3este virtues which 
of >ri states / huerof we habbe]) beuore y-speke. Xou fh7w™rS.°'' '" 
ssolle we mid pe helpe of pe holy gost speke of pe Now we shall 
yeffies and of pe u//"tues ])et more propreliche belonge]) virtues which be- 
to ham >et >e wordle onworfe]) / and to pe he^e heUe 1^! despl^the 
of pe?'feccion wyliie]). Of ])an zay]) propreliche lob. Life^of^anon 
fet lyf of man ope pe erbe : is ase knyhlthod. Vor earth is as knight- 

■■ ^■'-' hood or as citizen. 

ma?mes 1}^ ine pe er])e : is ase borgeysye. Xou yzi3 ship. 




Much has the one 
of new and diverse 

and strives to be 
rich and esteem- 

The knight de- 
sires to act court- 
eously and liber- 

and to purchase 
fame and high 

Some men keep 
from great sins, 
do penance, &c., 
and it sufficeth 
them if they may 
bo saved at last. 

Others are dis- 
gusted with 
worldly perils, 
sins, and pains, 
and have no peace 
of mind. 

[Fol. 50. b.] 
They see no 
treasure to be 
compared to God's 

and had they 
God's love, peace 
of heart, and joy 
of soul, they 
wouldthink them- 
selves more than 

Wlien God gives 
man the gift of 

He gives him a 
new, noble, and 
liardy heart, 

that enables him 
to endure all the 
world's threaten- 

He only is ^v^se 
who despises 
harm for his 
friend, i. e. God. 

ane yongne boryeis and ane neweiie kni^t. Mochel 
habbej) Jjos of uele jj03tes newe diuerses and wyluolle. 
])e borgeys wylne]) to chapfari / an to wynne and to 
gaderi. and ])e ende of bis wylle is al ])erto : fet ba by 
ricbe ine guodes. and ine bis toune y-worJ)ssiped. ])e 
kny^t newe / gej) al anojierne way. Yor he wilnej? 
corteysyes to done / an largelicbe yeue / and kny[3]tbod 
to lyerny and gno to armes. kueades to polye / ssewy 
prouesses. porcbaci los / and ine heje stat cline. J?ise 
tuo states we zyeji apertelicbe ine tuo mane?*es of uolke. 
hnerof j)e on is / ])et wel bam wylleji nram greate zenne 
loki / do penonce. yeiie ebnesse. byealde godes hestes / 
and of boly cherche and wel bam hit were yno3 / yef hi 
mi3te ate ende be • zuo moche by y-bor3e. j)ise byej? ine 
guod stat / and wel ham mo3e soui. ])e ojjre byejj to 
hnam Jiet ]je wordle anoyj) nor Jje perils and fe ze?nies 
and de^ pinen/buerof hi is al uoL zno Jjetnon ne may 
habbe pays of herte / ne stedeuest in^vyt. Hi jzep of 
ofer half Jjet jjer ne is no tresor J)et nio3e^ by Avor]? to 
godes lone, no znyetnesse zuo gr«t : ase pays of herte. 
no blisse of jje wordle j^et by wor]) / to pe blisse of 
klene inwyt. zuo ba??i Jjingjj and wel hit is zo]) / Jjet 
huo pet Tpise Jjri Jjinges may -vvinne : he ssolde by more 
panne emperour. ac jjet is zuo grat J)ing pet ueawe pev 
byejj zuicbe / pet dorre ))ise niminge maki. ac hua?zne 
god yefj) to pe ma?^ne fise grace, and pe ilke yefjje fet 
me clepej) pe gost of strengjje. he hym yefJ) ane newe 
herte / ane noble herte / and bardi. Noble : uor to 
onwor])i al fiet pe wordle mai behote / and yeue. 
Hardyesse nor to Jiolie alle pe kueadnesse Jiet pe wordle 
may Jjreapni. And of jjise hardiesse spekjj oure uader 
hua?me he zede. j)et ' yblysse]? byef> ))o Jjet habbe]? 
honger and jjorst / of ri3tuolnesse.' Salomon zayjj. pet 
' be is ri3tuol / jjet onwor])eJ3 bis harm / uor his uryend' / 
jjet is uor god / Jjet is ri3t urend. And saint bernard 
zayjj. ' he ne is na3t ri3tuol / fet ne yzi^p na3t ine his 

1 bo MS. 2 So i,i MS. 3 more ? 


herte : and ueljj / and onderstaiit / pet he is yeldere. 

and a-yens god of treu]?e / toppe alle fing.' )5e ilke pet Man is a debtor 

zojjliche -wylnejj mid al his herte to yelde Jiise dette to 

gode / j>e ilke is of jjan / huerof onre lliord spekjj 

huanne he zede. )?et >e ilke byef yhlissed / j^et habbe]; b,,,,,^^ ,,., y,,,^ 

honger / and borst : uor riatuolnesse. he ne zavb nait / "^^* lounger and 

^ ' -^ -' J r > I thirst after right- 

' y-blissed hi hyej) po pet habbejj / ojjer pet do]? ri^tuol- eousness, 
nesse : ac fo |)et habbe)) honger and Jjorst.' A^or fis 

rijtuolnesse ne may by yhyealde / ne fis dette ne may Tiiis riehtfuincss 

by nolhche y-yolde / ine >ise wdle. Ac ine >ise ^btainS ?n S!? 

wordle hi is y-'wylned / and ine be obre / y-payd. ■"'•"■^''• 

''*' ' ' ' I -J >- "J Itis desired here 

j2eruore ne zayb nast cure guode Diord and mayster. and got in the 

other world. 

' po byejj yblissed fet Jjise ri3tuolnes3e ssolle do / and ))et chnst does not 

jjise dette ssolle yelde.' Ac he zayjj wel cortayslaker / Messed who have 

ase he fet wot oure poiierte. 'Ybhsse])i byejj pe ilke ""1'"^^"""'"" 

jjet of fise ri3tuolnesse / habbejj honger / and |)orst.' 

Vor he ne aksejj na3t J^et w^e him yelde hyer his dette / 

ac hit is liiwi yno2 / yef we habbeb giiod w\l to yelde. 'Jut those are 

'^ ' . ^ ^ " '' blessed who desire 

j)is wylninge hua?me hi is zoji in herte / behouej) Jjet he it in their hearts. 

hit ssewy be dede. Vor ase zayf Salomon. ' non ne may 

bet uer ine his bosme hede / bet his robe ne berne.' bis '^^•^ ^^^^^^ '^^• 

' ' ' hibits itself in 

ssewynge ne may bi wy])-oute mrtue / and wyb-oute virtue and in 


prouesse. Vor be wytnesse / ne by jjlaytinge : me ne 

prouejj na^t jjet he by guod kny^t / ac be moche dede Thegood knight 

of armes / and be moche bohynge / and to y-leste. ^"^^^^^ ^y ^i* ^^^^^ 

/ r J O / J ofanns. 

And ])et is pe uerjje n^'rtue / ])et pe holy gost yefj) to 

be ma?me uor to strepe of al : in al. be uerbe vice. PJ'o^'ess sti-ips 

^ ' man of sloth and 

pet is pe ze?nie of sleawjje and of onlosthede. )3is iiUeness. 

UiVtue is of zuo greate dignete / jjet amang alle pe ojjre 

UiVtues / J3is one berji propreliche be hi?«-zelue ])ane 

name of / uw-tue. Vor uzrtue / and prouesse is al on. J;°/,en'un"r " "" 

bise UM'tue / god yef b to his sergons / huawne he his ^^ '^* '^''^ ^' 

. , ' o / Pentecost to His 

wile maki knijtes / ase he dede to his apostles at lokes. apostles, 

of hua»i we redejj / pet hi weren zuo dreduol / pet hi 

ne - dorste guo out of hare house / alhuet hi weren mid ^''^^ nevertheless 

^ ' Wf 

' So in MS. - no in MS. 

11 * 

were timid and 



\)i&e u/ytue yarmed. Ac more lii yeden ledinde blisse / 
[Pol. 51. a.] hiia«ne me dede ham ssame and hardnesse. 

The division of 
virtue (prowess). 

The old pliiloso- 
phers divided 
this virtue into 
six parts. 

Our Lord added 
a seventh point. 

1. Magnanimity. 

2. Affiance. 
8. Security. 

4. Patience. 

5. Stedfastness. 

6. Magnificence. 

7. Hunger and 
thirst of right- 

Magnanimity is 
highness, great- 
ness, nobleness of 
will, and of great 

[I deUs .?] 
The first division 
of it is prowess — 
a noble contempt 
of difficulties. 

The second is 
of difficult things. 

He who has this 
virtue thiriks but 
little of the cares 
of the world, 

counting them 
no more than a 
spider's web. 

Solomon truly 
said, " AUis 

The world is 
vanity, and full 
of vanity. 


j)e filozofes J)et of jjise ufrtues dro^en / hi to-delden 
fise UM'tues iiie zix deles, fet hjelp ase zix stapes / 
liuerby ])ise u/rtues cliuejj / and profitef. Ac oiire 
master j)et made fe filozofes / and filozofie. pet is lesu 
crist : he zet / jjane zeuende poynt. })e uerste poynte 
of prowesse / hi clepiej) / magnanimite. j)3 ojjer : 
fiaunce. )3e jjridde : zikernesse. j)e iierjje : Jiolyinge. 
j)e nifte : stedeuestnesse. pe zixt : magnificence. j)e 
zeuende pet onre mayster zette : hatte honger and Jjorst 
of ri3tiiolnesse. jjise wrtnes me ne may na^t p?'opre- 
liche ne?>mi ase onderstondi??ge hise to-di^t / ine latin. 
Magnanimite is he^nesse. gratnesse. and noblesse of 
wylhede / luierby pe man is hardi ase lyon / and of 
greate niminge. j)is u/rtue hep tuo delles.' greate jjinges 
onwor])i. and wel grater to nime an hand / and to 
chiese. Of pe uerste dele : zayjj zaynt austin. Prowesse 
is / huanne corage onwor])e]) / al Jiet ne is najt in his 
pouer. \)et is al fet he may lyese / wylle him nolle 
him. And seneke zajp. ' amang wordleHche finges / no 
fing ne is g?'at / bote herte / ])et greate Jjinges onwor|)e]).' 
Of pe ofre dele zayji pe filozofe. ])et ' magnanimite / is 
renable niminge of he3e fynge / and dreduol.' Huo fet 
fise u/vtue he]) : he jzi-^p pe wordle uram uer. ase zayjj 
ysaye. pe profete. And jjus hi??i fingji al pe wor[d]le Ute / 
ase a sterre hit fiincj) to ous. Iftsmne al pe wordle / and 
alle pe bisyhedes / and pe greate niedes of j^e wordle 
hi»i JiingJ) ase na^t. and jjeruore hise ne prayzej? na3t / 
bote ase pe web of pe spijire. )5a;/ne Salomon hua?aie he 
hedde al pe wordle y-went. and of alle Jjinges / and of 
foles / and of wyse ystr/ued. he zayde his dom ine zuiclie 
manere. ' ydelnesse. ydehiesse. ydelnesse. and al Jjet ich 
izi : is ydelnesse.' fet is to zigge / pe wordle is ydel- 
nesse. and zuo hi is al uol of ydelnesse. And pe man 


hi»?-zclf iior hviam be wordle is v-macl : ziio is al ydcl- This ufe flies as a 

. ■^. "^ "^ shadow. 

nesse. uor ine him is alle manere ydelnesse / ase zaij? its cares are as 

jje sauter. / be steruinge. Vor his lyf uli3]) 

ase ssed. ydelnesse / be bysihede. Vor jjise bysyhedes 

bye]) ase meteles. Ydelnesse / be kueadnesse. Vor Thefirst step then 

, . , , . . . of this virtue is 

ze/ine nim makep more na3t / Jjawne jjing jjet is ine fe to despise the 

worddle. j^on is jja/me Jje uerste del of jjise u/rtue. 

J?et hi??^ dej) fie wordle onworjji / ase habbejj ydo ine 

ariere and fe filozofe payen. and Jje holy cr/stene man. 

)?e o])er del is zno / ]jet hi make]) Jjane way of perfec- The second is to 

cion to nimene. and Jjet lyf jjet zno moche ssewej) ssarp / the way ofper- 

, J , , . . . fection, that lead- 

an clreauol to chiese. }3et is Jje way jjet let iii-to Jje eth to uie hiu of 

helle of god. Jjet is ine jje stat of perfeccion. Jjet is Jje 

way of pnue red / of om-e Ihorde / jjet he ssewede to 

his apostles ine Jje helle / huerof j)is bok spek]). )3erne This way choose 

way chy[e]zej) ])o. to hnam ne is na3t yno^ to loki / jje only keep God's 

hestes of god / huerto hi bye]) y-hyealde. and wylle]) ^''^^^^^^' 

noluelle his redes / huer hi ne bye}) na3t be dette y- 

hyealde / ase bye]> ])o / ])et lete]) al ])et hi habbe]) : uor but forsake aii 

Tirni ; ^ n ^ • *^^®y \\a,\e for His 

god. and y[ejue]) ha??i to sterue / uor fe lone oi m.m : ])et sake, 

starf uor ham. o])er ine ])e londe be-yende ])e ze / o])er [FoI. 51. b.] 

ine ano]ire stede. And ase do]) ])o / ])et uoiiete]) / and both goods and 

al onworfie]) uor god. and guodes. and uryendes. and selves. 

ha?n-zelue. and niake]> hani-zelue ]irelles of o])ren ]»et They become the 

weren vry. and make]) ham-zelue poure : fet weren and endure 

riche : o])er my3ten by. hy do}) ham to folye gr«t p"^'**'^- 

ssarpnesse / bet hedden ine be wordle : greate lostes. They put them- 
selves to great 
ase bye]) manie / }'et bye}) ine religion, and of herte / hardships, 

and of bodie. Vor litel is wor]) to by ine rehgion / as many do who 

have entered a 

ofer ine ssarpnesse of penonce / yef ])e herte ne is na3t religious order. 
})erto. Vor fe clo}»inge / ne make}) na3t fane monek. '^''''^^ 1° "^*^ ■ j^. 
ne })e amies bane kny3t : ac be guode herte / and be but the good 

heart and the 
dedes of prOUeSSe. deeds of prowess- 

l3E 0I5ER STAPE OF PROUESSE. The second step 

of prowess. 

)5c ober stape of ])ise u^rtue is : beleaue. Vor huo The second step 

is to believe. 

pet ho}) })ane guode way ynome / hit be-houe]) })et he Belief enables 



man to pursue 
tlie good path, 

and to withstand 
the assailings of 
the devil, world, 
and the flesh. 

The flesh says, 
I cannot forsake 
my old habits. 
The world pur- 
sues him like an 
escaped thief. 
The devil says, 
"Wretch, what 
wilt thou do ? " 

God's new knight 
undergoes these 

By stedfast belief 
he fears not, 

for whom God 
will help none 
may harm. 

him hyealde vestliclie ine his wylle / and IpQt lie liaLbe 
guode beleaiie ine god / pet he hwi uoluelle fet lie liejj 
agoiine. J5ise UiVtue hi clepiejj / beleaue. hi is w^el 
nyeduol a-ye Ipe asaylinges of j?e wordle / of ]>e ulesse. 
and of pe dyeule. pet stranglaker asaylejj fane man ate 
a-gynni«ge. j)et uless him zayjj. ych ne may polye Jiis 
lyf / ne mine ealde wones lete. Jpe wordle zekj) after / 
uor fan to wyJ3dra3e / ase me zekji ane Jjyef hna?me he 
is ascaped of Ipe pr/sone. j)e dyeuel hi???, zayf. ' "wrechche 
hnet Avyltoii do / hueruore J>e yelst fe zuo. Vor fou 
mi3test fe oferlaker wel w^ytye.' )5ise byef fe uerste 
asaylynges / J»et godes newe kny3t jjolejj : fet fengj? to 
Avynne fe regne of heuene. Ac hua/uie he him yefj) to 
god be guode an stedeueste be-leaiie / he ne hejj none 
hede. Vor he is f e treweste urend / J»et may / and 
can / and wyle / his 03ene loki. and hnani fet god wile 
lielpe : no fing him ne may derie. 

The third step of 

The third step of 
jirowess is se- 
curity (or confi- 
whereby one 
dreadeth not the 
perils before one's 

The Holy Ghost 
causes man by 
this gift to under- 
take great things. 

He makes him 
confident as a 

As the new 
knight desires 
tournament, so 
does he desire 
peril and death. 
St Agace went 
to torment as 
joyfully as if to 
a wedding. 


pe fridde stape of pronesse : is zikernesse. zyker- 
nesse ase zayf Ipe filozofe is a Ui'rtiie / hnerby me ne 
dret na3t fe kuedes / ne fe perils / fet bief» beuore hare 
e3en. And fet is fe jjridde guod / fet fe yefjje of 
strengfe dej). Vor Ipe holy gost / hna?ine he hef y- 
armed his kny3t of his ^^^Vtue : iiefst he him yeff noble 
herte / greate finges to nimene. Efterward he him yef j) 
ane greate hete / and a gr«t wyl to nol3y / and grat 
hope uor to uoluelle. Efterward he makej) hi???- ziker 
ase lyoun. zuo fet he ne help drede / ne of perils / ne 
of pinen / ne of dyafe / ne of torment, ac he his 
wiliiej) / ase dej) Jie newe kny3t Ipe torneme??s. an suo 
dede Ipe martires ase hit fingji ine hare Hue. huer-of we 
redej) of zaynte agase / Ipet mid greate blisse hi yede 
to torment alsuo ase hi yede to feste / ofer to a 


j)E UER}5E STAPE OF PROUESSE. The fourth step of 


Ase fe holy gost make]? his laiy3t ziker uor to abide 
be tormens and be zorjes bet byejj to comene. Alsuo The Hoiy Ghost 

makec his knight 

he hbn make]) Strang and Jjolyinde. nor to folye strong and 

hua?^ne hi comejj. and jjet is J?e uerjje stape jjet hi ^^ ^^^ ' 

clepiejj / pacience. be fise nw-tne / Jje guode onercomj? 

alle his uyendes. jjane dyeuel. Tpe wordle. and ]?et nless. so that he may 

and al J?et hi ni03e zigge and do. Yor Jjet is fe sseld "i^emi'eT '^ 

of gold / to him fet nor godes loue Tpolep / jjet hi??i [^°'- ^^- ^-^ 

^VT^]) of eche half / ase zayjj fe sauter. zuo J>et no 

strok / ne anay him breke Jse herte. )pise u//-tue non ne 

heb : bet ne heb bi nonded. Vofrl tr^■b^llacion : makeb Patience must be 

' ' ' L J J acquired by trial, 

pacience. Ase zayjj za}Tite panl. ase ])et ner : make]) for the fire hardens 

the tile, 

jje te3ele / hard. Wyf-oute fise nfrtne non ne is y- 

proued. ne bet gold ne may by wyb-oute ner y-clensed. and gold is puri- 
fied by it. 
wyf-oute pacience : non ne hep nictorie. Vor huo Jiet 

lyest pacience : he is ouercome. wy|5-oute ijacience : 

non ne comb to pe?'feccion. )?erof we yzeb uorbisne / Patience is ne- 
cessary to per- 
ate leste ine alle fe mestyeres Jiet nie dep mid hand, feetion. 

Moche boleb be conpe of gold of strokes of yzen / erjjan The cup of goui 

bears strokes of 

M by yzet ope pet bord of pe kinge. and pe chalis er iron ere it is set on 

ha by ybhssed / and y-zet ope })ane weued. Moche 

foleji pe tonne of greate strokes / er me do Jjrin Jjet 

guode wyn. Mochel is defouled mid pe net of nolleres The scarlet robe 

pe robe of scarlet / erfan fet pe kuen his do an. And ihe°fcettf'the^ 

ase uele mist bou to ban vinde uorbisnes : ase ber byeb fti"ers ere the 

y ' > s ^ t queen puts it on. 

workmen at j^aris of aUe mestyeres. Be jjise uw-tue is 

Strang be man / ase pet ysen Jjet alle metals a-dannteb. Ry this virtue is 

man sfrength- 

Of grat ptri's ase fet gold / fet j^e more hit is ine uere : ened, 

Jie more hit is clene / and clyer / and tretable. ase pe 

salamandre bet leueb ine be uere. and ase be viss bet as the saiamandei 

/ _ ' ' _ ' ■'in the fire, or the 

ine pe trauaihnde wetere : hi???. baj)e]j and norissef. fish in the water. 

J3E VIFTE STAPE OF PROUESSE. Tlie fifth step of 


be vifte stape of bise n/rtu is ycleped Constance. The fifth step is 

•* ^ i called constancy. 



by which man is 
established as a 

and by which lie 
secures victory, 

and overcomes 

The devil over- 
throws man by 
adversity or by 
idle bliss. 

Virtue consists in 
following a mean 
between good and 

The sixth step of 

The sixth step of 
prowess is mag- 

This virtue Christ 
calls persever- 

by which the good 

knight endures 

to the end. 

All other virtues 

fight, but this 


[Fol. 52. b.] 

He who perse- 
veres to the end 
shall be saved. 

Tlie virtue of the 

j)et is a u/rtue fet make]? jje lierte Strang and stedeuest 
ine god ase a tour yzet ope ane stronge roche / and ase 
a traw yroted ine guod land / jjet hit ne ssake nor 
nenne wynd / Jiet may come ne blawe / fet is ine no 
cas J3et moje come / ne guode ne kueade. wy])-onte. 
jjise Mvrtue / no?? ne comj; to ui[c]torie. nor huarene godes 
kny^t he)) ido zome prowesse : ))a?ine him asaylej) fe 
dyeuel be ydele blisse. and fawne is fe batayle ine Jie 
herte pe stranger nor him-zelue to onercome / jjet he ne 
ualle be ydele blisse : jja^me alle j?e uerste uondinge / 
ne wes. Huerof dauid zajp ine jje sautere / J)et pe 
dyenelouerfrau)? jje wel stronge of lefthalf be adnersite / 
and Jie wel stronge a ri3thalf : be ydele blisse. ))ise 
u/rtue preysejj moclie seneke fet zayf. jjet fer ne is 
u/rtue bote Jie ilke Jjet gej) norj? proudliche be-tuene Jje 
one auentM?-e and pe ojjre / pet is be-tuene fe guode 
and fe kueade. and grat onworjjnesse of on an of 


j)e zixte stape of prouesse / hi clepiej) / magnificence, 
jjise uiVtue hi descrmej? f)ous. Magnificence is hi 
zigge]) of heje nyede y-blissede bleuinge. )?ise uirtue 
oure greate filosofe Tesu crist clepeji / perseuerance. be 
huam pe guode godes kny[9]t jjolejj ]?o kuedes / and ylest 
al to Jie ende ine J)o he^e waye of pi?rfeccion pet he hep 
ynome. Of J)ise u^-tue zayf zaynte paul. pet alle pe 
uirtnes yernefi : ac J)is wjnp Jtet zuord. alle hy vi3tej) : 
ac J)is hej) pe iiictorie and pe coroune. Alle werchej) : 
ac J)is berj) away ])ane ssepe aneuen. Vor ase zayji oure 
Ihord. huo fiet blefj) al to pe ende : he ssel by bor^e / 
and non ofer. More uorj) ne couj^en pe filosofes lede 
pe u/rtue of prowesse. Ac pe deciplis of oure mayster 
lesu c?7'st / guoj) yno^ more uorj?. Vor ase zayj) 
Salomon, huawne hi habbef) al asuwuned / J)a?ine uerst 
ha??^ f>ing]) / Jjet hit is al to aginne. pe m'rtue and pe 


prouesse of bo filozofes wes al uor be uices to oiiercome / old philosophers 

was to overcome 

and to zeche fe ui'rtues. Ac jje prouesse of hal^en nor vice, 

. but the prowess 

to ouercome jje uices and pe u/rtues to zeche. and Jserto of the saints 

pnncipalliche uor to healde ri3[t]uolnesse / an treujje hold righteous- 

auoreye lesu cnst. He ne is na^t ri3tiiol / jjet ne yelt "^^^ '^"'^ ^'^^^^' 

jjet ha ssel : be his nii3te. And uor zojje mochel is we owe our lives 

rijtuol jjing / and scehiol / jjet ich yeue mi Hf / and mi died for us, '° 
dyeajj / uor hhri fet his lif and his dyeajj / yaf uor ous. 

And asemoche ase he is worjj betere Jja?me ich: zuo and his life was 

moche ich am yeldinde be ri3te ri3tuolnesse. ase zay]) umn o^urs"""^ 

saynt anselm. jjise ri3tuokiesse ' ich may wylny / ac ich / we may desire 

ne now ojjer / ne mo3e hier hit yelde / ne uolliche hit buf areTnaWe t^ 

paye ' / ase we habbejj be-uore y-zed. And Jjeruore is pe ^° ^°' 
zeuende stape of fise UM'tue / jje ilke pet oure mayster 
lesu crist dej) Jjerto / huerto Jje filozofes ne mi3te come / 

po he zede. ' yblessed byejj ])o : fet habbe]) honger and Blessed are they 

Jjorst of ri3tuolnesse.' j)anne byejj j)o ari3t y-blissed / thirst^aftfrright- 

Jjet pe zix stapes of prowesse byej) ycliue / and habbejj anTwho'have 
honger / and forst / and grat wyl pe zeuende stape / 
be hare my3te cliue. 

climbed the six 
steps of prowess. 

J3E BO3ES OF PROWESSE. The boughs of 


Ine j?ise trawe ase ine pe ojjren / we vindeb zeue in ti"s tree are 

, -j^ . p . seven boughs, 

bo3es. V or me zeue maneres of vi3t : pev come]) zeue for in seven 

^ -, , . . battles there are 

maneres ouercomemges. and be )jise zeue ouercommges : as many victo- 

hi Wynne]) zeue maneres of corounes. fet hjep zeue which gain seven 

medes. huerof saynt Ion spekf ine pe apocalipse. Vor '^'"'"''"^• 

ase zay]) saynt bernard. 'Mochel is lie fol / and ouer- Heisafooiwho 

• J I i_ 1 I J • -, . , thinks to have the 

weninde / fet wy])-oute ouercominge abit to habbe pe crown without the 

coroune. and huo wy])-oute vi3t : wen]) habbe pe ''"'*°'^' 
maystrie.' huerof zaynte paul zay]). j)et neiu-e to 
coroune ne ssel come : fet triewehche ne vi3t. trewe- 

liche / fet is to zigge : be pe la^e of pe uelde of pe y- The custom in 

prouede / fet wes y-woned to byewne fe ealde manere Lme wirthi?:- 

at rome. j)et pe ilke ])et to pe uelde him dede / uor to He who desired 

habbe los : ouercom alle J)o fet pe mayste?- of fe uelde / h'Tto^oferc'lt: 



all whom the 
master of the 
field sent against 

This master is 
Christ, and he 
knows the might 
of each, 

and suffers us 
not to he tried 
above our 

They that over- 
come shall have 
seven kinds of 

The first fight. 
[Fol. 53. a.] 

The first fight of 
the Christian is 
against deadly 

The hold heart 
finds it au easy 
task to gain the 

He that falleth in 
this fight hath 
more need of 
than he that is 

As the fish goes 
into tlie net will- 
ingly, so man 
goes into sin, 

but he may not 
go out of himself. 

The arms of pen- 
ance enable man 
to overcome in 
this fight. 

Three points to 
be observed in 
true penance. 
1 . Repentance of 

dede come ayen him. ]2e mayste/' of |)C uclde / 
is lesii c?'/st / Jiet asayj) liis newe kny^tes ase hit is 
y wi'ite ine jje hoc of ki7?,ges. J5es mayster is wel trewe 
ase zayjj zajoite paiil. and kan uol wel Tpe ini3te of 
eclien / he ne Jjolef) pet no vyend oiis xiondy oner oiire 
nii^te. ne no?? adue?'sari ons asayli / Jiet Ave ne nio^e 
ouerconie : yef we AvilleJ) mid his helpe. )5et ine J)e vi^t 
ons wext oure strengfe / ase zayjj zaynte panel. Saynt 
Ion ase we habbej? yzed / topartef) zene onerconiei[n]ggos. 
and zene corounes. ];et is to zigge : zeue maneres of 
medes / J)et god be-hat to jian j J^et onercome]?. 


)3e nerste ui3t J)et fe cristene habbefi : is a-ye 
dyeadlich zenne. ine jjis vi^t nenre ne is onercome : |)et 
nele to se?me consenti. he onercomj) Jiane Aa3t / Jiet is 
Avel li3t to onercome to Jje bolde herte. and lang and 
riotoiisc to J)e sleauuolle / and to fe onlosti / fet byejj 
slacke to godes seniice. ])et ne bye]) ne wel chald be 
poer. ne wel hot : ine J)e lone of god / ase zay]) saint 
Ion. \)Q ilke J)et nalji an is ouerconie ine fise vi3tinge : 
hej) more strenger to done hi??z-zelue to do arere / and 
hi?»-zelue to werie. J)a?nie Jie ilke Jiet is stondinde. nor 
he ne heji none mi3te hi???-zelue to arere : bote god 
\\\m hyalde Jte hand be his grace. Vor ase viss ge]) in / 
be hi??i-zelue and be Iris Aville in-to fe nette : alsno Jje 
man geji in / be hi??i-zelne and be Iris wylle in-to 
ze?me. Ac out ne may he na3t guo : Avyjj-oute oure 
Ihordes helpe / jjet him yefjj hua??ne he wyle / and fe 
armes of penonce / huerby he may onercome his y-uo. 
)5et is jje armure Jjet fe apostel zainte paul het to nime 
ine ]?ise vi3ti«ge / uor man on-armed : ne is na3t AvorJ? 
ine vi3t. Nou sselt f ou conne Jjet to Jian ])et \q man 
by wel y-armed uor to ouerconie po?'fitliche ze?me. hit 
behoue]? Jiet he habbe Jri fing Jet byej ine zoje penonce. 
Jje nerste Jing is : uorjenchinge of herte. ])e ojier : 

KING David's repentance. 171 

ssrifte of mouj^e. j)e fridde : is yno^aniendement be 2. shnft of 
dede. Of J)ise ])ri ))inges is y-hol : fe hauberk of 3. Amendment in 


penonce. Yef 'J)e on of J)ise fri Jiinges fayle]) : fe if one of these 
armiu'e is al uals / and he J>et hit berf : ouercome. the armour^is''' 
Vor>encliinge : acsej? grat 70130 and greate zykinges of Repentance de- 
hei-te / nor bet he heb y-^vrebed his sseppere. And be ™andeth great 

' -' I -J T X A / sorrow and deep 

more pet me him hejj y-wrefed : fe more gratter ssel by sigWngs of heart. 
jje zorje. 

Of j)E U0R)?ENCHINGE of KYNG DAUI)?. Of the repentance 

of Icing David. 

J50US uorbmtebe kyng dauib ase he zaj'J) ine J)e sauter. David says in the 

1 -n Psalter, I will 

' Ich zuynke and trauayh me mine zykinges. and ^viile wesse wash my bed 
eche ni3t mi bed and mine couche mid mine teares.' )?e ilke 
jjet god hej3 y-wrejjed be dyadHche ze?zne : he ssel zor3y The sinner (in 
mid dyepe herte / zuo fet fe herte melte al in-to tyeares / so sorrow that his 

T ■ , , 1-1 ± ■1 • 1 heart shall melt 

and m-to greate zor3es. and mid greate zikinges me ssel into tears, 
grede to god merci / ase his Jjyef / ase his mansla3))e / and cry mercy to 

T'l 1 ^ J. X. t. r i-i.j.'x,i.i?i,n God as a thief and 

ase his bezuykere : fet hep oiserued pet gibet 01 helle. a murderer. 
pe zene3ere is godes fief nor fe guodes of his Ihorde The sinner is a 
Jjet ne byej) him bote ylend uor to wpme. J3et byejj 
be guodes of kende / and of grace / and of hap. huerof because he hath 

•• ^^ / O / i foolishly and 

hi?«. behoueb / rekeninge / and scele yelde wel strayt- eviiiy spent the 

gifts and graces 

liche. He hise hej? folliche y-spe?^ded ine eiiele wones / of God. 

and al an hazard. Efterward he is moyrdrer He is a murderer 

of the king's 

of fe kinges do3ter. fet is of his 03ene zaule pet wes daughter, that 

godes do3ter be grace, fet he he]) ysla3e be dyadlich gJui. 

ze??ne. Efterward he is godes beznykere. nor pe castel He is a traitor to 

of his herte / and of his bodye / jjet god hi??i hep ytake sold ws soui to 

to loki : he hep yolde to his yuo dyadHch / J^et is pe *'*®''^"^- 

dyeuel. Wei Jia?me he ssel g?'at zor3e habbe fet is in 

zuich poynt. and ofte mid his teares his bed wesse. fet ^vherefore the 

. ,.. T p ■ IT f>in i sinner should 

IS his mwyt. hueroi pe iienimouse eddi'e 01 heile sest wash his bed, that 
geus. ziieche tyeares driiiej) jjane dyeuel uram pe herte : ' 
ase fet bote weter cache]? Jjane bond out of pe kechene. After repentance 
Efter pe uorpenchinge ssel come Jje ssrifte pet is pe guode t^g gooddiain" ' 
chomberier J)et clenzep fet hous and kest out al Jje uelfe t^oi- ^- ^-^ 



berer that cleans- mid JJG besme of fe toiige. liuerof spekb daiiid iue ])e 

eth the house. „ . r t 

sautere. q meditat\x% sum cwm co[?'](ie meo ^ excercehar 
4' scojjebam S2mitmn meum.. 

There are six con' 
ditions of shrift. 

1. That it be 
made wisely, 
(a) to take heed 
to whom one 
makes shrift, 

and to seek a good 

one who hath 
power to absolve 
and enjoin pen- 

(6) Who that will 
wisely shrive 
him must think 
of his sins before 
he comes to con- 
fess tliem. 

The sinner shall 
go into house, 
that is, his heart, 

and there he shall 
remain and see 
all his defects, 

and shall think of 

Of }5e ssrifte. 
I^ou onderstand wel hier hou me ssel by yssriue / 
ferto Jiet be ssrifte by worjj to ))e heljje of zaule. J^erto 
beboue)) zix condicions. )?e uerste is jjet hi bi ymad 
wyslyche. Jjis wyt is ine tuo jjing. Jje uerste : fet me 
nime hede to buam he ssel him ssriue. Efterwar[d] 
huerof. Saynt austin zayfi. uor jjet me dejj uor te bevly 
fane dya]j of fe bodie : me ssel do uor to askapie Jjane 
dyajj of J)e zaule. ]5e zike uor to be-uly Jjane dya]? / 
and uor to habbe heljje / zekj) ble))eKche Jjane beste 
fisician and jjane wyziste Jiet he may habbe. Alzuo 
zayjj saynt aug7/stin / |)et hou fet wille wyshche him be 
rede / and grace auoreye god uynde : he ssel zeche 
zuych ane co?ifessour : jjet conne bynde / and onbynde. 
)5et is jjet he conne wel y-knawe zenne / an fane zene^ere 
wel rede. And fet he habbe power \\hn to asoyli / and 
him penonce to anioynj be Jje zenne. Qid lolt confiteri 
pBccata sua ut inuenkd gircciam : querat sacavdotem. qm 
sciat ligare ^ soluexe / ^c. 

Efterfan huo fet him wisliche wyle ssriue / he ssel 
mid wylle Jjenche and his zennes auore J?et he come to 
ssrifte / and al his herte zeche / and his inwyt / hou he 
heJ3 god / and his yblyssede moder / and his hal3en 
ywrefed. and mid greate drede al his lyf befenche / ase 
dede fe guode king ezechie / fet zayde fus. ' Ich wylle 
bejjenche alle mine yeres / ine biternesse of mine zaule.' 
j)e zene3ere ssel guo in-to his house / pet is in-to his 
herte. najt pasindeliche ase Jie iogelour jjet ne blefjj na3t 
blejiehche in his house, uor he ne he]j no worse hous 
Jjajzne his 03en. Ac fer he ssel bleue / and ysy alle 
his defautes huerof he ssel yelde rekeninge /and skele 
to god / an to his preste. fet is to his ssrifteuader. An 
ssel fenchc of hi?7?-zelue ase pe ilkc jjet hef day uor to 


rekenv of liid onderuoncfincfe and of his spe??din"es the account to be 

•^ ^ ° ... rendered to God. 

beuore his Ihorde. J5a?2ne he ssel him diligenthche 
penche beuore / and izy Jtet ^vrit : of his inwyt. jjet he 
ne faly ine his rekeninge. Yor yef he failej? at his 
rekeninge : god nele na3t faly at his. Huarme me he]) wiien he hath 

... PI- /I 1 /I seen in how many 

diligentliche y-po3t oi his zewnes / and yzo3e hou / and ways he hath 

-1 1 i,iij ijji, wratlied God, and 

me nou uele maneres he hejj god y-wre])ed. and hou how wickedly 
uelezybe. and hou kueadliche he heb yzenejed. and hou and long he hath 

'' ' I •! } Sinned, 

lo?zge ybleft ine be zerane. banne ssel he hi??^ of al **>"" ^^"'i ^« 

■• hastily shrive him 

hastehche ssriue. ofaii. 

And bis is be ober cowdicion bet ssel by ine ssrifte. 2. Do not delay 


Jpe kyng damd aros at niidni3t hi?/i uor to ssriue ase he 
zayJ3 ine pe sautere. Onneajje abod he ane monjje / ne 
alhuet half a yer. And j^e wyse ine ojjre stede ine fe 
writinge zay]) Jjus. ' !Ne abyd na3t jje to wende to god / Delay is very 

-, J J T / 1 1 T perilous for many 

ne zech na3t to lenge / ne beuly. and na3t ne uerste reasons, 
urani daye to daye / uor jje abidinge is wel perilous uor 
nianye skeles.' Non tardea conueTti ad dominmn neque 
differas de die in diem. Suhito. n\a7n\. ueniet ira illius I 

•" _ _ _ "-J ' [Fol 54. a.] 

6f in tempore uindicte perdet te. Verst uor fe con- (o)Sinisabuming 

. . fire, and can only 

dicion of ze;me. uor zenne is a uer berninde jjet ne may be quenched by 

na3t by y-kuegt bote be tyares of ssrifte. And mochel 

ssolde he by fol jjet ze3e his hous berne : Jjet nolde an 

haste yerne to be wetere. Efterward zenne is wel g7xit ('') ^»" '« ^ ^''^at 

sickness, and 

ziknesse : and Jje ssrifte is J)e medecine. And uorzojje shrift is the medi- 
he praizej) lite his heljje / J)et him-zelue jzi^]) zik al to 
pe dya])e / and na3t ne wilnej) zone to by hoi. Efter- 
ward J)e dyajj Jiet is yredy / and oueral aspif) jjane M Death may 
zene3ere / him ssel sterie zone hi?« to ssrive. uor ner before he has 

. . , shriven himself. 

he not ne Jjane tmie / ne fane day / ne Jse oiu'e : 
huawne jje dyeaj) ssel come, pet ofte ondernimj? Jjane 
zene3ere huer he ne nimj) none hede. And uorzojje huo 
pet "wyste huet day he ssolde sterue : he hine wolde 
agraybi ase zone ase he mi3te. Eftenvard yef be zene3- (d) The sinner is 

■^ in great peril in 

ere j-zi^p wel jjet peril huer hit is : uor he is ine pe the prison of sin, 

n PI Pin; i" tlie throat of 

prtsone 01 zeTine / me pe Jjiote of pe lyone of helle / theUonofheU. 



and of pe dragoune Jiet him wyle uorzuel^e / lie wolde 
(c) Delay may oc- grede to god be ssrifte aze zone aze he nii3te. Efterward 

casion the loss of. iiiiii- 

everlasting life, jet he yze3e jje greate guodes J?et he het' uorlore be his 

ze?aie / ])e guodes eurelestinde / and Jje guodes gostliche/ 

his time / and him-zelue / jjet al may habbe ayen be 

ssrifte : mochel ssolde he by fol bote yef he him hastede 

(/) The mercy of te habbe hit ayen. Efterward J?e merci of god fet him 

the simier's door abyt / and ssofjj at his dore / aze zayj? Jie apocahpse : 

shrift! '^" "'" ° -^^ ^^^-l- ^^^^ hasti to ssriue. Vor azemoche aze god abyt 

more fane zene3ere : jje more he hi?)i smit J)e more 

fellaker : hua«ne he hi??j jzi^]) onlosti and sleauuol. Ase 

|)e ssyetere / jje more fet he dra^t his bo^e : fe harder 

he smit. And uorzojje he he]? his 03ene bo3e y-bent and 

adra3e / ase zajp pe sautyer / uor to sla3e Jjane zene3ere / 

(g) He who delay, -bote yef he him ne wytye. Efterward be ilke bet late 

eth shrift oft "^ -^ -^ r r 

forgetteth iiis ham ssriuejj / uoryet ofte his ze?znes / zuo pet onnyeajje 
hit beualjj Jiet he by wel y-ssriue. uor he uoryet manye 
zewnes / huerof he neure him ssel be-jjenche. and zuo 
hi??i ne ssel neure uorj)eiiche / ne neure by ssriue. and 

3. siirive openly, |,g^; ^g ^q j^^^ -^qI prpat peril. Efterward huawne he is 

clearly, and •' o i 

nakedly. beuore his ssrifteuader / he ssel hi)?^ ssriue openliche. 

jjet is to zigge Jjet he ssel zigge his ze?mes clyerliche and 
nakedliche / zuo pet pe ssriuere izi openliche pe lierte / 

As the sick man aiid be ondei'stoiidi^gB of hi?« bet hi??* ssril'b. Vor be 

must make 

known his sick- zike ssel ouwri his ziknesse. uor ojjerlaker pe fizicien ne 

ness to the phy- . - , i n , i 

Bioianifhewouid may na3t wel werche. ne pe leche ne may na3t werclie 
eco\er, ^^^.^^ ^^ ^^^^ j bote-yef he yzi his wonde. And j^eruore 

zayj) boeice pe wyse / jjet ' yef jjou wilt jjet pe leche pe 
hele : hit be-houej) jjet fou onwri |jiiie wonde.' ])a?ine 
pe truont pe ssel teche to by ssriue / jjet ssewej) hare 
pouerte and hare ziknesse/and doj? ])etuo[u]leste beuore/ 
so must the sin- uor to habbe be elmesse. Alzuo ssel be zene3ere onwri / 

ner show his sins 

for to have mercy, and sseawy his zewnes : uor to habbe merci. an ])is is pe 

Jjridde coHdicion jjet ssel by ine ssrifte. Efterward po 

i. Shrive wholly, zene3ere hi??? ssel ssriue yhollyche / ]3et is pe uerpe cun- 

great and small.' dicion. Vor he ssel zigge alle his ze?mes / and greate 

and smale / and pe aboutestondinges of pe ze??iies. 


j)anne ssel he uerst yzy fie zeue dyadliche zennes j of Teii first the 

, , 1111 1 seven deadly sins. 

liuycnen we habbejj aboue y-speke. and yholliclie of 

eclien lii?^ ssriue he jjan Jjet he him y-iielj? gelty. no bing Excuse not thy- 

to hele / no Jjiiig wyjjzigge. na3t hi??i. to defendi. ne others. 

ne?me oj^renne wi-aye. And jjus him ssrof dauijj fet 

zayde ine jje sautere ' Ich wylle me ssriue and ich wills 

zigge alle mine ze?znes aye me.' na3t of o]5ren / ne ayens 

ojjren ase do]) Jje ypocr/tes / jjet do]) ])et uayreste wy])- Be not as the 

oute / fet telle]) hire guodnesses / and wrye]) hare hiTe°theh-lin''gf 

kueadnesses. and Avraye]) fe o])re / and ])erof ])et hi 

bye]) mest hani-zelue gelti. ])et y-zye]) ])et mot ine ])e that see the mote 

, /I , , , p, ■ t • in others' eyes, 

o])res e3e / and ne yzyef na3t ])ane relter me hire 03ene but see not the 

„„r7'u ij»- o , in/., rafterin their own 

636. Zuyche weren ])e farizeus of fe godspelle / ])et eyes. 

zayde his guodnesses / And onwor])ede fane publycan 

])et mildehche byet his bryest ine fe te/^zple / and hi?«- 

zelue demde beuore god / and zojte merci : and zede. 

' Lhord god haue merci of me zenuolle.' And ])us \\\m 

ssel deme fe zenejere be-uore ' god / na3t uor to lessi his Tiie sinner shaii 

/ j_ • 1 ""^ ^T ''O lessen 

ze/mes / ac uor to mon and we3e wy])oute lyeasLnge. ws sins before 

Efterward ])e ssrifte ssel by yhol / na3t to-deld ine uele 

ssriueres. Yor me ssel zigge al to onen. na3[t] o del to one must confess 

It,,,-,-,, to one shriver, 

onen / and fet ofer del to an-ofren. uor god ne tak]) none and not to many, 
hede of zuiche tales. Efterward me ssel zigge na3t Confess not only 

1 .,. , , thy sins, but the 

onlepilicne ])e ze?ines / ac fe aboutestondmges alle ])et circumstances 

, , -TT . ■ ... that increase 

more}) fe zennes. Vor ])e zerme is gratter me one marene : them. 
])a?me ine ano])ren. ase ine man of religion : ])a?ine ine sin is greater in 

, , . one person than 

ane secuier. and me ane prelat : ])a?^ne ine ane lo3er. anotber-more 

I n 1 , . . , Jielnous in one 

me ane greate iliorde : ])a7ine m ane snnple ma?zne. place than in an- 

Efterwuard / hit is more ze«ne ine one stede : ])a??ne "' ^^' 

ine anoj)ren. Ase in holi cherche / o])er ine o])er holy 

stede. Efterward ine one time ])a?me in an-ofre / ase in 

lenten / o])er in ane he3e messedaye. Efte?-ward hua?me and worse at one 

me zene3e]) wytindeliche / me zene3e]) more yno3 / ])a?zne othrr! 

onknawyndliche. Efterwar[d] me ssel zigge \q cc?^dicion ^eii the condition 

n , 1 • . • "f t"® sinner, 

ot J)e zenne. uor hit is more ze«ne me wyfman yspoused / 
fanne in ane sengle. o})er ine man / o])er ine wyfman of 

1 ho-uorc in l\rS. 



and whether the 
sin be an unnatu- 
ral one. 

Say how often 
thou liast fallen 
into sin, and liow 
long thou hast 
remained therein. 

Confess whether 
thou hast resisted 

and relate the 
cause, the man- 
ner, and the 

Afterwards one 
shall pass on to 
tlie limbs where- 
with one hath 

(Shrift must be 
made of " ghostly 
and fleshly 

[Fol. 55. a.] 

Take heed first 
to the head, 
whereon one set- 
teth great value, 
as do ladies who 
curiously deck 
themselves out. 

who make great 
horns of their 

and who wash, 
comb, and pore 
into mirrors. 

religion, ine ane preste ojjer in ane dyakne. nor pQ 
lie3ere fet hjelp Jje hodes : jje gratte[r] is jje zenne. 
Efterward yef jje zenne is a-ye kende / ojjer kendeliche. 
Efte?'\vard. lion ofte lie hejj ynalle into ze?me / and lion 
longe he liej) y-blened ferine. Efterward me ssel zigge 
yef lie ne hefi na3t yxi03te aye ])e uondinge. olpav yef lie 
hej) y-porcliaced Ipe zenne. ofer yuo3te ine ]?e nondinge. 
Yor per byejj some Jjet ne abide]) na^t pe uondinge / ac 
liis porchacej) / and zuo lii nallej). Efterward / J)e 
cause and pe uondinge pet com]) to do zenne. me ssel 
zigge and alle fie ofre causes / and pe aboutestondiwges 
]jet mo^e mori pe ze?me. 

Efterward me ssel zigge and yerne by pe lemes 
huermide me beji y-zene^ed. Verst me ssel guo to pe 
lierte / and zigge his ])03tes huyche ftet hi by / o])er 
ulessliche / ofer gostliche. Gostliche : ase aye pe 
bylene / ofier of ydele blisse / o])er of enuie. o]>er of 
WTe])e. ofer of o]jre mane?'e huerof pev is to moche. J?e 
ulessHche belonge]? to lost / an to wylninges. zuo me 
ssel wel loki ine alle ])ise ])03tes yef pev is cowsentinge / 
o])er lang bleuinge ine pe lostes / Jiet is oferhuil ase 
moche wor]) : ase to consenti. And of alle zuiche ])03tes 
he ssel him ssriue. 

Efterward / me ssel nime yeme / yef me hep y- 
zene3ed be pe lemes of pe bodie. uor me kan zene3i ine 
uele maneres. Yerst be pe heauede. hneran me zet ofte 
grat cost / ase do]) })ise leuedis / ])et zuo curiouseliche 
agrayfie]* hire heaueden mid j)reciouse agray])inges uor 
klene ydele bhsse. uor to liki. and nor to dra3e ze?aie. 
Hueruore hi zene3e]) ofte kueadliche. and nanieliche ])o 
f)et make]) zuo greate homes of hare here / o])er of opren / 
Jiet hi semble]) Avel fole wyfnien. Y1103 ])er is of ydel- 
nesse aboute hire lieaued / to kembe / to wesse / ine 
trossinge / an ine sseweres pouringe. huerof god mochel 
him wrepe]). Of ])ise ydelenesse / ne bye]) na3t quitte 
pe men fiet do]) zuo grat payne ham to kembe and to 


poiii'i ine sseaAveres and iue hai'e here wel to croki an to wholly free from 

this vice, for they 

bleue he streng])e / to fan |jet lii habue nayr dorilot / also pore ftito 

. . 1 PI 1 / -I n ■ ^ 11 mirrors, and take 

pet IS me tokne oi kneadiiesse / and oi zuiche ydeienesse great pains to cmi 

T . n 1 • their hair. 

ni ssoile nam ssrnie. 

Efte?'ward me ssel yerne to jje vif wittes of Jjb bodie / Look to the five 

buerby me zene3e]3 ^ wel ofte. ojjer be fe e3en ine fole zi3j5e. ^herebrone^sin- 

ofer be pe yearen ine folliche to biere / and y-here blejje- j^ffg^j^g- *|J® ^P 

liche be miszigfo-eres. and be blonderes. and be scorneres. the ears in fooUsh 

r oo r r hearing, by,the 

and pG lye3eres. and o]jre folyes. Ojjer be pe monjje / ine mouth in evu 
folliche to spekene. ine to moche ethe / and to moche the nose in de- 

1 • 1 /-v 11- iM • lighting in good 

drinke. Ojjer be pe nase / me to moche mm to uky m smeiis, 
guode smelles. Ojjer be fole takinges and inhoneste- ^y fo„i handling. ■ 
Hche / o])er ine him-zelue / oJ)er ine his "s^'inie. Jjet he hef. 
ojjer ine ojjren Jiet wors is / bi hit man / bi hit "vvyfman. 

Alsuo he him ssel ssriue of mochel hede Jiet me dejj Also shall one 
ine ssredinge to bedde and to regge / and hosiinge and great regard to 
ssoinge. and of alle ofre finges Jjet he bejjengjj. And and'bafk, Lsing, 
J)OUS is pe ssrifte y-hol hna?zne me zayj) alle pe lackes ®^°^"^s. 
greate and smale. And ])is is pe uerjje coredicion : Jjet 
ssel by ine ssrifte. 

\)e vifte cc»??dicion zno is fet me ssel by y-ssrine 5. shrift 
mildehche. uor pe zene3ere spek]? to god fet yzi3)) his ^"ekiy^ ™^ ^ 
herte. pmme pe ssriiiere ne is bote jjet yeare of god. 
and pet ha yher]) / he not na3t ase man : ac ase god. 
And jjeniore ssel pe zene3ere him mildi ase moche ase The shnver is an 
ha may beuore god / and zigge his ze/mes mid greate Therefore shall 
drede. and ssel his zemies aUe keste out touore him / the sinner confess 

/ his sms with great 

ase zayb be Aviiti^ge. Ase me belt nol a pot of wetere. •^'''l^'^' , , 

"'•'•''-' -■■ and as water shaU 

hua/?ne j)et weter is y-sset : Jjer ne blefj) no colur. ase ine ^^® '^^^t them out. 

melk. ne smel ase ine wyn. ne smac : ase ine bony. 

Alzuo me ne ssel of hyealde of pe zenne zeppe he liit hejj 

yzed ine ssrifte / ne jjet colour / ]jet is pe kueade mane?'e He must let no- 

, . , . ^ ... thuig remain that 

Jjet me he J) yhet / oper me speche oper me zi3jje / ojjer has the colour of 
ine kueade uela3rede to uol3y / o]5er ine oJ?re ))inge jjet Afterwards he 

1,1 n TM'i. 1 1 1 i I 1 must forsake the 

hep colour 01 zenne. Mterwava me ssel lete pane smak "smack" of sin 

1 MS. ^ene^ep 



and nevev think 
pleasantly of his 
past sins. 

[Fol. 55. h.] 
He shall think of 
his sins with great 
dread, sorrow, and 

He shall after- 
wards fly from 
the " smeU," and 
listen no more to 
sinful speech. 

6. Shrift must be 
made often, for 
many reasons. 

a. To ensure 
greater purity of 

b. For the abso- 
lution of "venial 

c. To drive away 
the devil. 

d. To learn to 
shrive well, for 
practice makes 

e. To prevent for- 
getfulness of our 

/. Because one 

knoweth not 

whether shrift 

has ever been weU 


g. To get greater 

meed of God. 

h. To bethink of 
sins unconfessed. 
[ Vif];>inges]destor- 
hei> ssrifte.] 

Five things de- 

of ze?aie. ycf he of halt jjane sniak of zeraie pet }ieiig]) 
of pe zenne jjet he hejj y-do / and h.[m lykejj wel ine 
jje j)03te and is ypayd. Ac he ssel Jjeiiche of liis zennes 
mid greate drede and mid greate zor^e of herte / and 
him-zehie ssende ine him zekie / and habbe gi'eate 
ssame to-uore god / and uest wil Jjet neiu'emo to zenne 
ne ssel wende ayen pa,-^ me ssolde hine al to-heawe. 

Efterwai'd me ssel lete and be-uly fane smel. ])ev 
byej) zome pet wel uoiietej) pe zenne : ac blejjeliche 
hi here]) ferof speke. Ac he fet him wel uorjjing]? : 
he ne ssel na^t ferof yhere speke / jjet he ne ssolde 
habbe wlatiinge. 

jpe zixte coredicion fet ssel by ine ssrifte is / ])et me 
ssel ofte by yssriue nor manie skeles. Yerst / nor to 
zeche pe more grace of clennesse / ase J)et hne cloj) jjet 
is y-hnyted be ofte wessinge. Efte?'ward nor pe zennes 
uenials hnerine me ualp ofte. and huo Jiet ofte him 
beuel]? : ofte he him ssel wesse. Alsuo ase liit behouej) 
ofte fet ssip lliade out fet weter ])et alneway gefi in. 
Efterward nor to cachie and uerri jjane dynel urani him. 
j)e nojel him nerrej) blejjeliche uram Jja;ines hner me 
brekj) liis nest, and nrain Jjawnes huer me him beni??^j) 
Ins eyren. Efte?'ward / nor to lyerni him wel to ssriue. 
uor wone : make]) maister. ase hit ssewe]) ine ])ise o])re 
creftes. Efterward / nor ])et me noryet ofte pe zennes j 
])eruore me ssel ofte by y-ssriue and telle. Efte?'ward / 
nor fiet me not yef me he]) wel yby yssriue / oJ)er uor- 
Jienchinde. zuo me ssel ofte wi?ine ayen / ])et me he]) 
lesse yno^ y-do. Efte?'ward / lii?«-zelue pe more uor to 
bouje / and uor to habbe pe more niede of god. jperuore 
me acsede ane abbotte / hueruore he him. ssrof zuo ofte. 
and he ansuerede / * feruore ' he zede / ' ])et ich habbe 
alneway drede / pet ich ne am na3t wel y-ssriue. Efter- 
ward / ich nie be])enclie ofte of some finges pet ich ne 
habbe na3t yzed. and ])eruore pet be pe ssrifte ich me 
arere alneway pe more milde.' 

Nou best })ou yherd hou me ssel by y-ssriue. nou 


])ou sselt y-wyte Ipet vif ])inges specialliche destorbejj stroyeth true 

.^ shrift. 

zope ssrinpe. 

pe uerste is -ssanie. ]?et lie ne dar iia3t zigge his i. shame, which 

. prevents confes- 

zenne uor ssame / and Jjet dep jje dyeuel / jjet mm zet sion. 
beuore be ssanie / him nor to ssette jjane monb. ase deb The devu acts 

' ' . . lilce the thief who 

J?e jjyef pet Jjranjj fane little bal in-to pe hondes frote tiirows a uttie 

1 1 , -I ^ Tr/> 111- ^^11 i"'0 t^® 

jjet he ne ssel na^t berke. Vor oi zuyche kende is pe hound's mouth, to 
ilke litel bal : fet makejj |)ane bond donib hua;aie me ijarkin'™ "^""^ 
liit Jjraw]) in-to pe jjrote. Ac pe zene3ere ssel feiiche 
Jjet fie ssame jjet me heji ine pe ziggenge of pe ze?me : is The shame of 

T -TIP, T1 1T1 T1 confession is a 

grat del of Jje amendmge. Jiitt^rward he ssel blejjeiiche great part of 

T-i Tii? j.T,ii. L amendment. 

drinke a hte of ssame : uor to beuly pe greate ssame. 

fet pe zene3eres abide]? ate daye of dome huanne ech of 

pe wordle ssel yzi his o^ene ze/men. pet ojjer J)ing is 2. a wicked fear 

wycked drede uor to do greate penonce. jjanne pe dyeuel ance. 

deb in-to be eare of be zenejere : ' bou ne niiat na^t lete some sinners are 

■• .... like tlie horse 

fine wones ' / ziiich uolk is y-Hch jje horse fet hejj drede that is afraid of 
of his ssede / and uorzojje hit ne is bote ssed al fet me 
may do of penonce ine fise wordle / to pe zi3]3e of pe 

pine of helle / ofer of p?wgatorie. )3e fiidde / kueade 3. wicked love of 

lone / fet pe dyeuel hej) zuo fane zene3ere uorzoke / the'sinner to sleep 

fet he louef zuo his lost / fet he liit nele lete. zuo g^fne InMsmth. 

f engf fet uor na3t he hi??? ssriff . zuo he slepf ine his [-pp, 55. a.] 

zerene : ase def fet zuyii ine pe wose. j)e uerbe fing 4.. Hope of long 


is / hope of la??g lif. feruore fe dyeuel zayf. 'fou art 

yong man / f on sselt lil)be lo/?ge / Arere f e / and do 

fi wyl / fou sselt wel come fer to fe to ssriue.' Ac he whereby the sin- 

iie zi3j) na3t fane dyaf f et him waytef / and f et bine ^eath, 

wile nime : rafre fanne he ne wene. Vor god f et *ooneftlrnhe 

behot uoryeuenesse to hi??i f et uorf ingf : he ne behat weeneth. 

hi?)i na3t to-mor3e / ase zayf saynt g?'egorie. jjeruore 

be dyeuel playb ofte mid be zenesere ase deb be cat mid The devu plays 

■'•' ■i-'r r 7 r r ^i^l^ ^,,jg sinner 

f e mous f a?^ne he his hef ynome. and hua?me he hef as the cat doth 

•11-1 IT T T • ii 1 •jr'i with the mouse. 

mid hire longe yplayd : f awne he his eth. pe viite 5. Despair, 
f ing is / wanhope huerine f e dyeuel clef fane zene3ere. 
Ac he ssolde fenche fet god uoryeff li3thche to ham / think'that Godls 



more willing to J)et iiorjjingj). and more is "blej^elaker uor to yeue uor- 

forgive than we , ^ i • 

to ask. yeuenesse : panne we nor to aksi. 

Of amendment 
Amending miist 
be made by fast- 
ing, alms, and 

He must obey the 
shriver, as the 
sick man his phy- 

The sinner has 

to fight against 

1. And first 
against the death 
of sin, 

which may be 
overcome by pen- 

2. The second 
fight is a wrestling 
with one's own 
heart, as to pen- 
ance and what 
life to lead. 

Some are over- 
come in tliis 

for they are as 
the weatlier-cock, 
that tm-uetli with 
the wind. 

3. The t'-iird 


After Jje ssrifte com)) yno3bote / ])et is ]?e amendinge 
Jjet me ssel do bi Jie wille / and bi Jje rede of pe ssriuere / 
Jjet ssel deme fe amendes be pe geltes. ofer ine nest- 
inges. oj?er ine elmesse. oj^er ine benes. oJ)er ine ojjre 
Jjinges / ase be J>an Jjet jje ze?me acsejj. And fe zike 
ssel blejteliche bou3e to Jie fisicien nor to babbe heljje. 
And pet gnode chi[l]d deji ble|)eliche pe heste of his 
uader gostUch. nor Jje gnod of his zanle. 

Noil hest Jjou yherd pe jjri finges fet helejj Jjet 
hanberk.of penonce hnermide god armejj his newe kny^t 
uor to onercome pet vi3t jjet he hej? aye zewne. And he 
ssel onercome fise vi^tinge : he ne hep hede of pane 
ojjrene djap / ase zayjj sajn Ion. J?e nerste dyajj of pe 
zanle is pe djap of ze??,ne Jiet me onercome]? be penonce. 
huerby me askapejj jjane ojjrene djap ])et is pe djap of 
belle pet sterne ne may. Ipet is pe nerste bo3 of pe 
tra-we of pronesse. Hno Jjet onercomep pane vi3t / he 
ouercomp ane oprene. Hua?i pe man hi?^ iiorpingp of 
his ze»ne : pane com[p] per a newe wrestli/zge to his 03ene 
herte hnet penonce he ssel do / and hnet lif he ssel lede. 
and nele per byep zuyche pet ine po vi3t byep onercome. 
Vor ase god zayp ine his spelle. non [h]y lenep / non lii 
mislenep. non hi wyllep / non hi ne wyllep. non hi pro- 
posent / non Mt is betere. Jpernore lii byep ase pe 
wedercoc pet is ope pe steple / pet him went mid eche 
wynde. Ac hnajine pe man sernep god and strengpep 
his herte ine his gnode wille. panne if pe ilke vi3t oner- 
come. an pamae makep him god Strang and stedenest 
ase a pos[t] ine his te«?-ple / pet is holy cherche / ase 
zayp saint Ion. pis is pe oper ouerconiinge and pe ssepe 
pet he hi?» kepp. 

Efter pise wrestHnge comp pe pridde / pet pe man 


liejj to his 03ene ulesse / Jjet moehel him playne]) and '^^''^i^fj^ ^'"^ 
groche]) / huajme hi' begin]) to uele fe harnesses and )je [^ he?:\ 
smartnesses of penonces. and moehel ha vi3t nor to 
come ayen to his yealde wones. J5et nles is Jjet kueade ^i^jc, resisteth 
^VY£ huerof spekj) salomo. Jtet hno fet mest dej? hare p''"''"''®- 
Avil : be worse lii;?i is. and be more hi is ayen him. _ , 

' r J [Pol. 56. b.] 

And huo bet him let onercome be his nlesse. he is ine He who is over- 
come by his flesh 
a wel zor^nol Jjreldome and wel vil. And fet wes is in Rorrowfui 

betokned ine samson ]je stronge / ]jet uor-fan Jjet he and that was be- 

1,1. T p 1 11- tokened in Sam- 

let mm onercome be ane wyima?zne : he uorieas his g^^ ti,g strong, 

her of his heanede hnerinne wes his greate strengfe. an^eyef ofhis''"' 

and Jje e3en of Ms heanede : and ))e strengjje of his j'j^'^'^L^'nrt^if 7 

bodie. and nil into fe honden of his jnio / J?et iiis^ody. 

hi???, deden grinde ate querne ssamnoUiche. Al fis deji 

]je dyenel gostliche to Jjan jjet him let onercome be his 

nlesse. Huo bet berne vi^t ouerco???b ' god hi??i behat be „ ,,^ ^, 

r ' ^ TO r ['US. ouerconiyj 

huyte robe of chastetee and of innocence / ase zayjj jje 


Efter bise niitinge comb be wordle and dame 5. After this fight- 
ing Cometh the 

fortune mid al hare huejel / Jjet asaylej) J>ane man a world, and dame 

ri3t half and a left half / Jjet bye]) tuo wel greate ^heei. 

■vd3tinges huer moclie uolk is ouereome a ri3t half and a 

left half / ase zay]) fe sauter. Vor more is Strang Ipe 

uondinge ])et com}) of worjjssipes / of richesses / of 

lostes : })et ]>& dyeuel byet / and dep beuore : panne by 

])e ilke fet com]) be aduersete / ase of pouerte / of 

zycnesses bet god zent. And be ilke bet ouercoml) l)ane H" overcometh 
■' r o r r r r this fight who 

uerbe vijt : bet is huo bet uHab and onworbeb mid despiseth the 

r ^ f r 7r r r world's honour. 

herte fe wor])ssipe of ])e wordle. god him behat wor])- 

ssipe and he3nesse ine heuene. Vor he him Avyle do 

zitte mid him ine his trone / ase zay]) fe apocalipse. 

To him ])et ssel onercome ])ane vifte vi3t ])et is aleft- J^ercomladytrf 

half : fet is aduersete of ])ise wordle : god hi??i behat fie ^^'^y- 

ma?ine bet is y-hed. ])et is be greate zuetnesse an be ^°^ ^^l^ '''""■ ^ 

I J J s ^ > mised the great 

greate likinge of pa?-adis / ])et non ne him may benyme. sweetness of Para- 
Vor be })e ma??ne })et wes zuo zuete / fet ech uand 



6. The sixth fight 
is against the 
wickedness of tlie 

against the limbs 
of Antichrist, 

the destroyers of 
martyrs and 
Christian men. 
[' M.S. bouore.] 
The limbs of this 
beast (Antichrist) 
are wickedprinces 
and rulers. 

He who trusts in 
God shall over- 
come this fight, 
and aU his foes. 

[Fol. 57. a.] 

The devil assails 
the good man by 
vanity and pre- 

Lucifer fell low 
on account of his 

Wherefore a man 
should be cau- 

for the ship is 
often destroyed 
close by the 

ziiycli smac : ase he wolde. is onclerstonde / jie greate 
ziietnesse / ))et greate lost / jjet god horde]) / and 
wytej) / to ham Jjet oiiercomej) J>e adiiersetes of fise 
wordle. J5e zixte vi3t fet is wel Strang / is a-ye pe 
kueades Jjet byef ine jjise wordle / Jjet byej) fe lemes of 
anticrist pet werrej) J»e giiode men be hare stxengpe / 
ase deden ine ealde time pe tyrans pe martires / pe 
eretiks : pe gnode cristene men / and ssolle do ine pe 
ende of pe wordle. pe lemes of anticrist Jjet ssolle werri 
zno pe guode cristene / J)et onnea])e ssel by eny J)et dor 
by-knawe Jiet by c?'/sten / nor pe strengfe of anticrist 
and of his lemes. \)et is pet best fet sayn Ion yze^ Jjet 
werrede pe hal^en Imerof we habbe]) beiiore' yspeke. 
pe lemes of j)ise beste ham sseawe]? nou ine kiieade 
pr?'nces / and ine kueade ouerlinges / J?et be hare greate 
couaytise / defoiilent and be-uleaj? / and ethejj [h] are on- 
derhnges / zuo fiet pe gtiode men jjet byej? onder ham 
habbe]) yno3 to folye / and ynoj of zor3es / and of 
greate niisual. Ac pe ilke ])et al nim]) ine |)olmodnesse 
ase dede iob. and him lefj) al ine god : ouercomji })is 
vi3t. and to fan ])et hit ouercom}) / god hi??^ behat fet 
he hijn wyle yeue mi3te / oner his yno / ase zajp zaint 
Ion ine pe apocahpse. Efter alle Jiise vi3tinges com]) 
pe laste fet mest is Strang. Vor pe dyuel ])et mocliel 
is kueduol / and sotil hna??ne he jzi^p ])et pe man is 
ycliue ope ])ane hel of pej-feccioun. and he he]) alle pe 
vd-^tes beuore yzed ouercome. ])a?me he asayle]) him be 
ydele blisse and be presnmcion. Yor him ])ing]) fet he 
is a wel guod man / and wel mid gode / nor ])et he he]) 
zuo moche y-do / and yfoled nor hi?n. Hueruore he 
ixal]) oferhuil uram zuo he3e : zuo 1036 / ase dede 
lucifer. And J»eruore hit is grat nyed / ])et pe man by 
wys / and ywer hhn uor to werie uram ydele blysse ])et 
make]) pe efterwarde. Vor ine pe ende / hp ofte pe 
accombringe. and nyxt pe hauene : spil]) ofte pet ssip / 
J)et ge]) zikerliche ine pe he'^e ze. Jjeruore hit behouej) 


fiet he agrayjji his zayl / jjet is his onderstondinge to fe 
hauene of heljje / jjet is to lesiis crist / be fe wynde of 
stedeuest loue / and of gTat -wyhiinge of god. pis is jje Let the soui be 

. guided by the 

ende of ri^tuohiesse / huerof we hahbejj ahoue yspeke / windofsted- 
jjet comjj of ]je yef|)0 of streiigjje / and of J)e ui'rtiie of 
prowesse. aze pe guode kni^t and orped / jjet hef) giiod 
herte and hardi / and hefi y-by ine \iele jjrestes mid The good knight, 

, . . . desiring to exhibit 

grat \vil / and g?'at honger to ssewy his strengpe me his skin and cour- 

, ,. ... ;i- j_i- 1 age, obtaineth re- 

torneme?is opev me vi3tmges / him nor to aiosi. and ^^wn in the tour- 

uorzojje huo pet hejj grat loue of god and grat honger / ""^"nent. 

and grat wilninge of his hel]5e. he ouercomf li3tlyliche 

jjise laste vi^t. Vor he nele ne na3t ne wyhiej) ine Jjise 

Hue bote pet is to Jie worpssipe and to Jie bhsse of god / 

and heljjB of his zaule. And huo pet pis ui3t ouerconip / He who over- 

1 •,, 11 ^-iT 1(1 , 1^ Cometh this last 

he wmp pe mede hueroi samt Ion spek / huer pet oiire fight 

Ihord zayde ine pe apocahpse / '^to him pet ssel ouer- 

come. ich wylle him yeue to ethe of pe trawe of hue 

pet is amidde paradys.' pet is lesu crist pet yefp lyf shall receive the 

,.,,, . ,, -, Til • IT gift of everlasting 

eureiestmde / huer by aile pe hal3en hbbep me pe busse ufe, 

of paradis and byep alle nolle and uolueld. And pet 

is pe bhssinge pet oure guode mayster behat ine his 

spelle to Ms guode kni3tes hua7?ne he zede. 'yblissed 

byep po pet habbep honger and porst of ri3tuolnesse' / 

pet is of god to serui and to louie / uor hi ssolle by and be fuied with 

uolueld of pe frut of pe trawe of Hue. pet is pe ende tj-ee of 'life. 

and pe guodnesse of pise mVtue pet is yclei^ed prowesse 

huerto ous lede pe yefpe o strengpe. 

Of JpE YEfJJE of red / and of U//JTUE of MERCI. Of the gift of 

counsel and of the 

Ase pe holy gost yefp strengpe and wyl of greate ^■i'"t"e of mercy, 
pinges to onderuonge : alsiio he yefp red / huerby me 
comp to guode heauede and to guode ende of pet me 
ninip an hand. )3et is a grat grace pet pe holy gost The gift of coun- 

n / -11 PP111 1 selisa great 

yefp / pet is ycleped pe yeipe oi red. huerby pe man hep grace of the Hoiy 
grat bezyinge / and grat bepencliinge in pet he nymp itguidethman 
an hand. And pet he ne by to hastif ine his niminges. '^"^ht. 


Vor ase zayjj fe filozofe / ' greate jjinges byejj y-do / na3t 

be strengfe of "bodie ne be amies : ac be guod red.' 
Hasty counsel is And aiiojier ziio zayj) fet liette soc?'ates / fat ' of hastif 
ptntance''^ '"' ^®^^ ' ^^^^ uorjjiiigjj efte[r]ward.' and]5eruore zay]) salomoH. 

' ISe do na^t "vt^^Ji-oiite guod red. and efter fe dede hit 

ne ssel na3t Jje iiorjjenche.' 
This grace show- Jjis grace Mm ssewej) ine man ine J»ri maneres. 

ways. Verst to zeche blejjeliehe guod red. )5ous redde tobye / 

advice^^^ ^° his zone. ' Yayre zone ' zayf he / ' zech euremo red of 

"vv^^se men.' And Salomon fus zayj). 'fer no guod red 
Folk fau, says ne ys : fet uolk to-ualj) / and is al onzauwed. ae hi is 

Solomon, for _ . , 

want of counsel, woly -holpe hua?me jjer is moche guod red wjlpmne. 

'Ac loke' Ipe zayji Jje ■v\Tytiuge ' uram kueade rederes. and 

Beware of false ne akse no red at foles / nor hi ne louieb / bote fet 

advisers, and ask 

no counsel of ham likej). na^t Ipet paye]? god.' Alsuo tekji Ipe 
Seek ad vice of the writinge / ])et me ssel zeche red ate yealden / and na3t 
enced. *''^^"' mid jje yonge Jje ne bye]) na^t yproued ine nyedes. Ac 
mid Jje yealde jjet habbej? yzo^e and j'proued fe Jiinges / 
Rehohoam lost a bet is bet wyt / and bet red. Yor ban bet roboam 

great part of his t ^ i j 

kingdom through salomowues zoue / uorlot fane red of Jie yealden guode 
adriM!™^ ^ iTien / uor Jjane red of yonge : he uor-leas Jjet gratteste 

del of his kingdome. 

He who hath this Efteward / huo ])et help Jiise yef jje / he onderzekjj 

Jie redes )jet me him yefj) / and fengj) mid greate 

IS not easily led bejjenchinge : fet is grat bezyinge : yef me him ret 

counsel of others, ^el / and trewehche / na3t li3tliche yleue to J>e rede / 

olper to J)e ziggenge of one marme / ne of tuaye / hou 

moche Jjet hi by his priues / and his urendes. Huerof 

seneke zede. jjet 'wys man exameneji pe redes / and ne 

ylefj) na3t li3tliche. uor Jje ilke Jiet ylefjj li3tHche : uint 

but foUoweth only ofte Jjet me him gylejj / and misret.' Efterward / huo 

])et J)is yefjje hep / he bo3J3 to guod red Jjawne he hit 

hej) yuounde. Vor na3t he zek]? red / fet ne hep no 

wyl to do la3e. Huerof Salomon zayjj. )?et 'hit ])ingj) 

to pG fole pet he is ine ri3te waye. Ac pe wyse zayj?. 

on red is to zigge. uor pe wjse bou3]) to guod red / |jet 



\)e foles onwor))eJj.' )pe meste profitable red fet me may which fools de- 
habbe / is be red of oure guode maistre lesu crist Jjet is The most profit- 

i T 3 able advice is that 

J)e wysdom of god Jje uader of htiam comj) ai guod red of our good Mas- 

[aiid] ous breng]) iiram heuene / jje ilke fet is fe angle of ' 

red / ase zay|j Jie \vriti/?ge. pot is pet red pet he ous yefjj 

ine his speUe hua;me he zede. ' yef fou wj'lt by parfit : 

guo and zel al pet ])ou best / and yef hit pe poure uor 

godes lone, an com efter me / and )jou sselt habbe grat 

hord ine heuene.' Yzi3 and Jjench hno yefj? jjane red. 

uor .bet is ase zayde be wj^sdom of god pe uader. be He is the angei of 


angel of red / J>et is zo]) god / and zoj) man / jjet com true God and true 

ine erjje pe uor to rede / and pe uor to teche Jiane way ,yho came on to 

and ]jane ri3te pejj to guonne into paradis. ])et is pe ^anThe wa/to"^ 

pej) of pouerte / huerby let pe holy gost J>o fet he ah^t i''"'™'^!*''' 

of ]je jefpe of red. Zop liit is j^et ine oJ)re manere / 

and be ojire waye hi mo3e ham som. ase be pe waye of 

pe hestes of oure Lhord lesu crist loki : ase ine 

spoushod / ojjer ine wodewehod / and ine richesses of 

pe wordle hua/aie me his uze]) wel. Ac pe holy gost be 

pe yefjje of red / let and dia:^p uorj) more ri3tuolliche 

and more zikerhche be pe pejje of zojje pouerte / huer- by the path of 

by me onworjjejj and dej) onderuot pe wordle and alle ™''P''^®' ^" 

couaytyse / uor pe loue of god. 

)5es yefjje of red bestrep)) pe zenne of auarice and of ^Jj ^eSrofeth'"'" 
couaytise / and zet a wel uajT trau / bet is be u/rtue of avarice and covet- 

■^ ousness, and pro- 

merci / jjet is zor3e and Jjolemodnesse of obrema?zne ™otes sorrow and 


Kuead / and of oJ)rema??ne misdede. J3et trau he)) zeue The tree of mercy 

1 11-j 1 r. !,■■ hath seven steps, 

stapes huerby hit wext and prontejj.' J5et byef ])e zeue [Foi. 58. a.] 
finges jjet moche ledejj man to merci / and to habbe seven thingTwhioh 
Jjolemodnesse of ojjre manne kueade. j)et uerste ])ing ^^'"^ *° mercy, 
jjet ssel man sterye to merci : is kende. uor ase zayb be i- Nature, 
boc J3et spekjj of kende of bestes. ' no uo3el ne eth of No fowl eateth 
ojjren yef he is of his kende.' Efte?'ward pe ilke zelue kind, 
boc zayj). Jjet 'on mere dra3)) uor)j jjet colt of anojjre 
huawne hi is dyad.' Efterward me he)) moche yzo3e and 
' MS. po)i/iie\> 



The wolf protect- 
eth 'for-cast' chil- 
dren from other 

wherefore a man 
should pity the 
sin of another of 
his own kin. 

2. Grace. 

We are all limbs 
of one body, and 
one limb natural- 
ly bears with an- 

We are all bought 
with one price, 
with the blood of 

We are all child- 
ren of one Father, 
by belief and by 

3. The Scriptures 
exhort us to be 

The oil feeds the 
fire in the lamp. 
The lamp is 

As the oil up- 
riseth in the 
lamp above all 
other fluids, 
so does mercy 
above aU other 

When mercy fail- 
eth the love of 
God faileth. 

yproued / and is ine jjo boc yuonde. j^et j>e wolues 
dra3e]5 uorji ]?e children fet byejj nor-kest / and were]) 
his nram ojjre bestes. Wei ssel |)a??ne a man liabbe 
pite / and Jjolemodnesse of jje kueade of j?e ojjre fet is 
him anlich ine kende. )?et alle we byejj of one kende / 
and of one ssepjje. and to one norbisne yinad / ase we 
habbej) y-zed be-uore. j)e ojjer jjing jjet ssel man dra^e 
to merci / and to jjolemodnesse of ojjre mamie kuead / 
Jjet is grace, nor alle we byejj lemes of o body / pet is 
of holy cherche be grace, and o leme hep kendeliche of 
anojjren : jjolemodnesse. Efterward alle we hjep wi)i- 
bo3t of one zelue pris. pet is mid Jje blisuolle blode [of] 
lesn crist pet he ssedde nor ons ine pe rode / ons nor 
to wijj-begge nram pe dyajje enrelestinde. Hna?ine 
godes zone wes panne zuo renjjeuol / zuo uol of merci 
auoreye ons : wel ssoUe we habbe reujie / and Jiole- 
modnesse pe on of pe o]jre. helpe / and soiicouri pe on 
pe ojier. Efterward / alle we hjep children of [on] uader 
and of moder be byleaue and be grace, nor we hjep 
godes children and of holy cherche. and pe on brojjer 
ssel helpe Jie oJ»ren : pajijie he jzi^p his niede. nor ate 
niede : me jzi'^p hnet pe nrend is. )5e Jiridde jjing Jjet 
ssel moche man sterie to merci : is pe heste of pe holy 
writinge. Jjet rede]) and hote]? j?e workes of mersi aboue 
alle ojjre workes. Hnerof pe wise Salomon zajp / 'y- 
wyte ]je' zayj) he / 'jjet |)in heued ne by na3t wijjoute 
oyle.' Vor be oyle is y-nor]5ed Jiet uer ine pe lompe. 
and ine lompe is onderstonde merci ])et ssel by euremo 
ine J)ine heuede / fet is ine herte. And al ase jje oyle 
oj:) arist ine Jie lompe / alle pe ojjre woses : aLsuo merci 
alle pe oJ»re nw'tnes. An alsuo ase pe oyle norissej) and 
lokej) J)et ner ine pe lo»;pe. and huaHne hit faile|) : jjet 
uer is y-kuenct. alzno hua??ne merci faylefi : pe lone of 
god failej) : ase saynt Ion zayji. ' Huo jjet yze^e his brojjer' 
zayJ) he ' habbe niede and mezayse / and he [ne] hi??i yefjje 
[sset] pe dore of his herte' / Jiet is to zigge / 'huo Jiet ne 


he]) reufe and lii?/t ne help J) yef he may / hoii is ' he God's love is not 

.,..,, „, ™ him that help- 

zayj> / ' godes loue me mm ? / ase yef he zede / )}et ne eth not his 

may na3t by. Vbr j)e oyle of merci is y-faled ine fe need. 
lompe of his herte. 

Efterward jje guode tohie to^te his zone / and zayde The good Tobie 

, , Tr , . • 1 , • . I- , T 1 taught his son to 

pus. V ayre zone bi merciuoi as pe nu3t. yet pou hest be merciful and to 

yno3 of guode : yef largeliche. and yef pou hest Hte : ^'''''^^siy. 

of Jjo litle yef gledhche.' And ouxe Lhorde lesu cn'st Christ said, ■• Go 

zayf ine Ms spelle. ' guo zayj) he and zel al pet fou Strand give°t 

hest /and yef hit pe poure.' fet is pe uirtue jjet pe holy '° *^« poor." 
writinge ret. more generalhche. Vor fet is pe u/rtue 

fet god mest is mid ypayd ase zajp pe writinge. [Foi. ss. b.] 

Huer-of god zayjj be pe p?'ofete. ' ich wille he zayjj AsGodsaith, "i 

merci : and na3t sacrifice.' and saint austin fus zayJ? / rndnotLTrmce." 
fet ' fer ne is no j?ing ])et make]) man zuo by beloued 
mid god : asepite.' Vele men makef to god sacrefices / 

of uesti??ges / of peregn'nages / of ssarpnesses of bodve / ^°"® ™«" *■■« 

. ' "^ ' wiUing enough to 

ac uor to do elmesse / hi bye]) straite and wrechchen. fast and perform 

Efterward fer bye]) manie men to huam god hep large- sparing of their 

liche y-yeue of timhche guodes. and make]) sacrefices " ™^' 

na3t to god: ac to be dyeule / ober to be wordle /in Many men so 

. ° . foolishly spend- 

fet hi despende]) foUiche hare guodes ine ydebiesses ing their money 

uor host of pe wordle ac uor to yeue uor god : hy bye]) the devu. 
harde ase an [di] a;yTnont. 

Efterward ase merci likep to god alsuo hit ne likeb ^^rcy is dis- 

. . ^ pleasing to the 

nofmg to pe dyeule. Vor ])et is pe armure huer-by he devu, 
is pe xapve ouercome / ase zajp a glose ope be sautere. ^o"" '* ^^ the 

armour whereby 

Vor he ne may na3t folye fane guode smel of pe ilke he is soon over- 

. , come. 

smerieles namore ])a7?ne pe boterel panne smel of pe He cannot endure 

vine. Zuych smel ne mi3te na3t Judas folye fo pe ointment of ^* 

magdalene smerede lesu cristes net mid pe precious "uc^smeii Judas 

smerieles. Vor him ])03te fet hit wes ])ing uorlore. and '°"''^ "°* ''''''^'■ 
he betere louede fet zeluer ine his porse be his couay- 

tise. Of zuiche uolke is Ihord a dyeuel and mavster. T^e lord of the 

'' " unmerciful is the 

fet is ine helle. bet is y-cleped : ssette-pors. pet an '^^vii, who is a 

. . very " shut- 

hermite y-ze3 / ])et zede Jiet he hedde J)et mestieruor to purse." 


4. The liberality 
of our Lord. 
God giveth liber- 
ally to all, 
for the sun shineth 
upon the good 
and the evil. 

wherefore we 
should be kind 
and court eous to 
one another. 

The son should 
be like the father. 

The merciful are 
God's sons. 

5. Thehonour of 


He who honours 

God wDl do good 

to the poor. 

The poor ai-e the 
little liousehold 
of our Lord. 

He who honours 
the poor, honours 

as was seen by 
St Martin, who 
gave his mantlo 
to a poor man. 
[Fol. 59. a.] 

6. The dread of 


Doom without 

mercy shall be to 

tliose who do not 

t he works of 


ssette jje porses of fe Avrechchen / ])et hi ne ssolle by 
open to do elmesse. 

j)e nerjie fing fet ssel man sterie to merci / is ]je 
greate largesse of oure Ihorde / Ipet yefj? largeliche to 
alien / he fet / Jiet hy byeji. ase zay]; saint lacob. and 
makejj J>e zonne ssine ope Jje guode / and ope ]?e 
kueade / ase he zayjj ine his spelle. Yor J»a'/?ne lino 
Jjet is ziio large to ous. nor he ous yef)) al fet Ave 
habbe]) of gnod : we ssolle by large and cortoys / fie 
on / a-ye fe ojjre / and helpe jje on / fe ofre. nor fus 
he ons hat ine his spelle po he zede. ' byef uol of merci 
ase youre nader is.' fe zone ssel by ylich Jje nader o]jer 
he is onkende be zaynte peter. And jjeruore zayde fe 
wyse ine pe writinge. 'by merciuol and reujjenol to fe 
naderlyese / ase hire nader / and hire moder. and Jjoiis 
J50u sselt by godes zone.' 

pe vifte Jjing Jjet ssel man sterie to merci / is : worj?- 
ssipie god. Vor ase zayjj Salomon. j)e ilke worjjssipejj 
wel god oure Ihord : fet de]j gnod to J)e poiu'e. nor fet 
me ham delp : me hit dej) to god / ase hi??^-zelf hit wyt- 
nessej) ine his spelle. 'J5et Jjou best y-do he zayjj to 
onen of mine ponre : fou hit best y-do to me.' ])e poure 
bye]) Jie little mayne of onre Ihorde. yef J50u worjissipes 
fe ponere Jjou worjjssipes god. Vorhuo jjet worjjssipe]) 
fe mayne : he worssipej? pe Ihordes sergont. and hno 
fet deJ) ssame to jje maine : he deJ? ssame to fe sergond. 
Of Jiisen we habbeji uayre uorbysne ine mine Ihorde 
sant martin to huam god him ssewede Jje ni3t efterward 
Jiet he todelde his mentel to fe ponre / and wes bene- 
alde ine Ipe mentle / and zede. to his angles. ' Martin 
yet non y-primsened me lieji yssred mid fiise clo])e.' 

j)e zixte Jiing Jjet ssel moche sterie ane man to 
merci : is ]>& dred of dom. Yor ase zayjj saint iacob. 
' dom wy])-onte merci / ssel bi do to jjan : J^et ne dej) 
workes of merci.' Yor ase god zayde in his spelle. 
' Huawne me com)) to jje dome / pe dom ssel by yeue aye 


bo bet ne liabbeb y-do be workes of merci.' uor god God wui turn the 

' ' r ^ J . . deaf ear to the 

ham wile do pet dyaue eare. and j?eroi hit ne is no unmerciful. 

wonder / to fan J>et anhaste makej) ham dyaxxe to fe 

poure / ase liit sseAveJ? ine fe godspeUe. ine Ipe uorhisne This Christ show- 

/ 1 I ed us in the par- 

ol Jje nche marene / fet onworfede pane lazre. nor pet able of nives and 

he him wernde his elmesse : god him wernde ane drope 

of weter / per he wes ine uere of helle. Alsuo to Jje 

fole may denes fet ne hedde non oyle ine liire lonipen / 

god ham ssette Jje gate of jje sposayles / and ham zede. 

ich not hiio y[e] byeji. zuo J3et liy hlefte?i wyJ)-onte. j)i\s The covetous 

he ssel do ate day of dome to wrechchen and to Jje way to Paradise 

couaytous / Jjet ne ssolle habbe Jje ledinge of me[r]ci / ^ °°"^ ^^' 

fet let fe zaules in-to paradis / and ham make)) way to 

comene to-uore god. ase zayj) fe wrytinge. ase me 

make]) way and ohde]) pe gate ble]?eliche to fan fet 

brengjj nayr present. Vor-zojje ari3t acorsed ssel by fet but cursed shall 

they be that turn- 

urnni reufe went fane reg at fo daye. Vor god ssel ed their backs on 
yeue dom wel dreduol / fet ssel by zuo nest and zno ^^'^^^' 
stable / and uor alle time y-co?ifermed / ne neure ine Christ shall give 

, doom as a king, 

none tmie wyfcleped. pes dom yzed beuore / ssel he 
do ase king, fawne ssel he keste his greate manzinge 
as fe he3e bissop an souerayn pope. Vor king he is : and cursing as a 
and bissop / ase zayf f e writinge. Yor he nom kende sovereign pope, 
of man of kinges keraid / and of bisssoppes. j)e ilke for He took the 
amanzinge sel by ope alle f o uolke / fet ssole by a left- king, and of 
half / non ne worf uorbore. )5et ssoUe by fe kueade ThisTursing shau 
huiche he ssel miszigge uor hare on-trewf e. and f us he {"eftTand"^ °" '^^ 
ssel ham zigge. ' Guof ye acorsede in-to fe greate uere "Go," he shall 
eurelestinde ine helle f e stinkinde / and fyesterness of into everlasting 
ssed / fet is agrayfed to fe dreduolle dyuele / and to the'(^'%^ii ami ids 
his uela3es / fet habbef ymad his messages.' A. alias / ^®'^°^^^- 
fes dom fa^ hit by wel ssort : uor-zofe hit ssel by wel This doom shall 
zorjuol and hard. Huanne he his ssel wreke out of liis rowfui. 
uela3rede. Mochel is to drede zuo harde to-delinge. 

j)G zeuende fing fet ssel moche man sterie to merci : 7. The seed of 

,„.n 11/ 1- nierey beareth 

IS a zed f et betere makef frut me Ihene land / fartne hit good fruit. 



Mercy multiplieth 
temporal riches. 

St Germain liad 
given all his 
money to the 

except three pence 
retained by one' 
of his deacons, 
who was told to 
give them also to 
the poor. 
The deacon gave 
only two pence 

IFol. 59. b.] 
St Germain dis- 
covered the fraud 
by receiving two 
hundred instead 
of three hundred 
pence from a rich 

A rich gentleman 
was robbed by 
thieves of aU that 
he had, 

and he complain- 
ed to John the 
Almoner, who 
ordered his stew- 
ard to give him 
fifteen pounds of 

but the servant 
gave only five. 
A gentle widow 
sent John five 
hundred pounds. 

and he told his 
servant that if he 
had given the 
15 pounds, our 
Lord would have 
sent him 1500 
pounds b3' the 
good woman. 

do ine uette. Hon merci multipliejj Ipe timliclie guodes. 
liyer-of we liabbejj iiele uayre uorbisnen. hucrof ich 
wille hier zome telle. Me ret of saint germaiii of 
ancerne. }?et Ipo he com uram rome / ate ont-guoinge 
of melane he acsede at onen of his diaknen yef he 
hedde eny zeluer, and he ansuerede Jjet he ne hedde 
bote Ipvi pans, uor say[n]t germayn hit hedde alyeue to 
poiiren. J3a«ne he liim het : Jjet he his ssolde yeue to 
pe poure. uor god hedde yno3 of guode huerof he hise 
uedde uor jjane day. pe dyacne mid greate pine and 
mid greate grocliinge yeaf jje tuaye pans / and ofhild 
fane jjridde. |?e sergont of ane riche kni3te Mm 
bro3te ane his lliordes haf tuo hondred pans. j)o 
clepede he his dyacne and hitn zede / Jiet he hedde 
benome J)e poure ane peny. and*yef he hedde yeue 
pane jjridde peny to Jte poure : pe kni3t him hedde 
yzent : J3ri hondred pans. 

Efterward me ret ine pe lyue of Ion pe amoner Jiet 
"vves zuo ycleped uor pe greate elmesses jjet he dede. 
A riche ientilman wes y-robbed of fieues / zuo fet hvm 
na3t ne blefte. He him com to playni to pe uorzede 
ma?me. and he him zede his cas. he hedde greate 
reu])e Jterof. and het his desspendoure J?et he him yeaue 
uyftene pond of gold. j)e spendere be his couaytise ne 
yeaf bote vyf. An haste a gentil wymman wodewe 
zente to pe uore yzede Ion / uif hondred pond of gold. 
po he clepede his spendere / and him acsede hou moche 
he hedde y-yeue to pe kni3te. he ansuerede : vyftene 
pond. j)e holy man ansuerede : Jjet nay. he ne hedde 
bote vyf. and hua-wne he hit wiste / pe ilke zelue fet 
liis hedde onderuonge / zuo zayde to his spendere. jjet 
yef he hedde y-yeue pe viftene pond jjet he hedde y- 
hote : oure Ihord lii«i hede yzent be pe guode wyfman : 
a Jjouzond and vyf hondred pond. And hua«ne he 
acsede ate guode wyfman jjo he hedde hise ycleped 
hou moche hi hedde him y-lete / hi andzuerede / jjet 


uerst lii liedde y-write ine hare testament / jjet hi him 

let a bousend and vvf hondred pond. Ac hi lokede which was the sum 

^ ^1 she had at first left 

afterward ine hare testame?«t and lii yzej be bousend wm in her win, 

" ■> ' ' but the 1000 

pond defaced of hire write / and zuo ylefde ])e guode pounds was after- 
wyfman / ])et god wolde J)et hi ne zente bote vif faced. 

Efterward saint gregori telj? fet saint "boniface st Boniface show- 

,,1 T-ii/T •, .11 ed great kindness 

nrani pet he wes child / he wes zuo piteuous : Jjet he to the poor, for 
yaf ofte his kertel and his sserte to jje poure uor god. often bJatelf by 
baj his moder him byete ofte beruore. ba?me be-vil J^^s mother. 

' ■" 'lit On one occasion, 

bet / bet child yzej manie poure bet hedden mezeyse. ^'^ mother being 

•" ' ■" "J ^ i. J d absent.he emptied 

he aspide fet his moder nes na3t fer. an haste he yarn "le gamer for the 
to ]je gerniere / and al ])et liis moder hedde y-gadered and his mother 

, •,, 11-, P 1 T- ^^^^ nearly out of 

uor to pasi pet yer : he hit yaf jje poure. and ]jo his her wits, but sud- 
moder com and Avyste fe ilke dede : hy wes al out of prayer of the 
hare wytte. J?et cliild bed oure Ihorde : and fet gernier belte fufi!™'' 
wes au haste aluol. 

Efterward ber wes a poure man ase me zayb. bet ;*■ poor man hear- 

■• ^ J r r mgthat a gift to 

hedde ane cou / and yhyerde zigge of his preste ine his <^od is requited 

I J -^ *^» 1 a hundred-fold, 

p/'echinge / ])et god zede in his sj)elle jjet god wolde 
yelde an hondi-eduald al fet me yeaue uor him. jje 
guode man mid ]je rede of his -vvyue / yeaf his cou to gave his cow to a 

rich priest, who 

his preste ))et wes riche. ))e prest liis nom blefieliche / took it home with 
and liise zente to Jie ojjren jjet he hedde. )5o hit com among ms other 
to euen : Jje guode ma?2nes cou com hom to Ms house AtTventide the 
ase hi wes y-woned / and ledde mid hare alle fe prestes fameb'a™c^b?i^ - 
ken al to an hondred. bo be guode man y-zea bet / '"s with her an 

' ■' ° ^ 7 r / liundred cows be- 

he Jjo3te ]3et jjet wes Jjet word of be godspelle bet he longing to.the rich 


hedde y-yolde. and hi?/i hi weren yloked beuore his 

bissoppe aye fane prest. )3ise uorbisne ssewej? wel jjet Mercy is good 

11 1-1. ,j-i-i chaffer and mul- 

merci is guod chapuare. uor hi dejj wexe : jje timliche tipUeth temporal 
guodes. ^''°'^''- 

Of )5E GUODNES of ELMESSE, Of the goodness 

of alms. 
XT 1 , , 111 P , n • CFol. 60. a.] 

JN ou nest pou y-hyerd J^e 00368 01 pe trawe ot merci. Many bestow 
ac uor Jjan jjet moche uolk bye}) / })et hare elmesse jiet and uleieseiy. 


Abns should be hv clob : hi Ivezeb / and hare obre giiodes. uor hi ne 

given to the need- ''J J r I r o 

fill, and should doj) na3t asG hy ssolde. beruore ich be -vvyle ssea-\r\r 

he made pleasing 

to God. ssortliche / hou me ssel maky elmesse : to J)an ]jet hi 

by behofsaw. and Jjet hi Hky god. 
In almsgiving )?a;?ne hiio bet ssel do ehnesse : hel ssel loki bri 

three things are 

to be considered, finges. Verst : huerof he dej) elmesse. uor he hit ssel 

1. A man must clo of his o^ene / and na3t of ojirema/aie. and j^erof fet 
fonjsto Sand ^^ ^^f of guode Avynnynge and trewe. god ne he]? hede 
t'Sntag to'an-" ^^ kiieade yef|)es. ac he his loue> trewe and guode. 
other. Elmesse bet is y-do of byefbe. of tol. of robbino-e. of 

Alms given of r J rJ r & 

theft, toll, rob- gauelyuge. ober of obre kueade gaderinge : hit ne Hkeb 

bing, usury, are _ ■" ■' . 

not pleasing to no])i??g god. Huerof ])e writinge zayjj. ' j)ou ne sselt 
na^t maky none saerefice to god of oxe / ne of ssep / 
Jjet by spotty, uor god he]j grat wlatiynge / of zuych 

Hewhomaketh sacrefice.' and J)e wyze zay]) in fe writinge. ' jje ilke J?et 

sacrifice to God of i / o 

the goods of the make J) sac7'«rice to god / of fe guodes of jje poure : he 

iras'he who slay- de]) ase ]>Q like jjet ssla3t j5et child be-uore his uader.' 

fore totttfe?' ^^<1 ^^T^^ austin fus zai]).. ' huet yefjje is ])et ' he zayf. 

That is not gift « i,g|; ^^ ^^ j^^^^i, aledhche / and be ober hit lyest 

which one taketh r r r o I ft J 

readily and the wepi/ideKche : % ' and beruore ssel ech loki huerof he deb 

other loseth 

weepingiy. elmesse. 

2. Look to whom Efte^-^^ard he ssel loky to huam he hit dej). J^a/nie 
good. ' fe "\ATitinge zayjt. Loke to huam ]jou sselt do guod. 

do guod to Jje guode. ])et is to fan : ])et J)ou Avenst by 
Give to the good guod. and ne yef na^t to fe ssrewe. ne ne loke na^t 
shrew and the J»ane zene3ere. Jjet is to zigge : fet Jjou ne sselt na3t 
sinner, yeue to Jie kueade / be fe scele of his kueadnesse. ase 

do)> J30 Jjet yeue|5 Jie ribaus / and menestrals / uor hare 
that is to say, as wj^kkednesse. ' ne oberlaker hi nolden ham yeue na3t. 

the rewardof their 

wickedness, J»et IS wel grat ze??ne ase ziggej) ))e hal3en. Ac huo jjet 

as one giveth to , i?. / . i i t , / 

ribalds and min- ham yeip / na3t uor hare kueadnesse : ac uor reujje / 

and uor Jjolemodnesse of hare pourehede / and of hare 

Nevertheless alms wyues / and of hare children, yef hi hise habbe]). ojjer 

them on account of hire uadcr / o])er of hire moder. ojjer uor o]jre guode 

ieupo\ery. gjjgjg ^ g^gg jj^g ^jqj, ^;q wyj)dra3e lU'am zQnnQ : he dej? 

1 MS. wylJeednesse. 


wel. ba«ne elmesse y-yeue to be poure. and more to Give aims to the 

' poor, and especi- 

ham jjet byejj ri3t poure of herte / and of wyl. fet aiiytothepoor 
habbej) ylete nor g6d j?et hi hedden / ofer pet hi nii3te to the fatherless, 

111 1 i , t j_ 1 , , n n to widows, and 

nabbe. pet po pet ne byep na^t poure oi wylle : ac other necessitous 

poure of nyede : wel ich habbe ]je eft / y-zed. And P'*''^°"'" 

alneway me ssel ham blejjeliche yeue / and nameliche 

to )je poure ssamueste. and to fe uaderlease. an to wyf- 

men wodewen. and to ojjre nieduolle / Jiarene me yzi^]) 

jje nyede / and me Mt mo^e do. and zuo me is y-healde 

to be oncoube / aboue alle obren me is y-hyealde : to Above au shall 

■• ' ' ' . one help his 

uader and to moder / hua?^ne me j-i^\ hare nyede. parents m their 
Vor ])e kende liit tekjj / and god Mt acsejj / and hat. 

Me ret of jje heyrone J)et he dra^J) uorjj his uader [.a%oriisne.] 
and liis moder hua?ine hi byeJj ealde / and ne mo^e Nature teacheth 

us to do good to 

ham na^t porchaci. )3eruore kende tekjj ]?et me ssel our father and 

guod do to uader and to moder. and huo ]jet hit ne de]? : 

he is onkende. and zene3ej) a-ye kende / and a-ye god. 

Jjet hat to worjjssipie uader and moder / and peruore [Foi. bo. b.] 

hit is wel ri3t ])et hit misualle to him and to hare 

fet dej) harm uader ofer moder / ase hit is manye zijje 


Efterward me ssel ysy hou me ssel do elmesse / ^- Consider how 

'to give alms, and 

and jje manere his uor to yeuene. Vour co?idicions be the manner of 

. . n 1 • 1 1 • giving them. 

Jje writmge ssolle by me elmesse. }pe uerste is fet me i. Give giadiy and 
hise yeue gledHche and mid guod herte. uor god lokeji ^ ^^' 
more )?e herte : jjawne fe honden. Huerof saynt gre- 
gorie zayb. bet god ine his sacrement ne lokeb na3t hou God looketh not 

to the gift, but to 

grat ))ing me yeue / ac mid huet herte. ase hit ssewej) the heart of the 

wel in jje godspelle of fie poure wyfman J»et ne hedde 

bote tuaye uerjjinges Jiet hi ofFrede to fe te?«ple. Huerof 

oiu'e Ihord zayjj / jjet hi hedde more y-layd : ]ja??ne alle 

J»e ojire jjet hedden y-layd greate })inges. Vor more 

like}) ojierhuil to god an alfpeny })et a poure yefjj gled- ^'^^ ^^ is better 

liche uor god : l)a?me a riche man yeaue an hondred poor man's half- 
penny than the 
marc grochindehche and mid zor3e of herte. and }?ernore nch man's hun- 

zay j) j)e wyse ine jje writinge. ' make ' he zayj) ' uayre chiere ' 




There are some 
BO discourteous to 
the poor. 

that they accom- 
pany their alms 
with many twit- 
tings and up- 

2. Give thy alms 
soon and hastily. 

Say not to thy 
friend, "Go, and 
come again to- 

Make no delay, 
when thou hast 
it in thy power to 

" Nothing," says 
Seneca, "is so 
dearly bought 
as what one hath 
by delay." 

Give thy offerings 
to God whUe thou 

for death waiteth 
for none. 

Give thy alms 
for the love of 

and glede ine alle jjine yeffes.' And zaynte paul zuo 
zayj) ])et ' god louej) moche jjane yeuere fet is gled and 
corteys.' And zome Jjer bye]? zno uyleyne to Jje poure 
huawne hi ham yeuejj enye ehnesse / an haste his 
miszigge]) uoulliche / and his clepyej? truons / and ha??i 
ziggejj zno uele atnytinges / and of folyes er jjan hi ham 
a^t yeue / Jjet wel is worf Jjet zeluer. pe ilke ehnesse / 
ne payjj najt god. and Jjereuore zayJ) J)e wyse ine fe writ- 
inge. ' bou3 fin eare he zayJ) ' to Jie poure / wy]j-oiite 
zoi^e / and hijn ansuere mildehche.' 

J)e o))er fing j?et hehouejj ine ehnesse is. jjet me hit 
do zone and hasteUche. jjerof Salomon zayj). 'ne zay 
na3t to fine nrende / guo / and com ayen to mor^e / 
and Jjanne ich wylle fe yeue : huarene Jiou him rai^t an 
haste yeue.' And ine anojjre stede he zayf. ' ne leng 
na3t fine yeffe uram f e nyeduolle.' fet is to zigge / 
'ne make him na^t abyde : huawne fou mijt 
an haste yeue.' Jjet is aye uele riche / fet makef 
grede fe poure fet hebbef to done mid ham. and 
zuo moche his dof abide / zuo uele zife hit behouef 
ham bidde and bezeche / beuore er hi wyllef a3t do / 
fet to moche hy ham zellef j?e guodnesse fet hi 
ham willef do. Vor ase zayf senekes. ' N"o fing ne 
is zuo diere y-bo3t : ase fet me hejj be biddinge.' And 
jjis is fet me zayf ine atwytinge. ' Dyere ha bayf : fet 
byt.' And fous ssel ech man wel do zuyf [t]liche uor his 
zaule Jjerhuyle fet ha leuejj / and hoi. \)anne f e wyse 
zayf ine fe writinge. ' Vayre zone ' he zayf ' do guod of 
finen : yef fou best huerof. and offre to god worfi 
offringe ferhuyls fet fou leuest. Vor fe dyajj ne abyt 
na3t.' And ine anofre stede he zayjj. ' do guod to fine 
uriende : to-uore f e dyaf e.' f et is to fine zaide / to 
huam f ou sselt do guod to-uore fine dyaf e. of er to 
fine trewe urende / f et is lesu crist to huam f ou sselt 
guod do to-uore fine dyaf e / doinde ehnesses uor f e loue 
of lesu crist to his poure. Vor f et me def f e poure : 


me dep hit to him. ase he zajp me liis spelle. J5anne Uoi. ei. a.] 

J)e ebnesse pet me yefj) ine lyue / and ine heljje / more Aims given in 

' Ml -in T AT life-time are 

IS worjj : Jjawiie Jje like Jjet is y-do eiter pe deajje. Alsiio more worthy than 

ase pe lanterue jjet me berf be-uore pe ma/zne / him let death5"*"^ 

bet / and more zikerlaker / panne pe like jjet me berj) a lantem camed 

, , , 11, • before a man is 

beh}Tide pe regge. And feruore ous amonestejj samte better than one 

paul Jjet we do guod / Jjerhuyle jjet we libbe]?. H[ti]a?aie ^a^! 

a riche man ssel come to ane toune / ojjer to ane cite. 

he zent his messagyers be-uore ' uor to nime guod in. [i us. lo-uore] 

ojjer oferlaker he mi^te wel fayly : guod in uorto habbe. 

be guode forriers bet nimeb and agraybeb bet hous of Oir aims are our 

> ° ' I o Jr r r good forerunners, 

paradys to be riche manne : byeb be elmessen bet ha that prepare for 

^ -^ r J r r r usthehouseof 

dej? ine his Hue. J3e elmessen Jjet byejj y-do efter pe Paradise. 

dyajje : hjep ase pe hewe recreyd jjet late com]) hom. 

zuo jjet pe Ihord is oferhuil euele y-herberjed. 

Jpe jjridde condicion Jjet ssel by in elmesse is / pet 3- Give liberally. 

me ssel yeue largeliche be pan pet me hep huerof. pe 

^vJse zayp. 'yef to god / be pan pet he hep pe y-yeue.' iftbouhast 

And thobye zayp alsuo. ' be pine mi3te by reupeuol / abundantly ; 

and merciuol. Yef pou best moche guod : yef large- but if iittie, give 

liche. and yef pou hest lite : yef perof blepeliche / and teousiy. 

corteishche.' j)anne ech ssel yeue efter his nii3te / and "after his ^'^^ 

be pet /pet god him hep y-yeue. Me vint of ane Z^Mrg^vea 

kiuge. to huam a poure acsede ane peny. he hym "ty to one of his 

*-> ^ sr J u servants, who 

ansuerede / pet zuich a lite yefpe ne wes najt uor ane would refuse it 

. on account of 

king. And of ahsondre me ret. pet [he] yaf ane cite / to the greatness of 

onen of his sergons. an hua/me pe ilke hise wolde uor- The king said to 

zake. uor pet / grat ping hivi po^te / to nime zuych n^what improper 

yefpe. Ahsondre ansuerede and zayde. ' Ich ne loky but forme to *' 

na3t pet belongep pe to nimene : ac me to yeuene.' ^^^®-" 

J3e uerpe coredicion is / pet pe elmesse by y-do mid an^m^th^r^^f ' 

wille / and mid condicion. pet me ne zeche none ydele """'^■ 
blisse / ne pet me ne onworpi pe poure. to huam pet me 
hit yefp. ne uor elmesse pet me dep ine dyadHch zenne. 

me heb presumpcion uor to by y-borae. Zom uolk per some folks give 

r i^ ^ J J 7 I alms and desire 

byep / pet yef hy dop elmesse : hi willep pet alle hit that au should 
13 * 



hear of tlieir 

Christ hath com- 
manded us to 
give our alms 
secretly and 
without ostenta- 

Good works may 
be done before 
the folk, for good 
example's sake. 

so that God may 
be glorified. 

The alms-giver 
must not despise 

[Fol. 61. b.] 
the poor reci- 

Some folk despise 

the poor, 

and speak largely 

and proudly to 


[a tokne \>et iob 
wes king.] 
Job was not 
ashamed of poor 

The fellowship of 
the poor 

wyte. Ac fe wyse zayjj / jjet me do jje ebnesse iii-to 
jje greade of pe poiire. Vor ase zayjj saynt gregorie. 
* liit is y-no3 to pe guode mamie / fet yef lie hit zent / of 
liuam lie onderstaiit his ssejie to habbe.' And jjeruore 
zayj) oure lliord ine liis spelle. ' Hua?2ne ]30u dest ehnesse. 
ne "wyte iia^t J>i left hand : huet dej? pi ri^t hand, zuo 
jjet J?in ehnesse by y-hed. and fi uader of heiiene Jjet 
izy3t jjinhedinge : hit pe halt.' J5et is to zigge. panne 
Jjou sselt do ehnesse : loke J)et ydele blisse. ]jet is to 
onderstonde be jje left half, ne by najt y-mengd. Ac 
do his in ri3te wone / and ri^te onderstondinge. Jjet is 
onderstonde by jje ri3t half. Ich ne zigge na3t pet me 
ne ssel do pe guode workes ojjerhuil to-uore pe uolke / 
uor to yene guode uorbysne / hueruore god by yhered : 
and y-]3onked. Vor ]?us him zayjj oure lliord ine his 
spelle. Jjet we maki oure guode dedes to-uore pe uol- 
kerede / jjeruore Jiet god by y-hered and y-glorefied na3t 
uor pe los of uolke ase dejj pe ypoc/'ite. and jjeruore 
zay]) saint gregorie / Jjet me do his Avorkes aperteHche / 
jjet pe onderstondinge bi ri3tuol bezide. 

Efterward huo jjet wyle do elmesse / he hit ssel zuo 
do / Jiet he na3t ne onwor])i Jje poure to hnam jjet he 
hit dejj. )peruore zayj) jie profete. ' ]^e onworjje na3t ' he 
zayj) ' j)i uless. fiet is pe poure j>et is ilich pe J and of 
zuiche keiide of uless and of blod ase fiou art. and of 
zuiche wose.' Zom uolk byej) jjet onworjjejj jje poure / 
and ne daynejj na3[t] to speke to ham. and yef hispekej) : 
gratliche and proudhche hi si^ekej). Zuo ne dede na3t 
iob / jjet zede / jjet [he] ne onworjjede neure J3e guoinde / 
vor jjet hi weren naked, ac rajjre ham yaf clojjinge / 
and mete and drinke. Jpe holi man pa^ he were king / 
and he3 man / ne hedde none ssame of pe poure / ase 
doj) zome greate lliordes of fise wordle. pet wel doj) 
elmesse to poure / ac alnewayhis habeji ine onwor[j3]nesse 
uor hare pourehede. And yef hi weren ri3tuolliclie 
milde ; hi ssolden betere louie jie uela3rede of poure 


men/ Jjet byejj poure uor god. Jset hise mo3e wel edefie is often to be 
be uorbisnes and be wordes / pet of manie ricbe men hi of richmen.'^^' 
habbe]? aboiite ham / hner jjer ne is bote covay[ti]se / 
ulaterie / yelpinge / ^and ham makejj lete moche wel to 
done / and make)) ham moche kuead to done / be hare 
euele rede. 

EftejTvard fer bye]) som uolk pet do]? yno^ elmesse / some folk give 

1 1 . 1 , , , , T 1 enough alms, and 

ac alnewey hi ne lete j) na3t to done hare greate ze?ine. yet forsake not 

J?e ilke elmesse ne ssel his na3t ber3e. Yor yef hi sinsr^'^^^'"^"^^ 

steruej) ine zuich stat : hire elmesse ne ssel ham na3t Aims alone win 

Av^^tie / j)et hi ne ssolle by uor-lore. panne zuich uolk ^° ^^^^ " ™^' 

byej) ase Jje ilke J)et of one half make]) jjet hous / and 

of o])er half he hit brekj). And feruore zajp pe writ- 

inge. 'Yef J)ou wilt kueme god : haue uerst reuj)e / if thou wiit please 

1 •/!?.• ^ 1 •■,-,■, (^od, have first 

and nierci / ot fine zaule. uor huo j)et is kuead and mercy upon thy 

ontrewe to him : to huam ssel he bi guod and trewe V ""^^ ^°"'' 

z&jp pe writiage : ase yef he zede. [he] ne may na3t ^ by [i ms. n<i\>q 

guod and trewe to ofren : fet to hi??z-zelue is kuead. 

And J)eruore saint austia zayj?. ' Huo |)et wile ri3tuol- Let aims be pre- 

liche do elmesse : he ssel beuore agiwne at lii?7izelue. ^^^f ^^ ""^p^"'" 

uor he ssel more louie his 03ene zaule : J)a?2ne anofres : 

uor god.' I^on ne wolde zigge ])et yef he were reuJ)euol / 

and uol of merci / jjet ne ssolde habbe reuj)e of his 

moder poure and zik. hou moche he hedde reufe of 

ojjren. Alzuo ich zigge / pe ilke Jjet ne is na3t reufeuol He is not merci- 

ne uol of merci / J)et ne he]) pite of his zaule : hua?2ne pity on his own 

he wot ])et hi is zik to pe dyafe / ])et is ine dyadlich S Jeath! ""^ 


'Nou ich habbe pe y-no3 y-ssewed of pe trawe of 
merci. pe stapes, pe bo3es. and ])et frut. fet com]) ine 
fise wordle / and ine pe o])re. of pe frut of fise trawe 
ous spek]) daui]) ri3t wel ine pe sautere / pev he zajp 
])Ous. 'yblyssed bye]) ])o ])et ham yeue]) to >e poure / b,,,^,^ i,^ ^^^^^ 
and to pe nieduolle.' ])et is to zigge : bet ne abit naat : that give to the 

, poor and needful, 

al-wet pe poure him bit / ac Ta])re hmi yeip wy])-oute without delay, 
aksinge. Yor me wes ywoned to zigge / and zoji hit cUatfon. °" 



is. fet to mo[c]he bay]? / pet hjt. Ne \>e ilke ne lie]) 
herte to yetieiie : pet ne yefp er me acsi. pe like- dep 
wel pet yefp to pe poure pet acsep. ac he dep bet : pet 
yefp wypoiite aksinge. And of pan zayp pe sauter. 
'Y-blissed is pe ilke pet onderstant to pe poiire.' and 
Imeruore is he y-blissed 1 he zayp efte?'ward ine pe illce 
ners. pet god him wyle delinri in pe kueade daies of his 
livered fi-om his y^^Q_ i,g^ gggi \,{ 9,^6 dayo of doniB bet ssel by hard and 

foes at the day of - ' '' , i / . 

doom. knead to pe wickede / pet ssolle by y-damned / nor pe 

workes of merci / pet hi ne habbep na3t ydo. Jjawne 
pe demere ssel ham zigge at po daye. 'guop ye' acorsede / 
in-to pe nere of helle / mid alle pe dyenlen / pet yon is 
y-di3t nram pe ginnynge of pe wordle. Vor ich hedde 
honger / and porst / ye ne me yeaue mete / ne drinke / 
ich wes zik / pon ne come na3t to me.' And ptis he 
ssel ham attwyte : pe workes of merci / pet hi na3t 
and shau be given habbep y-do. and pernore hi ssolle bi betake at po 
daye : to hare ynon. pet byep pe dyeulen of helle. Of 
hnam pe rewpenoUe / and po pet dop ham to pe poure / 
and to pe workes of merci. ssoUe bi betake at po daye / 
and ssolle by do in-to sayzine of pe riche of heuene / ase 
zayp oure Ihord ine his spelle. Vor he ssel zigge to pan 
pet habbep y-do pe workes of merci/ 'comep pe' yblissede 
of mine nader / ondernongep pe riche of henene / pet 
is to you y-dy3t / nram pe ginynge of pe wordle. Vor 
pet ye habbep y-do to mine poure : ye hit habep me y- 
do.' Grat worpssipe god ham ssel do / pawne he ham 
ponkep / of pe workes of merci. and he ham ssel y[e]ue : 
pet lyf wyp-oute ende. And pernore he zayp ine his 
spelle. ' YbHssed byep pe merciuolle : nor hi ssolle 
habbe merci.' wot pet hi habbep ylengd / pet lyf of pe 
poure be hare ehnesse. Wel hit is ri3t / and skele / pet 
god ham yeue pet lyf wyp-oute ende / pet is / and ssel 
by wyp-oute ende. and pernore pet hi habbep y-het 
reupe / of lesu cnstes lemes ine pe erpe / and liise 
habbep y-loked / and y-conforted ine hare nyede. Hit 

[Fol. 62. a.] 

The mei'ciful 
shall be blessed, 

and shall be de- 

The unmerciful 
shall be cursed 
[1 MS. J>e] 
and driven from 
God's presence. 

over to their foes, 
the devils. 

The merciful 
shall inherit the 
kingdom of hea- 

[1 MS. J?e] 

and for their alms 
shall obtain 

They shall have 
everlasting life. 


is wel skele Jjet me do ham ate ends merci / and fet me 
his dehuri of alle kueadnesse / of alle nyede. and ]jet and Christ shaii 
ssel he do / hua7me he ssel yexie pe bHsse eurelestinde / for ever, 
mid merci his let uorjj / and his ssel herber^i. 


, standing, and of 

CHASTETE. the virtue of 

Holy Writ ous tekj? / tuo maneres of Hues, huerhy Thwe are two 
me com]) to jje Hue wyjj-oute ende. )5e uerste is yhote "hereby one' 
workuol [actiue] / uor jjet hi is ine zuynch of guode i°f™t'ithout'end 
workes / and makeb man onderstonde to be profit of "^^^ ^^^^ '^ ^^^^"^ 

' ' '^ — a life of good 

him-zelue / and of his emcWsten. J3e ojjer is y-hote works. 

,ir, i-T 1 • • in 1 "^^^ second is 

resteuol [cowtemplatiuej. uor Jjet m is reste / of workes contemplative— 

"wyJj-oute / and ne dej) him u&^t bote to god uor to the soui seeks to 

knawe / and louie. hueruore hy his ydel of nyedes aiidTo°forget°aii 

wy]j-oute / and ase aslepe. Ac hi is awaked wyfine to *'^''' 

Jjenche of god / and him louie / and na3t ne wylni : 

bote \n.m to habbe / and uor him / alle ojjre Jjinges / 

dejj ine uoryeti?2ge. Vor hi is of al y-robbed / and y- and desires to be 

, , , , 111 separated from 

pi^t me god. and wylnejj uor to by to-deld uxam fe the moi-tai body, 
dyadHche bodye : uor to by alneway mid lesu crzst / christ. 
ase zai]? zainte paul. 

)?e uerste Hf is ine Jje vi3tinge / ine fe uelde of The first life is in 
guode workes / huer Jje knyjt Hernef / ham proue|) / ceidofgood 
and alosejj. }je ofer his reste wyjj god ine Ipe chombre of [Foi. 62. b.] 
clene inwyt. }?e uerste onderstant to uede god / mid with God'^in the* 
be mete of guode workes. be ober onderstant to by chamber of a pure 

I <-' 'I •} conscience. 

yued / and yueld of god be zojje conioxi gostlich. Jjawne 

be uerste is be-tokned be marben / bet wes bisy uor to Martha is a type 

■» -"^ ' •• *^ of the first life, 

uede oure Ihord / ase zayjj |jet godspel. Jje ojjer is be- and Mary of the 
tokned be Marie / Jjet hire zette ate uet of lesu c?'2st / 
and Iheste his wordes. ))e uerste is way / and inguo- 
inge' to pe ojjren. Yor non ne may come to ]je Hue 
restuolle : bote he by uerst wel y-proved ine Hue by- 
zye / ase zayj) sain gregorie. |?e yefjjes / and Jje u/rtues 
huerof we habbej) y-speke aboue be-longejj / to Jje uerste 
Hue Jjet is ycleped workuol. Jpe tuo laste huerof we 



The gift of under- 
standing and wis- 
dom belongeth to 
the life contem- 

To this life belong 
also a right 
knowledge of 
God and a stedfast 

The gift of under- 
standing given 
by the Holy 

is a light and a 
grace of bright- 
ness which en- 
ables man to 
know his Maker, 

and those spirit- 
ual matters per- 
tauiing to the 
help of the soul. 

This gift is called 
Ught, for it 
cleanseth the 
understanding of 
the darkness of 
pride and of 
spots of sin, 

and enables man 
to know clearly 
and surely God 
his Creator, 

The sick eye may 
not see clearly, 
neither may 
man's under- 
standing perceive 
spiritual truths 
without being 
first purified by 
the Divine light. 

ssolle speke mid ])e helpe of gode and of jje lioly gost. 
Jjet is to wytene / fe yefffe of onderstondinge / and pe 
yefjje of wisdom : belonge]? to jje ojjre line Jjet is y-hote 
restuoL Jpet lif is ine tuo jjinges / ase we halbtej) atoue 
y-zed. j)et is to wytene / ine ri3te knawlechinge of god / 
and ine stedeueste loue. Jje loue of onderstondinge leth. 
to stedeuestnesse of ri3te knaulechinge. Jpe yefjje of 
wysdom / leth to stedeuestnesse of loue. 

Nou we willejj zigge uerst of jje yefjje of onder- 
stondinge / be ]jan jjet Jje holy gost wile ous teche. j)es 
yefjje jjet is y-hote yefj^e of onderstondinge / ne is ojjer 
fing / be jje hal3en / and bi jje maistres / bote a ly3t 
and a grace of bri3tnesse / pet j)e holy gost zent in-to 
\)e herte / huerby onderstondinge of man is arered iior 
to knawe Ms sseppere / and Jje gostHche Jjinges fet ne 
mo3e na3t by y-zo3e bodilich ine alle Tpe ])inges pet be- 
longejj to ))e helpe of zaule. mid skele kendehch ne on- 
derstondinge of man of him / ne uor him / ne may 
come. J?es god is y-cleped ly3t. Vor he clenzej? pe 
onderstondinge of man / of Jjiesternesse of prede / and 
of spottes of zenne. Vor ase pet li3t bodilich dep away 
piesternesse and makep bri3tliche izy pe pinges bodihch : 
alsuo pis h3t gostlich clenzep pe onderstondinge of 
man / al to pan pet he mo3e bri3tliche ysy / and pet he 
mo3e knawe bri3tHche and zikerliche / ase me may y- 
knawe ine pise dyeadliche line god his sseppere / 
and pe sseppinges gosthche / ase biep pe angles / and pe 
zaulen. pet belongep to pe helpe of zaules. ase byep pe 
articles of pe beleaue / huerof we habbep beuore y- 
speke ine ane stede be him-zelue. Jpis knawynge nis 
bote in inwyt wel yuayred / and wel yclenzed. Vor 
ase pe zike e3e ne may na3t wel yzi bri3tnesse. alsuo pe 
onderstondinge of man ase moche ase in him is / ne 
may ysy / ne knawe pe pinges gostliche / bote he by 
wel yclenzed / of alle lac of uelpe / be zope byleaue / 
pet clenzep pe herten / ase zayp pe writinge. Ac pe 


yefbe of be holv gost / huerof we spekeb bier / iiol- 

1 . ",1/1.1 • 1 X / J The Holy Ghost 

niakejj jjise uayrhede / and Jjise cie/messe me lierte / to enlightens the 

jjet his lioly zaule / fet is y-clenzed / and ali^t / mid 

jjise li^te of onderstondinge : nii3te ysy and knawe 

god / and al Jjet lii?/i is niede / and guod to liis ybor^- 

inge / and jjet is Jje blissinge / huerof god spekjj ine 

his spelle / jjo he zede. 'yblissed byej) po : jjet byejj The clean of 

1 I' T j_ I 1 • n 1- 1- 1 heart shall see 

clene oi herte / uor hi ssoile ysy god ine hiw-zelue ase God as He is, by 

he is be byleaue alyjte / and y-strengjjed be pe yef]?e the gift of"under- 

of ondersto/indinge.' Vorzojje efter Jje dyeajje / iae ^''''''^'"s- 
paradis hi ssollen yzy him / al aperteliche / wizage / [Fqi. gs. a.] 
to visage. 

J3a?me zayjj zaynte paul. fis yefjje dejj away alle This gift puts 

ueljje of herte / and hire clenze]) parfitHche of alle the heart, but 
lackes / and specialliche of jje lacke of pe zenne of 

lecherie. Vor huo jjet is be-ueld mid po lac : he is For who is defiled 

1T111 /IT 1 PI with this sin has 

ri3tuoliiche yblent / and he J? ylore J»e e3en of Jje herte / lost the eyes of 

skele and onderstondinge / zuo pet he ne may'y-knawe 

his sseppere / ne Jjinges jjet wende]) to pe heljje of 

zaule. Ac is ase best fet ne hej) wyt ne skele ine him. 

panne dauij) zayj) ine pe sautere. fet man to huam Jjet 

god hej) y-do zuo grat worjjssipe j)et liine made to his 

ymage and to his anliknesse huerby he may y-knawe 

god and habbe / J)et he ne he]) y-do none beste : heb and is no better 

than a beast. 

ZUO uoryete his sseppere / an pe guodnesse Jset he hej) 
lii?^ y-do / j)et he is become ilich to fole bestes / ])et 
lie habbej) none onderstondinge. jje ze?me bet mest Lechery makes a 

man like to foul 

make]) man uich to uoule bestes / and to uel])e : is beasts. 

zenne of lecherie. huerof we habbej) be-uore y-zed jier 

we speke of ze?ine. be yefjje hanne of onderstondinge / Thegiftofunder- 

" > ' o / standing strips 

])et is of evpe speciaUiche / to bo uel])e bestrepb of be the heart of this 


herte pe zenne of lecherie / an he tekj) uayrhede and 
cle^nesse / huerof wext a wel uayr traw. jiet is pe 
uirtne of chastete / huerby me com]) to jio greate 
blissinge })et god be-hat to ])an jjet lokej) clennesse of 
lierte : huawne he zede. ' ybHssed hi by pe dene of ?'«ssed are the 



pure of heart, herte uor M ssolle yzy god.' uor bet hi ssolle habbe be 

for they shall see j j a i i 

God. e^en of herte wel yclenzed and wel ali3t of fe yefjje of 


Of the seven steps 
of chastity. 

I. A clean con- 

Without an un- 
defiled mind 
there is no chas- 
tity pleasing to 

He who consents 
to evil thoughts 
is not chaste, 
though he be 
far from the 

Three things tend 
to produce purity 
of lieart. 
The first is to 
hear joyfully the 
word of God. 

The second is 
true shrift, wliich 
is the laver in 
which one shall 
oft wash. 

Bear in mind the 
story of Naaman's 
washing in Jor- 
dan seven times. 

Jordan signifies 
the stream of 
judgment, and 
betokens slirift, 
in which man 
shall judge him- 
self with great 
sorrow of heart, 
and repentance, 
so that a stream 
of tears run from 
his eyes. 

Of )5e zeue stapes of chastete. 

)?ys traw wext and profitej) / and clifjj ase dof fe 
ojjre to-uore yzed / be zeue stapes. Jje nerste stape is 
clene inwyt / Jiet is fe rote of ])ise trawe uor wy])-oute 
clene inwyt : no chastete ne lykef to god. J?is chastete / 
Jjis clewnesse / J?is purte / acsej) fet me loki ])e herte 
uram euele J503tes / Jjet hi na3t ne coTzsenti / and of 
kuede wiku[n]gges. Vor hue fet him consentejj to kueade 
wylles / and to Jje kueade ]303tes of his herte : he ne is 
na^t chast. jja^ he by uer uram jje dede. uor be pe 
cowsentinge wyjj-oute more : he ssolde by uorlore yef 
he sterf ferinne. 

)pri finges moche byej) wor}? to loki J?e cle^inesse of 
herte. J?e uerste is / blefeHche y-hyere J)e wordes of 
god / and his spelles. Huerof oure^lliord zayjj ine his 
spelle/to his deciples. 'ye byejj' he zayf 'alle clene /be 
fe wordes fiet ich you habbe yzed.' Yor godes word is 
ase a uayr ssewere / ine huam me yzi3t alle J?e lakkes of 
\q herte. Jjet ojjer Jjing is zojje ssrifte Jjet is J»et lauor / 
huer he hi?w ssel ofte wesse. )pe writinge zayj) ine fe 
bok of kinges. fet elyseu fe profete het to naaman ])et 
wes mezel / fet he him wesse ine Jie flom Jordan zeue- 
zi])e uor to by clene of his euele. And jjo he jjer wes 
ywesse : \o wes he al klene and al hoi of his euele. Jje 
flum iordan Jjet is ase moche wor]) : ase stream of dom / 
and be-toknejj ssrifte. huer man ssel hi??i-zelue deme 
mid greate zorje' of herte / and mid greate repentonce / 
ziio Jjet stream of tyeares : yerne be ]?e cowdut of J)e 
e^en. and zuo fe mezel ssel bi al hoi and clene. Jjet is 
Jje zene3ere / yef he him Avesst zeuezyjje / Jjet is to 

' MS. zor\>e 


zigge / of alle his zennes. And Jjeruore zayjj saynt 
bemard. ' loue ssrifte : yef fou wilt habbe uayrhede. 
Vor ssrifte ne is na^t Avyjj-oute uayrhede.' 

Jpet bridde jjing is / bejjencliinge of lesu cmtes The third thing 

is a remembrance 

pine. Vor no uondinge / none euele J)03tes ne mo^e of Christ's pas- 

bleue ine herte : jjet ofte recorde]) Jjane dyajj and jje 

pine of lesu cr/st. Vor bet is he armure jjet be dyeuel for that is the 

ai-mour most 

diet mest ase jje iike be huam he wes ouercome / and dreaded by the 

be huam he lyeas his nii3te. J?et is ous betokned in fe 

writinge of be eddre of bres bet Moyses be be heste of This is betokened 

in the Scriptures 

oure lliorde arerede ope Jje pole zuo he^e : )5et al ]jet uolk by the adder of 

hise yzej. And alle J)0 pet his yze3e : weren y-held of 

jje prekiynges of fe eddren. j)e eddre of bres arered 

ine Jje pole : be-toknejj fet body of lesu cnst y-hanged The adder denotes 

ine Jje rode. j)et wes ]je eddre wy})-oute uenym huerof Christ. 

wes y-mad fe triacle of oure helpe / to ham fet byejj 

y-smite / and enuenimed of fe prekyinges of jje uenim- 

ous eddrei of helle / J)et i^ >e djuel Loke be zo>e j^^l^^^^'lt 

belyaue ine fe eddre of bres. pet ys to zigge / fet he se"en*thaur" 

benche of be pinen of lesu cnst and anhaste he ssel *° "^^^^^ ^^^ ^^' 

' sion of Christ. 

by hoi / and by y-uryd of jje uondinges of J3e 

J3e ober stape huerby bis traw clyfb and profiteb. n. Keep the 

f •'•^ '' '^ rr mouth from foul 

IS to loki jjane mouj) uram uoule wordes / Jjet wendeji words, 
to ribaudye and to onclewnesse. uor be zuych blest and which oft 

. . kindle the fire 

be zuych wynd : is ofte aquyked Jjet uer of lecherie. of lechery. 

Huerof jje writi??ge spekj). fet 'word of fole wyfman / 

is berninde ase uer.' An zaynte paul bus zayb. bet 'be Evil words of 

11 1 r r ^ n i J T fgyj ^gmen mar 

Kueade wordes ot lole wyTiae?i : amerrej) guode Jjeawes. good v-irtues. 

And feruore huo ]>et wyle loki chastete : hit behouejj 

fet he him loki uram zuyche wordes. Vor huo bet Hewhowiiisay 

' and listen to fold 

ble[J)e]liche hise zayjj / oj?er blebeUche his yherb : he ^or^s is not 

7 1 , i 1 . •■ chaste. 

ssewejj wel ])et he ne is na3t chast. Vor jjer ne may 

go oute of ]je uete : bote zuych ase fer is inne. Yef ]je "^*;^fg^°'''^' ^': 

wordes byeb uoule and lodliche / bet is apert tokne bet ^'s'l "^at there 

, nil,,, ^ is filth in the 

po uoumede and Jje lodhchhede bye)) ine fe herte. Vor iieart. 



be J3e moclielliede of Jje herte : Jje moiij) spekjj. pet 
zayj? our Uiord ine liis spelle. 
III. Guard all the j)e biiclde stape is wel to loki alle be wyttes of be 

wits of the body — 

the eye from foul bodje / ase jje 63611 urani fol zy3jje. pe earen / to liyere 


the ear from foul fole wordes. Jje lioiiden ura[in] wyckede takinges. j>e 
the hands from i^SLse i uram to luoche lostiioUe smelles. jjane niouj) 
wicked handimg, ^^pam to lostuolls metes / and ine gnode smackes. jjise 

These are the 
five gates of the 

"'if "'.''^'j^®'''''' gejj in ofte ine pe vif Jjerles of pe house / huerby pe 

devil oft goeth 
into the heart. 

bye]) Jje vif gates of pe cite of pe herte / huerby pe dieuel 

dyeuel ofte gef in-to Jje herte / ase zayjj pe profete. 
Vele guode men and stronge habbejj by y-nome and 
ouercome / be pan pet hi ne lokede najt wel Jjise gates. 
And yef jjou "wylt habbe uorbisnes : pench pet non ne 
Samson, David, wes strenger pajme sanison fortin. ne wiser panne 

and Solomon were , ., , i • i t i 

overcome through salomon. ne niore niiider pamie dauid. and alneway 
thesegates"^ uillen be wyfuieu. Ac uorzope yef hy hedden wel 
yenid pe gates : pe uyend ne hedde na^t ynome zuo 
st Gregory says, greate casteles. Vor ase zayj) saint gregorie. ' pe tour of 
heart may not be P^ herte ne may na^t by nome bote pe gates by opene 
gaterbTopTnto *° f^ °^^ *^^ P^ dyeule.' Huerof yealde filozofes hem 

the devil's host.' 

[ Fol. 64. a.] 

Philosophers of 
old fled into 
deserts to pre- 
serve their chas- 

The bodily wits 
are as a horse 
without a bridle, 

but a chaste 
lieai't restrains 
them with the 
bridle of reason. 

IV. Let the flesh 
be governed by 
the spirit. 

The lusts and 
pleasures of the 
heart mar chas- 

uledden in-to uerre stedes in-to dezert. peruore pet hi 
ne mi3ten yzy / ne yhere / ne uele / ping huerby pe 
strengpe of hire workes uledde away / ne huerby hi 
ssolden lyese hire chastete. J?e opre peruore pet hi nere 
ine zewne to penche of filozofie / hy presten out hare 
e3en of pe herte / pet hi ne ze3en ping pet ham mi3te 
wypdra3e uram hire cojztemplacion. )5a?2ne pe bodiliche 
wyttes byep ase pet hors pet yernp -wT^p-oute bridle ziio 
pet hit dep ualle liis Ihord. Ac pe herte chaste / ham 
ofhalt mid pe bridle of skele. IS'ou ich habbe pe yzed 
pane skele. 

j)e uerpe stape is ssarpnesse of Hue to do his uless 
onderuot pet is wrang to pe goste / ase zayp zaynte 
paul. Vor huo pet wile quenche pet uer of lecherie : 
he mot do away pe ali3tynges pet norissep zuych ver. 
pet biep pe lostes and pe eyses of pe herte / pot bernep 


and ali^tej) pet uer of lecherie / and anierrej) chastete. 
Jjawne saint bernard jjous zayjj / fet chastete sjDilj) ^be Jeremiah's girdle 
lostes. J5e wxitinge zayjj / pet leremies brechgerdel / len'besirthr'' 
rotede bezide Jje wetere. Vor chastete / >et is onder- S'tefcukstity, 
stonde / and betokned be be brechgerdle : bet uor- which is marred 

' •> o * by foul lusts ; 

rotede / ine pe wetere of uoule lostes. And Jjeruore / and therefore we 

huo jjet wyle him loki iiram berninge : he ssel do a- ^"ay.'tTfesting, 

way Jje ilk brondes / be wyj)dra3inges of mete / and of ^"-i ^^ P'^"^nc«-' 
drinke / and be ssarpnesses of his bodie. Huer-of Jje 

writinge zayjj. Jjet pe children Jjet weren y-norissed The children who 

mid greate metes / nolden na^t ethe of jje lostuolle -"ustfurmTat?- 

metes / weren y-bor3e ine fe fornayse of babyloyne. ::uhe'furnIcfof 

huerby is onderstonde : ze?ine of lecherie / Jjet is ^''^^lo"- 
yquenct mid uorberinge of mete and of drinke / and be 

ssarpnesse of lyne. Ac pe greate metes / and ))et Great meats 

stronge wyn / alijtejj and norissej) lecherie / ase oyle asTiror grJasT 

ojjer grese ali3tej3 and st[r]engjie]) fet uer. "^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^'^^' 

pe vifte stape is be-uly kueade ■uela3rede and pe v. Avoid the fei- 

enchesons of ze?ine. Moche uolk byef y-ualle ine vrilked^" 
zewne be kueade uela3rede jjet na3t elles ne hedden 

yualle. Ase pe leuayne zoureb bet do3 and hit dra^b to for it mars a 

^ man's good fame. 

smac ; alsuo Jje queade uela3rede amerjj jjet guode los 

of pe mawne. A roted eppel amang jje holen : make)) a rotten apple 

rotie pe yzounde. yef he is longe per amang. A quic mliyind^'*''' 

col bernirade ope ane hyeape of dyade coles : hit his °"®^- 

zet alle auer. Huerof pe sauter zayf. ' jpou sselt by holy 

mid pe holy, and poui-e mid pe poure. ' ase yef he zede. 

ye f pon wilt loki fine kle?^nesse and fine chastete : 

beuH pe uela3rede of fe kueade. Vor yef fou louest pe ifthouiovest the 

uela3rede of pe queade : jjou sselt by zuych ase hi byef. w^XdThou shait 

Vor huo J5et louef uela3rede of fol : hit behouejj Jjet he J^^^"'''^ ''^ ^^^^y 

by fol. jjet zayj) pe wyse ine be writinge. Alsuo be- ^''"^^ ''^e very 

. . appearance of 

houej) hitn beuly pe encheysones of ze?ine / ase speke evii, and go not 

1 . I , „ . into temptation. 

j)riueucne to wylman m stede suspecton : wyj) one. 
Vor j)et yefj) ofte encheysoun to zene3y hua?ine me he|? 
fane time and fane stede. Huer-of we redef ine f e boc 



The story of 
Amon, king 
David's son. 

Avoid those things 
that lead to 

[Tol. 64. b.] 

Lot was com- 
manded not only 
to leave Sodom, 
but all its 

So one must for- 
sake lechery, and 
the temptation 
leading to it. 
The moth flieth 
about the candle 
until it is burnt. 

VI. Be occupied 
with good and 
honest works. 

The devil tempt- 
eth the idle man. 
Idleness is the 
mistress of much 
[' steppe P] 

<' Wherefore," 
says St Jerome, 
"let the devil al- 
ways find thee 

Sodom fell into 
sin through pride, 
idleness, and 

of kinges. jjet amon jjet wes dauij) is zone : huawne 
he hild his zoster / on : to one / pnueliche ine his 
chombre / he hise uorlay. Josepes Iheuedy jjo hy nand 
alone him j hi wolde do him zene3i mid hire, ac he hi?/i 
nledde / ase wys / and hise uorlet. )?eruore zayjj zainte 
paul. heuly fornicacion. Jjet is to zigge / jje encheysons 
j)et moje lede to zerene of lecherie. Vor me ne may 
na3t betere ouercome ze?zne of lecherie / ne loki 
chastete : fawne to by-nly fe encheysones of ze?^ne. 
)?eruore jje angle zede to lot / fet he ssolde guo out of 
j?e cite of sodomme / and alle fe boundes. Vor hit ne 
is na^t yno3 to lete J?e kueade uela^rede ne ]je z&nnQ : 
bote he ne lete Jje markes of zenne. J?et is to zigge : 
fe encheisons of zewne. Me couJ?e zigge. zuo longe gejj 
])et pot to jje Avetere : jjet hit com]) to-broke hom. and 
zuo long uli3jj J)e ulindre aboute jje candle : Jjet hi 
bernj). Alsuo me may zuo moche zeche fe enchesouns 
of zenne / Jjet me ualjj. J?a??,ne huo J)et wyle him loki / 
uram berninge he ssel him wyj)dra3e. 

])Q zixte stape is / to by ine nyedes of guode workes 
and oneste. Vor Jje uyend Jjet neure ne / slepjj / 
hua?me he uint man ydel and sleawol guod uor to done / 
he him dejj ine his niedes / and dejj hi?^ ste?7?pe ' H3tHche 
in-to zewne. )3a?ine Jje writinge zayj) / Jjet idelnesse / 
J)et is to zigge / sleujje and onlosthede wel to done / is 
maystresse of moche quead. And Jieruore zayjj zaynte 
paul. 'I^e yef na3t' zayJj he 'stede to Jje viende.' J?et is 
to zigge : ne by na3t ydel / J)et Jie uiend ne uinde stede 
Jje uor to uondi. Vor he is ydel of guod workes : Jjet 
yefjj stede to Jje zaule hire uor to uondi. Jjeruore zayJj 
sai?«t gerome. ' Do alneway zome Jjinges of zome guode 
workes / zuo Jjet Jie dyeuel Jje uynde alneway workinde. 
uor huo Jiet is ydel / he him ne may na3t longe hyalde 
Jjet he ne ualle in-to zemie.' J?a?2ne Jie profete zayj». uor 
Jiet wes J)e zewne of sodome / Jjet prede. ydelnesse. and 
plente. Jjet is to zigge / Jjet hi ethen /and uorzuol3e / 


and na3t ne dede. hiier-by hy uillen in-to jje uoule 

zenne ]?et na3t ne is to nemni. alsuo de]) moche \iolc Much folk lose 

Jjet lyesej) hare tinte / and Mne bezette}) ine ydelnesse / nggg^ in'^eTts, 

and ine to moche of metes an drinkes / and ine fole ^"S/^lf''''' 

pieces, ine childhedes / ine lijthedes / ine zonges / ine |fj^'^y> ^^°'^°f^' 

karoles / and ine tables / in ches / and ine obre fole ^iiess, and other 

' III fQuj games, 

gemenes. Ine znyche ' li3thedes waste jj hare time, and and so fau into 
Jjeruore hi uaUeJj li3[t]liche ine moche uonl zerene / and 
ofte in-to Jie pette of helle. fet is ate pricke of pe 
dyajje / huerof he ^ ne nimjj none hede. [ ' hi .?] 

Jje zeuende stape is guode benes to god / Jiet moche vii. Ofifer good 

, , n / n T 1 n prayers to God. 

is worp to ouercome alie zenne / and nanieliche ze?me oi 

lecherie. J5a?me saynt ambroyse zayj?. ' holy bene is a 

guod sseld / a-ye alle Jje berninde gauelockes of j)e 

dyeule.' and ysidre zayf. Jjet / jjet his remedie aye alle Holy prayer is a 

zenne. to him jjet yernjj to holy benes / an haste fgainst lust. 

huanne be vyend asayleb be herte. Vor wone to bidde : ^' '^ powerful 

' "^ J r r before God, for it 

aquencb alle be asaylinges of ze?me. Holy bene is wel is shored with 

■* four things, as 

mi3[t]uol auoreyegod. uor hi is y-ssored / mid uour jjinges with four posts, 
ase mid uour poss[t]es. 

J5e nerste is ri3te beleaue huer-of zayb oure Ihord ine i- The first is 

1 • n T 1 -1 trueheUef. 

his spelle. ' In al fet jjou acsest me jjine benes / haue Have a good 

guode beleaue / and uest hope ine god : and Jjou sselt andthy prayere 

habbe / fet Jjou acsest.' Saint Jacob zayJ?. Jjet me acsy ^ ^ answere . 

to god / ueste bileue / wyf-oute drede. uor huo ]?et He who is with- 

1,1. , J, , I ■, i_ , 11 i 1 • 1 out faith is as the 

dret : he is ase pe ■wa3e oi pe ze / pet pe wynd let hider wave of the sea, 

and Jjider. And Jjeruore he fet gej) 'yerninde / and ^^^^ ^^ ^ 

talyinde / ne Jjengf na3t aye god. )?e oJ>er jjing fet [Foi. es. a.] 

ssel by ine bene is hope uor to habbe jjet me byt. 

Huer-of fe sauter zayJ). haue guode hope ine god / and 2. Have good 

he fe wile do jjet Jjou liim acsest. And Jjeruore zede he thou askest for. 

ine ane ojjre stede. * Lord haue merci of me : uor min 

herte hopeJ> ine Jje.' Grat hope ous yefjj him uor to 

bidde / zuo Jjet he ne zayde na^t / ine behotingge / Jjo 

he zede ine Jje godspelle. ' huo Jiet acsej) : he nimj». and 

huo Jjet zekjj : he vint. and huo J)et clepeji : god hi?7i 


Ask wisely, diii- openeb.' bet is to onderstonde / hue bet acseb / wj'sliche. 

gently, and perse- 

veringiy, liuo ))et zecj) / diligentliclie. and liuo J>e[t] clepeji / 

bleiiindeliche. Hua?me Jjise fri finges byejj ine hire 

skele. wyt. diligence, and pe?'senerance : god ham y-herjj 

and God shall hear an haste. wyt : pet Jioii acsi wisliche. Moche uolk 

prayers. acse]) / fet ne hyej) na^t y-herd / nor hi makej? kuead- 

liche hire acsinge. Huerof saint Jacob zayj) to fan fet 

ne wytejj huet hi acsejj. ' j)ou acsest ' he zayji ' to god 

Some ask more ^fte / ac najt ne onderua[n]gst.' zome aksejj to he3 ])ing / 

for them'^as'did ^^^o^^ Jja?me ham behone]) / ase dede fe tuaye apostles 

the apostles John gaint Jon / and 'saint Jacob, bet acsede bet on of ham 

and James, ' ^ ' 

zete ane jje ri^thalf of onre Ihorde ine his regne / and 

Jie ojjer ane his lefthalf. Hi ne acsede na^t "wishche ac 

who were re- rajjre hit ])03te grat presumcion. And Jjeruore he ham 

Lord for their ansuredc ouTC Ihord hardhche and ham zede. ' Ye ne 

presumption. -^yytej) huet yc acsejj.' j)amiie huo pet wile wj'sliche 

Let no man be bidde god / yef he him loke]) tiram presuwipcion / opev 

theTharisMs"^^ i'®* ^® ^® wcnc gTcate Jjinges of him-zelue ase dede pe 

[ifariseuri farisen' fet yalp ine his benes / and onworjjede Jiane 

pubblycan. Ac mildehche me ssel to god bidde / and 

but let him pr.ay loim-zelue dcme benore god jjet yzi^j? pe herten of pe 

meekly before 

God. uolke. and wot hare eueles / and liire lackes / and Avot 

Take heed to the huet ham is nyed / betere panne ham-zelue conne. Nim 

how they exhibit liede to pe jjourc triions / hou hi ssewe]) hire eueles / 

order to excite ^^^ hsiTG defautes / iior to maki jjet uolk / to habbe pe 

P'*^' more reujie of ham. Alsuo me ssel do to-uore god / 

So shall one show mildehche'ssewyhis lackes / and his zennes jjere recordy / 

meekly before 

God his lacks uor to habbe grace and uoryeuenesse. J5e ojjre by]? Jjet 

and sins. . . .- tti/ 

Other folk pray ^® conne acsi bote jjmges libbmde and little / ase bye]? 
*^Tft*s''™^°'''^ fe guodes of time. God fie wyle wel gratter jjinges 
but God will not yeue. He nele pe yeue pere / ne eppel / ase me de]? 
o^an appi^ arone ^1^6 cliilde. ac grcatc Jjinges he wile |jet jjou him acsi. 
doth to a child, jj-j^ggg jjg^ jjg ^^ profitable / to heljje of zaule / ase 

his grace and his blisse. Vor huo fet acsep to god 
richesses / worjjssipes / he3nesses / oJ>er dyeajj of his 
yuon : he zent to gode uoide benes. and jjeruore he ne 


liierb his najt. jperuore zay b zaint austiii. ' iS"e onder- He desires us to 

ask what is pro- 

staiid na3t' lie zay]) ' of god uor greate ])iuges / pe guodes fitaWe to the 

pet he yefjj / alsuo wel to pe kueade / ase to pe guode.' Temporal gifts 

T , . 1 , 1 T 1 , are bestowed upon 

he wyie zigge. me ne ssel na3t hyealde uor greate the evil as well as 

j^inges / jje guodes pasmde fet god yefj) / alsuo and "P""*^ egoot, 
more yet to pe kueade : panne to pe guode / and jjeruore 

his yefj) god to pe wyckede : fet pe guode lierni to wherefore the 

, „ 11/ good should not 

onworjji fet he yet]) to pe kueade / ase zayjj zaynt set great store by 

austin. ' Hua?me ])ou bist panne god' / zayji saynt ani- 

broyse / ' acsejj grat jjmg / J5et byejj jjo jjet euremo ileste]) 

wyjj-oute ende / na3t pe jjinges pasinde. Vor jje like 

bene ne com]) na3t to gode.' )5eruore ous tek]; oure [fo1.65. b.] 

guode mayster lesu crist / uorrl to acsi wysHche. and we must ask aii 

ous ssepj) oure acsinge fo he zede. ' Yef ])ou acsest eni name of Jesus. 

J)ing to mine uader / ine mine name : he hit pe wile 

yeue.' Yef he hit acsef) mid pe name of lesu crist / 

])et acsef) fet behoue]) • to hel])e of zaule. Vor lesu / is Jesus signifies 

asemoche wor]) : ase helpe. And liuet f)ing ssolle we [i ms. bohmie];)} 

panne acsi : he ous tek]) ine his spelle fo he zede. 

' Verst ocse]) godes riche/and his ri3tuobiesse. and alle "Seek first," 

]?ise timliche ])inges : ])ou sselt habbe to auontage.' Vor "God's kingdom 

ase me can zigge / 'to ])e meste niede : me ssel ahieway eousness""'&c. 

yerne.' We habbe]) niede of tuo ping, [of gostliche we should yearn 

. ' for the greatest 

guodes / and of timhche guodes. Ac wel more nyede gift, 

we habbeb of gostliche guodes. and beruore we ssolle for we have more 

need of spiritual 

his uerst and prmcipalliche bidde. and god his wile than of temporal 

ous yeue / and ous wile do auontage of pe o])re guodes / 

fet bye]) pe timhche guodes. "We ne ssolle na3t maki 

of pe o])re [seconde] guodes pymcipals / ase dofi pe 

couaytouse / fiet ne zecheji o])er lif / bote fiet / fiet ham 

failef / and ham ascape]) wille hi nolle hi. Ac pe riche 

of heuene is pet Uf eurelestinde : we ssolle bidde be whei^efore let us 

■• pray for life ever- 

ofseruinges of guode workes. And ])et is ])et god zayf. lasting, 

'bidde]) uerst godes riche/and his ri3tuolnesse.' bet is/ and power to do 

1 J 1 ; 1 1 -1 ^°°'^ works, 

do guode workes / huerby me may come to ])o riche ])et whereby one 

neure ne ssel faili. an huo ])us hit bit : god de]) him God's kingd° m. 



auoiitage of pe timliche guodes. uor he Iiise liim yefjj 

to his wone yno3liche. uor na3t ne lackejj to ham fet 

The covetous men louie]? god / and dredejj / ase zayjj fe Avritinge. Ac Ipe 

never satisfied. couaytouse of Ipe wordle : J)e more j?et hi habhefi / Jje 

lesse hi hahbef. huo fet mest he]? of mapie / and mest 

hi??^ faile))^ of mete, and Jiet mest he]? hors : mest him 

faylej) gromes and stablen. And sain[te] lerome zayjj. 

J5et ' to Jje wreche fayle]? : Tpet he he J) / and jjet he ne]5.' 

I^OVL Jjench fajme hua?me Jjou woklest bidde god 

and acsi wisliche / and diligentliche / pet is ententif- 

liche / and persenerantliche : and he pe wille y[e]ue : 

Jiet pe hest niede to jji profit / an to heljje to fine 


3. Let there be pe fridde Jjing J)et ssel by ine bene : is deuocion of 

devotion of heart t , i , , • • iij.j. i/ , j. i i_ 

in thy prayer. herte / Jjet IS to arere pe herte to god / wyJ?-onte J)03te 
ine o]3re stede. Jpa?me oure Ihord zayj) / 'huawne jjou 

Say thy prayer in sselt bidde god / be-tuene J)ine te]j.' fet is to zigge / ine 
fine herte. ssete pe dore ope pe. Jet is to zigge : do out 

andputoxitaii alle Jjo^tes ulessKchc / uoule / and wordleliche / and 

thou^t".' ° 2^10 bide fine uader of heuene ine halke. Saynt 
cijjr/an fous zayf. fet alle Jj03tes ulessliche and 
wordlehche me ssel dijte uranx pe herte / jjet wyle god 
bidde. zuo f et his herte ne f enche to ofre finge : bote 
to fet he ssel bidde. 'hou' zayf 'he / wenst fou / fet 

We pray truly g^^ j>^ y-here / hua^ne fou ne hierst nat f i zelue 1 ' 

noughleile"^ °^ And ysidre zayf . ' f a?me / we biddef zof liche / huanne 
we fenchcjj nawerelles.' And saint augwstin zayf. 

What good is it ' Huet is hit worf to sterie and to beate al day fe 

to move the lips, . •111,11 iiw 

while the heart is iippeu / hua??ne f e herte IS al domb ? zuych difference 

ase fer is be-tuene pe cheue and pe corn / be-tuene 

The voice of bren and flour of huete / betuene pe uelle and f e beste : 

chaff^and bran. ZHyclie difference is betune f e rearde of f e bene / and 

pe deuocioun of pe herte. God ne is najt goth ^ to uede 

mid leaues. alsuo fe bene f et is y-wri^e ine leaues of 

wordes / wyf-oute deuocion of herte / ne Hkef na^t to 

1 MS. saik\> - got ? = goat 

The devotion of 
the heart is the 
corn and flour of 


god / ac rajjre him mis-pay ]j / and him' went pet yeare / [i ms. hin] 
pet he hit ne yhiere. uor he ne onderstant na3t zuiche [Foi. 66. a.] 
speche. Huo bet bit "od wyb-oute deuocion of herte : ^e who prays 

^ J o ^ / without devotion, 

he spekb to god patroyllart. ase be ilke bet spekb half addresses God as 

'■ r ^ I. <; I f 1. J ^jjg j^jjj speaketli 

engHs and half urenss. he spekjj to god mid moujje : half English and 

1/1 ^ 1 1 half French. 

ac ]je herte spekj) oJ?re speche / hua?aie he peng_p 
elleshuer. )3a??ne hit fe fingjj fet zuych uolk / ])et ziio 
biddejj god : him scornejj. ase he J?et wile scornj ane Such folk scorn 

God as one 

dyaue : he wagge]) fe lippen onlepiliche and make]) mocks a deaf 
semblont to spekene : and na^t ne zayjj. To zuiche to such God 

n 1, 1.11 All ij. tumeth the deaf 

uolke makep god pet dyeaiie eare. Ac pe bene pet g^r. 

com]) / of jje dyepnesse of fe herte : Jjo yherjj oure 

Ihord. Vor ase zayj? J)et godspel. ' god is a gost. and 

feniore huo ])et wile by yhierd of god : hit liim behouef God is a spirit, 

]jet he bidde ine goste / and in zojie.' Dauijj ous tek]) prayed to in the 

to bidde god deuoutliche ine Jje sautere / po he zede. ^^"^ ' 

' Ihord mj bene bi ydi3t beuore J)e : ase ]5et stor.' Jjet 

stor huaraie liit is ope be uere smelb zuete. alsuo deb Prayer of a fer- 
vent heart is 
Jte bene : huawne hi com b of bernide herte of be loue like the incense 

f> 1 / - 1 1 11 1 '*'' *''^ *^''^- 

01 god / smeijj wel zuete to-uore god. oferlaker jje bene 

ne comjj najt beuore god / bote hi come of fe herte, 

ase Jje messager pet none lettres ne brengjj / oper Jjet Prayer without 

devotion is a mes- 
ne is na3t Avel yknaAve : ne com]) na3t li3tliche touore senger without 

-•,. , , 1 -\ • I ■ ■ . letters of recora- 

pe kmge. bene -wyjj-oute deuocion / is messagier wy))- mendation. 
oute lettres / and wy])-oute knawlechinge. huo fet 
zuych messager zent to cort : euele ha de]) his niedes. 
Vor ase me zayj? co??imunhche. huo ]jet fol zent : fol 
abyt. Huo jjet wyle J3a?me zofliche bidde god : he 
ssel to god grede mid dyepe herte / ase dede dauid ]?et Pray to God 
zede ine jje sautere. ' Uiord god yhyer mine bene and heart. 
m ine rearde pet ich grede to pe / mid pe dyepnesse of 
herte.' J?e hete of loue : is J>e gredinge of herte / pet 
zayp saynt aug?/stin. Jpe ilke rearde and pe ilke gred- 
inge / him likep. na3t rearde uor to telle tales. Saint 
gregorie zaip. pet zopliche bidde god : is biter zobb- of bltTer mft-^ ^ 
Inge of uorpenchinge. pet is to zigge / of zor3e / and of gp^.^""^ °^ "^^ 
14 * 



and not of smooth 

away the thieves, 
that is, the devils. 

God gave the 
water of tears 
to quench the fire 
(lust) of our 

The peril of sin is 
like the peril of 


and the tempest 
of death. 

We should pray 
God to preserve 
us fi'om 

1. the thieves of 

2. covetousness, 

3. evil thoughts. 

Pray specially to 
God on Sunday in 

[Pol. 66. b.] 

We forsake the 
works of the 
week in order to 
serve God better 
on tliat day. 
Some pray to be 
seen of men. 

and others pray so 
loud as to dis- 
turb those near 

repentonce of herte / keste to god. na3t Avordes afaited 
and y-sliked iieleuold. Zuych gredinge cachej) jje 
fyeiies / fet hjep fe dyeulen ]jet ous AvayteJ) ous to 
robbi. and jjeniore ssoUe we ofte grede to god / jjet he 
ons loki uram Ipo Jjieues. Alsuo ssolle we strangliche 
grede to god / fet he ons loki uram jjo jjyenes. and 
uram Jie uer of couaytise / and of lecherie / jjet he ous 
yeue pet weter of tyeares uor to quenche zuich uer / jjet 
hit ne berne oure herten. Alsuo ssolle we grede aye fe 
foles of euele fenchinges / Jjet ouerguo]) ofte Jje herte. 
fet Jje herte ne spille be grauntinge. )5eruore gredde 
dauij) to god ine Jje saute**, pet zede. Ihord / y-wyte 
me uram fe peril of weteris / jjet is nie^ y-guo in-to 
mine herte. And Jie deciples of oure Ihorde po hi 
yze3en Jje tewipeste of fe dyajje ope ham gredden. 
' Sire / y-wyte ous / uor we spille]?.' 

Yor ])0 Jjri Jjinges jjet icli habbe hier y-zed / me 
ssel ofte grede to god / Jjet he ous "svytie uram ])ise pri 
perils / of jje jjyeues of helle / uram pe uere of 
couaytise. of foles and of kueade fortes / and uram 

ISTou sselt fou conne / jjet ine eche time / and ine 
eche stede : mi3t Jjou bidde to god. ac speciaUiche 
and more deuouteliche nie ssel hi?/i bidde at cherche / 
Jiane zonday / and ine festes jjet biejj iset god uor to 
bydde. herie / and worjjssipie. and Jieruore me let of 
bodiKche workes of pe woke / uor betere to onder- 
stonde to bidde god. serui / herie / and worssipie. 
)3er bye]) tuaye manere benes / on ])enchinde ine herte / 
])et me may oueral bidde. an o})er ine speche of mou]5e. 
]3et me ssel bidde ine oneste stedes / na3t ine longaynes 
ase do]) pe ypocrites / ])et ham sseawe]) wy[])]-oute / and 
na3t wi])-ine. and alsuo pev biej) oJ>re })et grede]) hare 
benes zuo Ihoude fet fo ])et bye]) y-hende / byeji 
desstorbed of hare deuocion be ham / and ])enche]) 
zuych ich am. And Jieruore to zuichen zay]) god. 


Vor-zojje iclx zigge to yow : ye liabejj onderuonge youre 

mede. Yef god het / zuo straytlic[h]e loki fane zeter- if a man was 

' . stoned for gathei'- 

day / me pe yealde la3e / j^et he made, ane man / to ing wood on the 

stene / to-uore al fe uolke / uor fet he hedde y- ^'^^^'''^^y- 
gadered / a lite wode / fane zeterdey. huet ssel he do / 

of fan / fet dof / greate ze?«ies / fane zonday / and what shall he 

p.; 1 J,, J ■ • 11 ;t done to him who 

me testes / and. wastef fane time m ydeinesse / and commits great 
ine folies. and worse dof ine festes : ,fa?aie in of re ^'ay?"* ^ 
da3es. Vorzof e hi ssolle by more y-pined / and more 
y-da?«ned ine f e of re wordle : f anne geus / f et breken For the Sunday 

1 i 1 -IT 1 • 11 '^ more holy 

hare zeterday. Vor fe zonday is more holy: fawne fe than the Satur- 
zeterday. ^^' 

Also byef f e festes prmcipals / f et byef yzet ine The great festi- 

1111/ 1 1-11/1 1/ ^^^^ ^'"® ^^^ ^p^^'* 

holy cherche / uor god to bidde / and f onki / serui / for worshipping 

herie / and worf ssipie. of f e greate guodnesses f et he 

f e hef y-do / ase holy cherche record ef. Ine zuyche Christmas re- 

festes ase at c?'/stesmesse / his beringe / hou he wea y- Christ's binh, 

1 /r>, 1 aj III- -- /I Easter of his up- 

bore / 01 f e mayde. At yestre / Ins oparizmge / hou rising, Ascension 

he aros urarn dyafe / to Hue. Ate assencion / hou ha heaven?'"^"''" 

stea3 to heuene / ine zi3f e / of aUe his apostles. At JJ^^^^^J^^f/^ 

lokes / hou he zente fane holy gost : ope his apostles, the Hoiy Ghost. 

Alsuo f er byef yzet f e festes of hal3en / ine holy There are the 

i , , ... -1/1 feasts of saints, 

Cherche / uor to worf ssipie / an uor to serui god / and ^^ich must be 
herie / and his hal3en / of f e miracles f et he dede uor o^^«'^'<^'^- 
ham. uor to uestni oure beleaue. And f eruore / we 
ssolle f e festes of hal3en loki / and bidde / f et hi ous 
helpe auoreye oure Ihord lesu crist j fet zuo moche his Let us pray that 
worssipef / ine heuene / and ine erf e. )?anne zene3ef fore God. 
he wel kueadliche / fet ne lokef f e festes. Vor he 
def aye godes heste. and of holy cherche. 

Ac zome mi3te zigge. ' lyeue sire / me ne may na3t some might say, 

" One cannot al- 

alneway bidde god / ne by at cherche. huet knead is way he praying, 

hit / yef ich guo playe. and solaci. f er-huile fet ich chm-ch." 
m.e solaci / an playe : iche ne f enche none ma/ine 

kuead.' To ban ich wille ansuerie liatliche. uor al bane ah time not 

■" ■' ' given to Giod is 

time / fet f ou bezest in fole gemenes / in ydeinesse / 'ost time. 



He loseth a great 
thing that loseth 
bis tiiue. 

for he loseth the 
good that he 
might do in that 

[Fol. 07. a.] 

Be occupied in 
good works, for 
time is short, 
and we know not 
when we shall 

Another may 
say, " If all days 
are to be mass 
days and holy, 
how then should 
we sow, reap, 
mow, &c. P " 

The answer I 
leave to those 
better able to 
answer it than I. 

When at church 
a man should re- 
member that the 
place is holy. 

It is a house of 

and ine niedes / Jjet ne bye J) na3t i-di3t to god : Jjou his 
lyest. Vor jjou sselt ywyte / pet al j^ane time / pet Jiou 
ne Jjengst na^t a god : Jjou liise sselt rekeni uor na3t. 
J)et zay]) an lial3en. jjet is to onderstonde / hua«ne J50ii 
ne jjengst / bote to ydelnesse of jjinge / fiet ne is ydi3t / 
ine none nianer to god. And uorzofe lie liest grat 
jjing / jjet liest his time / zuo zay]? senekes. uor he lyest 
jje guodes jjet he ssolde do / ine zuo moche time / ase he 
lyest ine jje playes / and ine ydelnesse. and pet ne is 
na3t wyjj-oute zenne / to liese jjane time / in queade 
wones. Vor god \vile acsi rekeninge / ate daye of dome. 
|}is zayjj saint ansehn. And jjeruore me ssel alneway 
wel do / and wel bezette fane time / ine guode workes / 
ase moche / ase me may / j)er-huile jjet he leuej?. uor pe 
time is ssort / ase zayjj pe writinge. ne non ne wot / 
hou longe he hit ssel habbe. uor non ne wot / hua?me 
he ssel sterue / ne huamne he ssel paci. 

An ojjer may zigge. ' Yef hit were suo / Jjet alle 
da3es ine pe yeare were messeda3es / and y-hote 
hyealde be holy cherche. huo panne ssolde erye / and 
zawe. ripe / and mawe. and ojjre erJjHche workes to 
done / huer-by men ssolle hbbe 1 ' feme ansuere ich lete 
to ham : fet betere conne ansuerie / panne ich. Huo 
fet wyle Jja^ne loki pe festes / ase he ssel : he him ssel 
loki to done fing / fet to gode ne is na3t likinde / ne 
to his hal3en. and wel to bezette fane tune / in god 
to bydde / herie / and fonki of his guode. y-here his 
sermons / and onderstonde to alle guode workes. Alsuo / 
huawne at cherche / man hi?>i ssel habbe / wel oneste / 
and do worf ssipe / an reuerence / to god. and to his 
hal3en / uor pe stede is holy / and is y-zet / to bidde 
god. na3t uor to iangli / uor to 1110336 / ne uorto trufly. 
]?a«ne oure sire zayf . * Min hous / is hous of bene.' and 
f eruore me ne ssel ofer fing do / ne zigge : bote f et 
hueruore hit is y-zet. fis zayf saynt austin. j)e ilke fet 
ssel come to-uore pe kinge ine his chombre / uor zome 


grace to bidde / lie hi??i loki wel to zigge fmg / fet 
na3t ne liki fe kinge. Wel more lie hm ssel loki / jje ^ jg q^^'^ ^^^^. 
like fet com]? to cherche / pet is godes clionibre / and house'lnd''wl 
godes hous / to done / and to zigge / to-uore god / and ?J*.°"''^ f'^y '^^'''""^ 

° ' ' oo / o / Him only what 

to-uore his angles / bingj bet him ne liki. God nele is pleasing to 

° _ '_ ^ ® ^ Him. 

iia^t jjet me maki his hous marcat / ne bofe / huerout 
he wrek / Jjo jje zyalde / and bo3te / ine fe temple, uor 
he nele / fet me maki uorewerdes / ne noyses / ne 
nyedes seculeres / beriniie. ac rabre %\'ile / bet me on- wherefore pray 

/ ' ' ' ' devoutly, and 

derstonde / to hidde god deuouteliche / and him herie / thank God for 

- all His gifts to 

and ])onki oi al his guode. ]Der nie ssel wyj)-clepie his thee, 

herte to hhn j and do al out / alle seculere niedes. 

yemere ])03tes. and J)enche an liis sseppere / and ane and think of His 

liis guode guodnesses fet god him hejj y-do. and him ^°° 

def co?/imiinliche. record! his zewiies / and his lackes / 

and him-zelue mildi / to-uore god / and bidde uoryeue- 

nesse / and grace / him to loki uram ze;me. and Pray for forgive- 

11- • it;i 1 1 11 ness, and for 

bleumge me guode hue / al to fe ende. pere ssolle ]ie grace to live 
greate Ihordes / and fe greate Iheuedyes uoryete hare ° ^' 
blisse / hare uii3te. hare dingnete. and hare he3nesse. in church great 
and J^enche fet hi bye]? beuore hare demere / Jiet ssel should lay aside 
Ills zette to skele / of ])e guodes fet he ham het y-do. "^ '^"' ^' 
of J5e dingnete / huer he his he]) y-zet. hou hi hit 
habbej) y-used. and ham ssel yelde be hare ofgoinge. 
|?eruore hi ssollen Jjer / h&m moche mildi to god / na3t 
glorifie hare he3nesse / ne of hare uajTe di3ti?zge / ne of 
hare uayre robes / to fe uorbysne of kinge daui]) / Jiet ''"'J' '"^^ David, 
hedde uoryete his dingnete / j^o he bed god / and on- selves before 
worjjede him-zelue / touore him. ' Ich am' he zede 'a lite 
werm / and no man.' and ine Jjet / he bekneu / his 
bolemodnesse. his pourehede / and his uoidhede. Vor ^^^" '^ '''^® ^ 

' worm, 

ase jje werm is uoul / and lite / Jjing oiiAvorJi / and wext 

al naked / of fe erjje / al-siio is man / uoid ])ing of 

hi?«-zelue. uor hua?ine he yede / in-to ]ie exil of ])ise naked and worth- 

wordle : na3t he ne bro3te : ne na3t ne ssel here aAvay. 

al naked he com : and al naked he ssel guo. J5a??ne [Foi. 67. b.] 



filth, a sack full 
of dung, and 
meat for worms. 

Great ladies 
should take pat- 
tern by Queen 

and should leave 
their fine robes 
at home. 

God is disgusted 
with those who 
rejoice in these 
things, and desire 
to please fools. 

God is pleased 
with a mild 
heart and a pure 

Women should 
come to church 
with clean cloth- 
ing and not 
dressed above 
their station. 

They should be 
meek and shame- 

They should not 
be too busy about 
decking their 
heads with gold 
and silver, 
for at church 

saint bernard. zayjj. '■ liiiet is man / bote neljje / and a 
zecli iiol of donge / wermene mete?' He is wel uoiil an 
stinkinde zed ine fe byetinge.^ a zech uol of donge ine 
his liue. mete to wermes / ine his dyajje. Alsuo fe 
gi'eate ^ Iheuedyes / fet comef zuo idi3t mid gold / mid 
zeluer / mid stones of pWs / and mid robes of grat cost / 
to cherche be-uore god / hy ssolden nime norbisne of 
Jje qnen hester / J>et dede of hire constonse robes / and 
hire ojire agraijiinges / Jjamie hi com to cherche / to 
bidde god / and hire to lo3y / and bekneu hare poure- 
hede to-uore god / and zayde to god. ' Ihord J)ou wost 
Jiet ich hatie jje toknen of prede / and \q blisse of 
agraj^Jiinges / and of ioyaus / fet me behonej? do / ope 
mine heauede ine g?Y(t wlatiynge.' Yorzojje / and ziio 
he]5 god grat wlatiynge / to ham / f)et ine j^ise J)inges 
habbe]j blisse / and ham agTayJ»e]) / ham nor to ssewy / 
and to paye Jje foles. God ne hej) na^t to done mid 
zuyche payinges / ine his cherche. ac of milde herte / 
and of clene in"\v}ii. Zainte panel tekjj ri3t wel / hou 
])e gnode wyfmen / ham ssolle agrayj^i / hna?^ne hi 
come)? to cherche / to bidde god. He zayjj pet hi ssolle 
habbe clenliche clo]?inge / Avyji-oute to moche. fet is to 
onderstowde : be Jian pet pe Avyfman is. Vor pet / pet 
is to moche ine one wyfman / ne is na3t to moche ine 
anopre. More behouep to ane kuene / pa??ne behouep 
to ane borgayse / oper to ane simple wyfman. Efter- 
ward he tekp / hniche byep of simple zi3pe. pet is to 
zigge / milde / and ssamneste / na3t pe bolde / ne pe 
na3t ssamueste / ase byep pe fole wyfmen / pet gxiop 
mid stondinde nhicke ^ / ase hert ine launde / and 
lokep azide / ase hors of grat cost. Efte^-n^ard / he 
nele na3t pet hi bi to bysi / of hare heaueden to agraypi 
mid gold / and mid zeluer / and mid preciouse stones. 
And he wile yet eft / pet at cherche / pet hi habbe / 

' For 'beyetinge.' 2 ]\jg_ gyctatc, 

3 MS. reads nihelcc 


hare lieaueden 'v-wve-ie I zuo bet non ue bi ine kuede their heads should 

"J J I f be covered. 

jjo^tes uor ham. and fet hi ne yeue none enchesoun / 

to penche quead / to ham / Jjet hise ysyejj. Ac hi 

ssollen bi ydi3t ' ase he zayj) / ase gnode wyfmen / Jjet [i ms. ydi/t] 

sseawej) fe guodnesse of hare herten / be guode dedes / 

and jjeruore zayjj saynt Ambroyse. ' Hno fet wyle by He who desires 

yherd ine his benes : he ssel do away uram him / alle be iieard, must 

put away all 

toknen of prede / and he ssel boiX3e to god / be zojje tokens of pride. 
bo3samnesse / uor to sterie god to merci.' Yor ase he 
zayj). ' pronduol clojjiwge / ne wynjj na3t of god. ac yefjj 
encheisoun / euele to deme / of fan ojjer of hire : J»et hit 

I^ou ich J)e habbe y-ssewed / fri J)ing / fet ssol by 
ine bene, beleane. hope, and deiiocionn. Ac to fan fet Two wings are 

It o t- t f 1 1/ T • needed to bear 

fe bene / by parntliche licuol to gode / and worfi to the prayer to 

bi y-herd : hit behoue]) / fet uerfe fing. fet is jjet him 

behouejj / tiio wyngen / fet hit here touore god. J?ise 

tuo wyagen / bye J) : nestinge / and elmesse. Jjernore / They are fasting 

fe angle zayde to tobye. fe bene is guod : hua?me hi without these it 

hejj mid hire / elmesse / and uestinge. and ^vyji-onte God."° ^ 

J)ise tvio jjinges : bene ne may na3t / vly to gode. ac 

ze«ne amerf and hi??^ wd]jdra3J) ayen. Jperuore fou sselt 

y-wyte / fet ine tiio mane/'es is bene amerd / ase zayj? 

ysaye. Vor bet me ne let najt euele to done. And 

"'''•' ^ [Fol. 68. a.] 

feruore / fet me nele uoryeue / his misdedes / ne his i" prayer there 

must be no ill- 

euele y^vyl. Yor alsuo ase fe smeryeles / ne is na3t worf / wui in the heart. 

to hele jje wonde / ne non ofer fing / fer-huile fet / fet 

yzen is ferinne : alsuo hit ne is na3t worj) /ne na3t ne pro- 

flte]) J3e bene / to him fet hit zayjj : fer huile fet he is / 

ine dyadlich zewne. ne ase longe ase he hejj / quednesse 

ine his herte. And feruore zayJ) fe profete. ' Arere we Therefore saith 

oure herten / and oure honden to god / J?et ophebbej) •• BaiseTe'^our 

oure benes be guode workes.' And fe apostel tekjj / handstoOod'that 

bet me arere / clene honden ine bene, be clene "p^'^'^^*"! our 

' I j»>.- V, v-i v^ prayers by good 

honden / bet byeb be clene benen / bet bycb y-do ine '"^^^^■" 

^ ' ^ -J r r I r J r J The dean hands 

clene inwyt. Yor God ne yherf na3t fe bene / Jjet ^'^^ f'l" •''ean 



God ivill not 
listen to prayers 
from a filthy 
soul, that Is, from 
those with bloody 

They have bloody 
hands who ill-use 
the poor. 

They eat bloody 
morsels, for 
which they shall 
pay hard scot 
in the other 

He who will be 
heard, must not 
come before God 

but must bear a 
present of good 

We read in the 
gospel that the 
gate was shut 

maidens whose 

lamps were 


God hears those 

that have their 

lamps full of 


that is, whose 
hearts are full of 


Prayer thus 

cemjj of inwyt uol of iiel])e / and of ze«ne. )3a?me he 
zayj) he Ipe profete. ' Hiia?nie J?e multepliest fine benes : 
ich nelle none y-here. ixor Jiine honden byeji al blody.' 
Huo byej) po / fet liabbe]5 ]>e honden blodi : bote \)0 / 
fet be-iileaj) fe poure uolk / ]?et byej) onder ham / and 
benimejj ham hire guodes be strengjie 1 Hy habbe]) hare 
honden al uol of blode / of Jje poure. uor hi benime]) 
ham hare lyf / and hare sostinonce / be hare couaytise 
and be hire roberie. and make]) fe greate to mochel- 
hedes / and etejj J)e blodi snoden. Huerof hi ssolle 
paye hard scot / ine Jie ojjre wordle / bote Ipe vmtinge 
ne lye3e / fiet zayj>. Jiet god vryle acsi / J)et blod of ]?e 
poure : of hare honden. panne hit behoue]) ];et hi 
yelde : ojjer jjet hi hongi. Vor ase me zayj) : ' ojier yelde : 
ojjer hongi.' And feruore god ne yhyerjj na3t zuich 
uolk / uor hi ne bye J) na3t worjji. Huo fet wyle Jia??ne 
by yherd : ne come najt beuore god / mid zuorde 
adra3e / and mid blodi honden / ne ydel honden. ])et is 
to zigge : in Avyl to zene3i / ne mid lac of ontreujje / ne 
ydel of guode workes. uor Jjus zayJ) oure Ihord ine his 
spelle. ' J)ou ne sselt na3t sseawy Jje / beuore me : ydel- 
honded.' ])e ilke com]) to-uore god / mid ydele honden : 
fet com]) hi»i to bidde / Avyj)-oute makiynge of presont 
to god / of guode workes. uor ayens ])an / ha sset his 
gate : ))et him bit / and na3t ne brengji. Of j^isen we 
habbej) ane uorbisne / ine pe godspelle / J)et zayj). pet 
j)e gate was y-sset / aye pe fole maydines / fet hedden 
hare lonfpen ydel. and god ham zede. ' ich ne knawe you 
na3t.' ))et is to zigge : ' ich not huo ye byef.' Vor god ne 
knauj) bote J)0 : J)et him trewliche seruej) / fet habbej) 
hare lompen uol of oyle : ase hedden pe wyse maydenes. 
Jjet is to zigge : ))et habbej) hare herten uol of pite / and 
hit ssewej) be guode dedes. Zuich uolk he y-herj) / and 
to zuiche uolk he openej) his gates / uor he onderuangji / 
blejieliche hare benes. 

jSTou ich zigge panne / jjet bene j)et is yssoreil mid / 


bise uour poss[tles / ase ich habbe beuore yzed : ys wel shored with 

' r \. J I ^ these four posts 

mistuol be-uore god. uor he ssel habbe ly^tliche of him / al is powerful before 

J3et he help niede / by hit to Jje bodie / by hit to fe zaule / 

ase "wytnesseJ3 jje writi?zges. panne saint lacob zay]). fet The prayer of a 

. good man is able • 

mochel is worf bene of guod man. uor m is AvorJ) uor to hale to heai the sick- 

))e zike / of bodie / and of zaule. Huerof hi??i-zelf zede. ijo^y. 

yef he is ine zenne : hit ssel him by uory[e]ue. J?e 

"writinge zayj). ])et Moyses ouerconi amalec / and al his Moses overcame 

ost / na3t be ui3t : ac be his holy biddinges. uor ase prayer. ^ 

zayJ) an holy man. more is worj) an hal3en / and may 

biddinde : Jjane uele jjousond of zenejeres : ui^tinde. [Foi. 68. b.] 

J3e bene of a guod man / openef Jie heuene. hou ssolde The prayer of a 

he / bote ouercome fe vrfckede ine er>e. A guodald ^^%' ^°;:;Vr'°'""'''" 

porchacej) more of heuene / ine one-lepi oure biddinde : 

Jjawne ssolde do / a Jjouzond kny^tes / of J)e londe in lang 

time / be hare armes. And beruore hit is guod / to zeche wherefore it is 

' _ good to seek the 

be benes of guode men. and specialliche of men of re- prayers of good 


Hgion / fet byejj to-gydere / god uor to serui / and uor 
to bidde uor ha??i / J?et do)) ham guod. Vor yef fe bene 
of ane guode manne / is moche worj) be-uore god / ase The prayers of 

, many are more 

zayj) J3e writinge : more is wor]) / and may : Jje bene / effective than the 
of uele guode. Vor ase zayj) an hal3en. Hit ne may ^an!'^ 
na3t by / Jjet J)e bene of uele guode men : ne is y-herd. 
be benes of a couent / byeb rabre yherd of be abbotte : The prayers of a 

' I J r r J I convent to the 

bajine b e bene of one moneke. alsuo yher Ji god rajjre jje abbot are sooner 

" . heard than the 

benes of fan ])et byeJj to-gidere him uor to serui. pa?2ne prayer of one 
he zayj) ine his speUe. ' yef tuo of ous / one]) ham to- 
gidere / me uor to bidde : Al fet hi bidde]) / mine 
uader : [he] ham Avile do.' 

)5E ZEUE BO3ES/ OF OHASTETE. The seven boughs 

of chastity. 

Nou ich habbe yzed be zeue stapes / huer-by clif b / ^he seven 

-> ' ^ I J r I boughsofchastity, 

and wext / and profiteli / liet trail of u/rtue / and of are seven states 

of men in this 

cha[s]tete. !Nou behoue]) to zigge / of ])e bo3es / of world. 
J)ise trawe / Jtet byej) zeuen. be \e zeue states / of J)e 
stapes of uolke / pet bye]) ine J)ise wordle. 



The first state is 
of those that are 
whole of body, 
and have well 
kept tlieir maid- 

In marriage one 
shall observe 
chastity of heart 
and of body. 
Children should 
have good 

lest they be mar- 
red by foolish 

Children should 
be chastened and 
taught while 
young to practise 
good manners. 

Such form as the 
shoe takes at 
first it evermore 

The other state 
is of them that 
have lost their 

[1 So in MS.] 

[Fol. 69. a.] 

Even in this 
state chastity 
should be ob- 
served by having 
a fast purpose 
to abstain from 
and the flesh 

\)e uerste stat / is of fan Jjet "bye]) yhole of bodie / and 
liabbef wel yloked hire maydenliod. Ac alneway / hi 
ne bye]) na3t y-bounde Jierto / fet hi ne bi ine mariage. 
Ine Ipet stat / me ssel loki chastete / J>et is clennesse of 
herte / and of bodie. )3eruore pe children of riche men / 
ssolle habbe guode lokeres / and oneste / ]jet hi by 
be-zide ha?«. / and Jjet hi bi dihgent ham wel to teche / 
and loki uram ze?nie / and uram kueade uelajrede. 
Vor Jie fole uela^redes / amerref ofte children, and hare 
te[c]hinge. Jjet kueade uolk / jje wordes of kueadnesse / 
of ribandie / fe fole takinges / and inhoneste ine zenna 
of lecherie. and ojjerhuil of po lecherie / fet is aye 
kende. }5erof anojjre time we habbe]) yspeke ine ])e 
chapitle of nices. an ])eruore hit ne behoue]) na3t to 
reherci. nor ])e ilke kende ne is na3t uayr. And ])eruore 
me ssel J)e children chasti / and wel teche / and bi bezide 
ham Jierlmile pet hi bye]) yonge. And wonye his to 
hyealde pe guode techinges. Vor ase zay]) Salomon. ' pet 
child lyerne]) ine Iris je-^epe : he hit wjle healde ine his 
elde.' And ]>& filozofe zay]). ' Hit ne is na^t lite ])ing / to 
wonie guod / oper kuead / ine his ye^ej^e.' Vor ase me 
zay}). ' Huo pet tek}) colte endaunture : hyalde hit wyle 
])erhnyle hit ilest.' Zuiche fourme ase pe sso takf ate 
ginnynge : he halt euremor ine fet stat. Jjawne hep 
chastete nyede of guode lokinge. uor oferlaker hy ssel 
zone by uorlore. 

j)G o])er stat is of ham fet bie]) na3t clene of bodie / 
and habbe}) hare chastete uorlore / and hare maydenhod / 
er })an hy weren euerte • ymarissed / ne y-bounde mid 
bende. huo may ham A^'^'})nyme uorte bi y-marissed. and 
alneway hy bye}) y-ssriue and uorjjenchinde of hare 
ze?mes. Ine }»o stat me ssel loki chastete. Vor huo }iet 
is ine })et stat : he ssel habbe nest porpos / and wyl / 
])et neure mor ne ssel ayen yerne to pe ze??ne of his 
bodye. ac rafre he him ssel loki be his mi^te. wy])-oute 
}>et / fet he hi???- mo e marissi yef he wyle. And huo 


bet wvle iue bet stat loki his cliastete ; hit behoueb bet should be render- 

r J r > > ed chaste by 

he defouly and chasti his uless be hardnesse of nest- severity of fast- 

/ 1 1 ' 1^- - 1. r. 1 e t.- iiig, andbypen- 

mges / and be penonces. Jjis is fe oper 003 01 pise ances. 


Jje Jjridde is of ham Jjet byejj y-bounde be mariage. The third state 


ine J)0 stat me ssel loki chastete / out-ynome j?e dede 01 those bound by 

sponshod. Vor hi ssolle loki hare bodi Jje on to Jje opre xhey should 

klenliche and trewehche / wyji-oute do onri^t : j?e on to jj^p^mity'and ^** 

fe o>ren. and jjet acsef jje la^e of spoushod. >et Jje on *o:;t\'lileother. 

here to be ojjren laje and trewjje of his bodie. Yor For man and 

wife being bound 

femuyle fet hy byejj y-uestned to-gidere be spoiishoil by marriage are 
Jje on to jje ojjre / hi byejj body / ase zayj) fe writinge. * ^' 
and feruore ssel ]je on lonye Jje ojiren / ase him-zelue. 
Yor ase hi bye J) on body, hi ssolle by on herte be wherefore they 
trewe-loiie / ne na/^nore ha/?t to-dele / be herte ne be heart by true 
bodie jjerhuUe fet hi libbef. Jjeruore hi ssolle loki hare ^°^®' 
bodyes clene. and chastliche out-ynome jje dede of wives shall love 
spoushod. and Jieruore zayjj zay[n]te paid, pet Jje wyues be chaste and 
ssolle louie hare Ihordes / and worssipie. and deuoute- ^° *'■ 
liche by cliast and sobre. chaste to loki hare body uram Chaste in their 

„ . -, . . , . bodies and sober 

opreii ]3a«ne 01 hare Ihordes. sobre me mete and me in meat and in 

drinke. nor to moche drinke / and to moche ethe : " 

is grat aH^tiftge to fe uere of lecherie. Alsuo ssel The man shall 

not give his body 

Jje man loki his body clerdiche jjet he ne yeue liit toother women. 

na^t to ojire -\vyfmen / bote to his. Spoushod is a 

stat Jjet me ssel wel klenliche / and wel holylyche Marriage is a 

. ... „ state of great 

loki uor manie skeles. uor hit is a stat 01 greate authority, 
autorite. uor god hit made ine pyradis terestre ine be and was ordained 

in Paradise. 

stat of cle/messe. erjjan man liedde y-zene^ed. And 

jjeruore me ssel hit holyliche loki / uor jjane skele 

Jiet god hit made / and uor fane stede huer hit wes 

ymad. Efterward / hit is a stat of greate dignete. it is a state of 

uor god wolde by bore of Avyfman yspoused. Jjeruore pe ^^^ ^°' ^' 

mayde marie made of spoushod hii'e mentel : hueronder For God was born 

wolde by godes zone bi y-cowceyued / and y-bore. Under woman. 

fo me?ztle wes y-hole uram pe dyeule / |)e p?-mite / and 


Under her mantle he red of ouie scele / and of oiire helbe. beruore bamie 

was the secret 

of the soul's help me ssel hit worjjssipie and clenliclie loki. Efter J>et me 

hidden from the . ■ . . 

devil. ssel hit lold holyliche / nor his holynesse.^ uor hit is on of 

It is a holy state, jje sacremens of holy cherche. and betokneb be spoushod 

being one of the 

sacraments ; J^et is be-tuene liolj chei'che : and lesu cr^'st and betuene 
so what was before god / and Jje zaiile. )?awne jjet stat of sponshod is zuo 

deadly sin, be- ,, - , .- .,,.. 

came no sin in holy and suo honeste : ))et ])e dede fet wes dyadnch ze?zne 

marnage. ^^^ q£ spoushod / is wy)j-oute ze?«ne ine spoushod. and 

na3 onlepiliche wyjjoute zewne : ac hit mai by to merite 

He hath great uor to wjTine J)et lif wyjj-oute ende. And jjou sselt 

do the*^deed"oT J^^te fet ine jjri cas me may do ])e dede of spoushod 

marriage without -^yyjj.Q^^^g ze?Hie. and he mai habbe grrtt merite ase to jje 

The deed of ])Q uerste cas is huanne me dej) ]je ilke dede ine 

be siniesTfirst'* wylle uor to liabbe cliild to serni god. uor ine zuiche 

to be^et^chiidre" onderstoudinge wes uerst spoushod yzet. J3e ojjer cas 

to serve God. j^ . ]^^^a„ne Jje on yelt to fe ofre his dette / fawne he 

the one y'ieideth hit aksejj. and jjerto ssel sterie dom : fet yelt to echen 

d'ebt whenhe'° ^^^^ ri^t huanne he hit aksef and bit be moufe / ojjerbe 

asketh it. tokuB ase dof jje -vvyfrnen Jiet bye]) ssamuest zuich Jjing 

[Fol. 69. b.] . . 1 -n , , 1 , . , , , 

uor to acsi. pe like pet uorzakp pane oprene pet acsep : 

The one hath a; zqw^q]).'^ uor he dej) him. wrang of liis ojene finge. uor 

body oTthe^ f^ *^^ ^^^ ^^3^ ^^^ \^ bodie of ])Q oJ)re. Ac he fet acsejj 

°^^^^- Jjet he ssel : he deJ) wel and ari3t. hua?ine he hit deJ) ine 

J?o onderstondinge he ofseruej) auoreye gode. uor ri3t 

Thirdly, when it hxm dti^t jjerto / and na3t lecherie. J3e Jjridde cas is 

away lechery from hua?ine me hit acsej) his wyue of ]50 dede / uor to loki 

hire uram ze«ne. nameliche hua9^ne he yzi3]j jjet hi is 

zuo ssamuest / Jjet hi nolde neuremo acsi hare Ihorde of 

zuiche Jiinnge. and ylefj) fiet lii ssolde ualle blejjeliche 

in-to zQnwQ / ojjer li3tliche bote yef me hire ne acsede. 

In this there is ^'^0 )jet ine J)0 onderstoiidinge / yelt / ojjer acseji zuiche 

dette : he ne zene3[eji] na3t / ac rajire ofseruej? auoreye 

god. uor pite him stere]? fet to done. Ine jjise jjri cas / 

ne is no ze?2ne ine jje dede of spoushod. 

1 MS. lolymsse ' MS. zem-iei 

no sin, but rather 

God is exceediriE 


Ac ine ojjre cas me may zeneji / oJ)er li3tliche / oJ)er On the other 

■, T,. 1 1 .,,.,. . . hand, one may 

clyaaliclie. ana speciaJiiche me pvi cas. pe uerste is. sin in three 

hua?me me ne zakp ine ziiicli dede : bote Jje leclierie and The first is when 

his lost, and ine Jjo cas me may zene3i / li3tliche / and to saUsfy\us°t? 

deadliche. Li3[t]iiclie / hua?me Jie lost ne pasej) na3t 

J)e markes / ne J)e zetnesses of spousliod. |)et is to zigge / 

huanne Jje lost is zuo y-led mid scele / bet be ilke bet is The sin is venial 

. if it is temperate, 

me Ipet stat nolde najt fiet Jjmg do : bote ine his wjnie. 
Ac hua?me Jje lecherie and fe lost is zuo grat ine his wyiie 
fet scele is y-blent / and ase moche wolde do he ine otherwise it is 

n ■ deadly. 

hire : J^a^ hy nere na3t his Avyf : me pet cas is ])e ilke 

ze?aie dyadlich. uor zuich lecherie gejj ouer fie markes of 

spoushod. hiierof god hi?« wrejjejj ofte to zniche uolke / with such 

and yefj? ojjerhuil g/'«t mi^te to ]?e dyeiile ha??^ uor to ly^^rath' 

slea / ase me zayjj of saren' ragiielis do3ter / J^et wes [' sareun 

yonge tobies wyi. ]>et hedde y-het zeue housboundes / 

Jjet alle were y-sla3e of jje dj^eule : pe uerste ni3t jjet hi 

wolden ligge by hire. Jjeruore pe angel zayde to tobyen 

jjet hise ssolde liabbe to wj'ue. ' leh pe wyle zigge ' he The devu hath 

. Ill power over those 

zayde / ' me huet violc pe dyeuel hej? my3te / ine J^an jjet who give them- 
doj) out god / zuo out of hare harten / and of hare lusts,^ "'' 
Ji03tes. Jjet ne jeuep ham na3t / bote to hare lecherie to 
uoluelle / ase an hors deb. ober a nude.' and beruore ham ^s a horse or a 

1 . . mule. 

bemmjj god oJierhuU hare frut / zuo jjet hi ne mo3en 
habbe no child. Yet hi mo3e zene3i dyadliche ine 
anofre manire. jjet is to wytene / hua/«ie pe on dej? 
aye kende / and ojjerlaker panne kende of man acse]) / 
ne la3e of mariage acsejj / ne oueryernjj. zuich uolk 
zene3ej3 more gratliche / panne opm beuore yzed. Ac Those that in 

marriage have 

po pet m hare spoushod lokep pe drede of oure Ihorde / the fear of our 

111,11 1 11 ,. Lord, please God. 

and lokep klene hare spoushod ase hit is yset. zuych 
uolk paye]) god. 

pe ober cas huer me may zenejy be spoushod / is '^^^ °*^®^ "^^"^ "^ 

>/ ^.^ J. / gjj, ijj " spouse- 

huanne man gejj to his wyue ine time bet he ne ssolde ^°°'-^ " ^^ «'^'^" ^ 

. man goeth to his 

na3t guo. pet is hua?2ne hi is ine pe ziknesse bet ^VJi- wife in a time 

1 11 , -. , , , that he should 

men habbef co?»munliche. zuo fet he his na3t ne spare]? not go. 



God hath forbid- 
den this improper 
for in such state 
are oft begotten 
the crooked, 
blind, lepers, 
deaf, dumb, &c. 

[Fol. 70. a.] 

Also they shall 
abstain from the 
deed in holy 
times such, as in 
great and solemn 

and in times of 
fasting appoint- 
ed by the church. 


Also when the 
woman lieth in 
childbed, or is 
near her time. 

Kings, earls, and 
barons, have at 
such times their 
chambers to them- 

or they go to 
their castles, 
and therefore 
they have such 
fair children. 

The elephant 
will not dwell 
with his wife 
while she is with 

huawne he wot J)et hi is m zuich stat. zene3e]5 gratliche 
and uor fan jjet god uorbyet / jjet man ne habbe uela3- 
rede mid liis \vyue. ine zuich stat / and uor ]je peril of 
his children. Vor ase zayjj saint gregorie. ine zuych 
stat bye]) ofte beyete Jje crokede / fe blynde / and fe 
mezels. fe dyaue / Jjb doumbe / pe ssornede ' / Jje scallede. 
and men and wyfmen fet habbe]) o])ere zyknesses in hare 
bodie Ipanne hi come]) to manhod ase goutes / and beles. 
and olpre ssrewede eueles. ]?eruore J)e wifman ssel wel 
zigge to hire Ihorde huawne hi ys ine ziiych stat / ])et he 
abyde. and hi alsuo abyde ; ferhuile hi is ine fe ylke 
stat. Alsuo hi ssoUen to-gidere spari uram f>e dede of 
spoushod : ine holy times / ase ine greate festes and 
solemnes / to yeue ham-zelue pe betere god uor to serui. 
Alsuo in times of uestinge of holy cherche hi ssoUe abide 
mid ])0 dede. najt uor])an Jiet liit by ze?zne zuych ])ing 
to done ine zuiche time, and ine zuiche onderstondinge 
me may hit do. Ac ojjerhuil hit is fet me ssel abide / 
fet me mo3e hit do wy])-oute ze?^ne: uor bete?-e^ to habbe 
of god ])et me him bit / ase zay]) sajoit austin. Alsuo ine 
time fet ]>& wyfman lyf a chi[l]dbedde / o])er nyej uor 
to childi. he ssel him loki uram fe dede of spoushod / 
uor onestete / and uor peril }ret mi3te by. ]3eruore ]jise 
kinges / erles / barouns / and o])re Ihordes habbe]) hare 
chambren be ham-zelue uram hare wyues ine zuiche 
time. o]jer hi wende]) to yzy hare kasteles / ofer hare 
o])re stedes. and Jjeruore hi habbe]) zuo uayre children 
and zuo cliene^ of bodye. Me uint ine ])e hoc pet spekj) 
of kende of bestes. fet Ipe elifans nele na3t wonye mid 
his wyue : ])erhuyle fet hi is mid cliilde. and man be 
scele ssel bi more antempred ])a?ine a best, and feruore he 
ssel more him-zelue ine ]jo stat J)olye / and ine ])0 time. 
Ac alnewey / ich ne zigge na3t fet yef he de]) pe dede 
of spoushod ine fo time be guode cause / and ine guode 
onderstondinge / huerof god is deniere yef hit is ze?zne. 
1 Looks like ssor«e(^ in MS. ^ MS. chene 


j)Q bridde cas is / hueriiie me may kueadliclie zene3i The thira case is 

■^ . when the deed is 

ine spoushod_ : is. ine holy stede. nor me holy stedes done in hoiy 


ase ine cherchen pet bye J? apropred nor god to bidde and that are set apart 

1 1 J. 1 1 T T r 11 for the service of 

hym seruy. me ne ssel na3t do pe dede oi spoushod nor q^ , 

worjjssipe of Ipe stede. And hiio Jjet ine znyche stede 

ne lokej) him na^t jjo dede nor to do : he zene^e]) nor fe 

scele of fie stede jjet godes nless and his blod hyej) 

y-sacred inne. nor znich Jiing mai by ze?aie in one stede / 

and ine one time: Jjet ne is no ze?zne ine ojire. J)e' uerjje [i ms. )>«•] 

stat is of ham fet habbej) yby ine sponshod : ac dyaj) 

hejj to-deld Jje on uram fe ojjere. And Jje ilke jjet is 

ybleued ine lyue he ssel Mm loki chastHche ase longe chastity shall 

ase he is ine fe stat of wodewehod. fet is a stat Ipet widowhood. 

zaynte paul prayzej? moche / Ipet zay]? to wodewon. 'huo 

Jjet guod is : he hi?>i hyealde ine fet stat. and yef hit 

hi?n na^t ne lyke|) : he him vrym. Vor betere and it is better to 

more holy fing is to "v^'jui : Jja^ne him-zelne berne.' j)G turn. 

ilke bern]) / fet to ze??ne graunte]?. Vor he zet his He burnetii that 

ij, Ti ,, .,. ., PIT- consents to sin. 

herte be wjme and be wilninge to pe-. neve ot lecherie. 

Ac more hit were worj? him to w}n.ii / f)a/me hi??izelue They who are 

p., , li.i--j. iiii> bound by vows 

01 zniche uere uorberne. and pet is to onderstonde ot ^^ remain widows 
ham ]?et byep ine fe stat of simple wodewehod. na3t of ^^"hOTj"deadi 
fan ])et byej? ine pet stat y-bonnde be heste pet ne mo^e ^^"• 
na3t ham spousy / wyJ)-oute deadlich ze?me / efter pe [FoI. 70. b.] 
beheste. Ac alneway yef pe beheste is simple / ])et is if the behest is a 

, . . -, •T1/1 ; private one, 

to zigge / huawne hi is do pnueuche / and wyjj-onte / its violation 

sole???nete. J)a3 hit by zno fet ha zene3i dyadliche / fet ance. 

efter znych ane beheste him sponsej) : alneway he may 

bleue ine his spoushod / yef fer ne is non oper destorb- 

inge. Ac he ssel do penonce / nor pe beheste. Ac 

huanne be beheste is sole??ipne / ase be hand of p?*elat / if the behest be 

solemn, as by tlie 

ofer be profession of rehgion. oJ»er be holy ordre / ]?et handofapre- 
me hej) ondernonge / ase sudyakne / o]?er dyakne / ojjer ^ ' 
prest. hanne bo^ spoushod ne is na3t. ac rabre hit be- U n 

'- . . / the sin is deacRy, 

houe|? / to dele jjo / ]jet ine zniche manyre / comej) to- and the marriage 

gidere / nor hi ne mo3e na3t by soued ine znych stat. solved. 



The turtle dove 
teacheth us to 
keep tlie state of 

Three things 
belong to this 

1. The fellowship 
of suspected per- 
sons should be 

St Paul reproves 
young widows for 
being idle, 

and fond of 
gossiping in 
theliouses of 

2. God should be 
devoutlj' served. 

as one readeth 
of Anna, the 
good widow who 
served God in the 
temple day and 

3. Sharpness of 
meats by which 
lust may be 

The heart is 
drowned in the 
water of lusts of 
this world. 

The clothing of 
widows should 
be humble. 

They should 
imitate the ex- 
ample of Judith, 

To loki Jjet stat of wodeweliod / me ssel sterie fie 
uorbisne of J»e tnrle. Vor ase zayj) fe boc / of kende 
of testes, efter Jiet ]>e turle lie]? ylore liare make : hi ne 
ssel neuremo / habbe uela3rede / mid ojjren. ac alneway 
hi is one / ami be-uly^t / fe uelajrede of ojjren. 

j)vi jjinges belongej) moche / to ham J)et byej? ine Jie 
stat / of wodewehod. J?e uerste is lii??i-zelue kepe / and 
prmehche bi ine his house. na3t nor to uoljy pe 
nela3redes suspicionses. Jjerof we habbej) uorbisne of 
ludit / fet wes wodewe / and hi wes a uayr wyfman / 
of huam me ret ine fe writinge. pet hi hild hare ine 
hare boure be-sset mid hare maydenes. Huerof zaynte 
pauel wyj)-nimj) pe yonge wyfmen wodewen / J»et were 
ydele / and bysye to guo?zne / an to comene / ganghnde / 
and to moche spekinde. ac bisset hy ssollen by ine hare 
house / and yeue ham guode workes to done / ase 
sajmte paul tekjj. 

J5e ojjer jjing is / yeue ham to bidde god. and blejje- 
liche bi at cherche ine deuocion / and ine tyares / ase me 
ret ine pe godspelle of saint luc. fet pe ilke guode 
wodewe / fet hette anne / Jjet hy ne to-delde hire na3t / 
uram Jie temple, and seruede god ni3t / and day. ine 
benes and ine uestinges. 

\}e Jjridde jiing is / ssarpnes of metes. Vor ase zayj) 
saint bernard. pjs spiljt ine lostes. alsuo ase he spilj) ine 
pe wetere / fet zuo longe he may by fer onder : fet he 
lyest fet lif. 'Non ne may habbe his heaued. jjet is his 
herte / longe ine pe wetere / of lostes of j^ise wordle / 
Jjet he ne ssel lyese fet lyf / Jjet is pe grace of pe holy 
gost. be huam pe zaule leuejj ine god. To fo stat 
belongej) : ase 1036 clo])inge. na3t proud / ne bisiuol / to 
pe uorbisne of iudit. pet let liire uayre robes / and hare 
riche agrayjjinges / Jjo liire Ihord Aves dyad, and nom 
clofinge of wodewehod / onworj) / and I03 / and more 
wes tocne of wepinge / and of zor3e : panne of goye. and 
of ydele blisse. jjeruore J)et hi ledde chastete / and hi 


hit wolde loki al hare lif. Hy hire ssredde mid ])e who clothed her- 

here / and iieste- eche daye. and hi wes uajr j and fasted each day. 
yong / riche / and w;^'s / ac guodnesse of herte / and 
lone of chastete : hit hire dede do. And fus ssel libbe : 
jjet wyle loki chastete ine ]jo stat. Jjis is fe nerjje boj 
of fise trawe. 

}3E VIFTE BO3 OF CHASTETE. The fifth bough 

of chastity. 

be uyfte bo2 of be traAve of chastete : is maydenhod. ^he fifth bough 

' '' 7 > •> of the tree of 

and f)et is jje uifte stat / of ham jjet lokejj / and habbe]? chastity is 

1 11- I -i 1 1 • n;ii. maidenhood 

ameway loki?2ge / and bye)) alneway me wylle / to loki (single ufe). 
al hare lyf / hare bodyes yhoUiche / wyjj-oute enye cor- 

rnpcion / uor \q, lone of god. Jjis stat is moche to This state is 

alowe / uor his dingnete / nor his nayrhede / and nor praised for its 

his guodnesse. Vor his dignete : uor jjet stat make]) anTits'goodness. 

j)ane jjet hit wel lokejj / anlyke to J)e angles of heuene / For its dignity— 

for those In this 

ase ziggej) fe hal3en. Ac fos moche habbe]) fe maydmes state are like to 

more ])a?<ne fe angles, uor fe angles libbe]) \r}'])oute ^^ *"^* ^" 

ulesse : ac ])e maydines habbe]) ouerconiinge of hare 

ulesse. and hit is grat wonder ])et lii lokef znich ane 

fieblene castel / ase hare fyeble body / aye zuych ane 

strangne uend / ase is \q dyeuel of helle / fiet ahieway The devii is al- 
ways trying to 

zee]) gmnes / huerby he may nime fane castel uor to take the castie 

robbi ])et tresor of niaidenhod. |pet is fet tresor / treasure of maid- 

huerof oure Ihord / spek]) ine his sj)elle / ]50 he zede. ®'^°°'^- 

fet ' fe kingriche of heueue / is anlycned / to fe tresor / Christ speaks of 

fet is y-hed / ine J)e uelde.' ])et trezor y-hed ine fe of the field. 

uelde : is maydenhod y-hed ine bodie / bet is ase a The field is the 

body, which 

ueld / fet me ssel erye / mid penonce / and zawe mid should be eared 

guode workes. )3et trezor is anlikned / to fe kingriche and sown witu 

of heu[e]ne / uor ])et hf of maydines / is anlyloied to \q ^"^ 

line of heuene / ])et is ])et lyf of angles. Huer-of oure 

Ihord zay)) ine his spelle. ])et ine fe oprisinge / ne ssel 

by non spousynge / ase fer is hyer. ac hi ssollen by ase 

]je angles of heuene. 

Efterward fet stat is to praysy / uor his uayrhede. For its beauty— it 
15 * 



is the fairest 
state on earth. 

Solomon associ- 
ates brightness 
with chastity. 


chastity is fair 
and bright above 
other virtues. 

[' MS. Iikende2 

Maidenhood is 
the wliite robe 
wherein a spot is 
sooner discovered 
than in any other 

It should be pre- 
served from fllth, 
blood, and fire. 
The filth is the 
covetousness of 
the world. 

None may please 
God who seek 
to please the 
world, that is, 
God's foe. 

[2 So in MS.] 

One sign of 
pleasing the 
world is the 
decking of the 

[Fol. 71. b.] 

Fairness without 
is often gained 
by the loss of 
purity within. 

uor pet is fe uariste stat fet is iiie ei'J?e / madeuhod 
cleiiliche yloked. Huerof Salomon zayf ine his boc of 
Ayysdome. ' O.' zay]) lie / 'hiiet is uayr chastete / kenrede 
mid bri3tnesse.' lie zet ri3t wel bri3tnesse mid chastete. 
nor J)a?ine is uayr c[h]astete / and majdenhod / hua?me 
hi is bri3t be guode hue / and oneste. Ase fe bri^t- 
nesse of fe zo?me makejj Jjane uayre day : alsuo fe 
bri3tnesse of grace / and of giiode Hue : make]) Ipe 
maydenhod ua}T / and likinde ' to god. Huerof saynt 
lerome zayjj / ))et mochel is uajT and bri^t / to-uore 
j?e oJ)re u/?-tues / maydenhod. hua??ne hi is wyjjoute 
lac / and wyjj-oute ueljje of ze?me. Yor huo fet is yhol 
of bodie / and uoul ine herte : is ase J?e berieles yhuited / 
Jjet is uayr wyjj-oute : and wyjj-iwne uol of stench. 
Maydenhod is fe huite robe / huerinne jje spot is uouler 
and more yzyenne / ))a«ne in anojjer cloj). J)et ssel by 
wel yloked uram fri spottes. uram hor. uram blod. an 
uram ver. j)ise jjri spottes be-uelejj moche J)is huite 
cloJ). Ipe spot of hor : is fe couaytise of Ipe wordle / Ipet 
ne ssel na3t by ine his herte / pelp \Ayle queme god ine 
Jje stat of maydenhod. uor non ne may y-queme god / 
and to his jxio j ase zayj* sainte gregorie. And J>e ilke 
him ssewejt / J?et he ne is na3t godes vrend : fet wjde 
kueme J)e wordle / ))et is godes uend. Jjeruore saint 
Ion zayjj / J)et ' huo jiet wyle by urend to J)e wordle : he 
ssel by uend to god.' and sainte paul zay J), 'yef ich w}'Ue 
queme to Jie uolke of ))e wordle : ichc'^ ne ssel na3[t] by 
lesu cr/stes se/iont.' 

O tocne / J?et me wyle kueme Ipe wordle is : jje 
agraypinge aboute ])et body, uor non ne wolde neure 
mor zeche / uairhede / ne bisihede of robes / ne of 
agrayfinge : bote yef he ne wende to by yzo^e of pe 
uolke. Ac huo Jjet "wile zeche zuich uayrhede "vv;}"]j-oute : 
he lyest ]?e uajThede ■w^'j^-inne / huer-by me kuem]) god. 
)5eruore sajmt bernard zayJj to ham J)et zechij? jje 
coustouse robes / and Jje uajTe agrayjjinge uor to kueme 


pe wordle/and ham uor to ssewy. 'j?e do3tren' he zayjj 
' of babilonie / Jjet is of co«fusioii / zechej) hire hlisse / 
and hit ssel wende ham in-to co?2fuzioii / and to ssame 
eurelestinde / bote yef hi ham ne Avj-tie.' ' Hi ham Purple clothes 

,,T ,., ;i-i 1/ ^^"^ '^•^^ robes 

cioJ?e]> he zayJj / ' mid pourpre / and mid uayre robes / often hide a poor 

and costuolle / and onder Jje uayxe robes / is ofte pet 

in^ivyt / poure / and naked. And hi hise aK3tej) ^jp- 

oute / mid stones / and mid broches of gold / and of 

zeluer. Ac hi bye]) ealde / and uoule / beuore god / 

be kueade jjeawes.' Ac saint bemard zayJj / and spekj) 

of ham pet zuo ham ssewejj / ine wykkede onderstond- 

inge / and doj) more farme hare stat acsej). Ac al pe 

blisse of pe kinges dojter of blisse / ase zayj) daui)) / is Aiithejoy of 

, /.,-,. , ,. , , the king's 

wj'p-irtne / me holy inwyt / and me uayre uirtues huer daughter of bUss 

- - J • / -> 1 , 1 141 consists in a holy 

per ne is no couajiise / bote nor to kueme god. And and nndeflied 
jjos pe spot of pe hore : ne beueljj hit na3t. ™™'^ 

And Jjos me ssel "nytye in fet stat / uram pe spotte The white robe 
of blod. j)et is of fortes / and of ulessHche wylninges. from biooi, 
Huerof saint lorome zay>. Jjet fe ilke maydenhod is SJ^t^''"^ 
sacrefice and ofringe to lesn erist : ])et ne is na^t be- 
smetted ine herte mid kueade ])03tes. ne ine ulesse : of 
lecherie. ase hi/Hzelf zayji. ' Xa3t ne is worj) maidenhod Maidenhood of 
of bodye : pev Jjet is uel]je of herte.' Ase Jiet fnit ne is without '^purit^'of 
na3t guod / J3a3 hit by wel uayr Avijj-oute / hua/ine hit is ^^'^' 
uorroted and wermethe. 

Efterward he ssel him loki ine jjet stat uram pe The robe must 

. . , , , p 1 1 , , , , , be preserved from 

spotte pet comp or pe uere. Jjet uer Jjet zengj) and the spot of fire. 
bemji ofte pe huyte robe of chastete / and of mayden- 
hod : is blej)eliche zigge / oJ)er to Iheste wordes Jjet 
mo3e sterie to zenne. Vor ase zayJj zaynte paul / and 
eftzone we hit habbejj aboue y-zed. ' J3e kueade wordes : Bad words mar 
amerrej) Jje guode Jieawes.' And Jjeruore zayJi senekes. ^ mannei^, 
' loke Jje uram uoule wordes jjet ne byejj na3t honeste.' they destroy 

-r-r 1 T . r n rt- modesty, 

\ or huo Jiet him y[e]fj) to uoule wordes hi ham ssolle na3t 
ssamie and afrounti / J»et is te zigge / hi lyezejj jje 
ssame / and uallej) Jie li3tlaker in-to ze«ne. and f»ereuore 



and burn or singe 
the soul. 

Mtiiclenhood is 
like the lily, fair 
and while. 

St John the 
evangelist was 
the most beloved 
disciple of oiu- 

[Fol. 72. a.] 

because of his 

Maidenhood well 
rooted in God's 

is preserved from 

The flower of 
maidenhood hath 
six leaves. - 
Tlie first leaf is 
holiness and 
purity of body. 
[} loyouote inMS.^ 

The second leaf 
is purity of heart. 

huo Jjet \vyle loki clenliclie J)ane huyte kertel of madcii- 
hod. : him beliouej) him loki uor to speke / ofer to 
y-liiere wordes zuyche / huerof he may him heme / 
ojjer he-zenge. )pe pnue cat hezeng]: ofte his sciii / and 
zuo ne dej) na3t ]>g wyhle cat. Maydenhod amang jje 
opve u/?-tues is anhkned to Jie lylye pet is wel uayr and 
huyt. jperuore oure Ihord zay]? ine pe writinge he 
salomo?^nes moujje. ' My leniman is ase jje lylye amang 
pe fornes.' Oure Ihordes le??mian special is yloued / 
J)et lokejj maydenhod. Vor J»et is a nfvtue hiierhy zanle 
ondeniangj) specialhche more lone / and Jie fauour of 
onre Ihorde lesu ci-ist. j)anue saint Ion Jie ewangelist 
J)et wes mayde / wes amang pe apostles / pe meste 
helouede of oure lliorde. and him ssewede oure Ihord pe 
meste tokne of louerede / ase hit sseweji ine pe god- 
spelle. And zuo ha wes ycleped amang pe ojjre 
decip[l]es : Jie deciple / Jiet lesu c?-/st mest louede. na3t 
uorjjan / Jiet he ne louede wel Jie^ ojire / ac Jiane more 
specialliche uor Jie maydenhod. J3is hlye flour lokej) liis 
uayrhede amang Jie Jiornes of uondi[n]gges of Jie ulesse. 
Vor Jiet uless is ase a donghel / Jet ne carkeji asemoche 
ase is of hi?».-zelue / hote Jiornes / and netlen. Jiet hyej) 
kueade meniynges / Jiet ofte prekieji Jiane gost. Ac Jie 
flour of maydenhod ne hej hede of Jio Jiornes. uor hi is 
wel y-roted ine godes lone / Jiet hire wereji uram Jie 
Jiornes of uondinge. 

J)is flour hit ssel habhe zix leues / and Jiry grayns 
of gold aboue wyjiinne. j)e uerste lyaf is yholnesse / 
and cle«nesse of bodye. Jiet is to zigge / Jjet Jiet body 
by y-hol / wy[ji]-oute ' ueljie of lecherie. Vor yef a mayde 
were uorlaye be strengjie / and a-ye "vvyl : hi ne ssolde 
na3t Jieruore lyese hare maydenhod / ne Jie mede of 
hare maydenhod. Jperuore sainte lucie zayde to pe 
tiront. ' Yef Jiou me beuelst aye mi wyl : my chasthede 
hit ssel by me y-dobbled / ase to Jie coroune of bhsse.' 
J?et ojier lyaf is cle?inesse of herte. Vor ase zajp saint 


leronie. Na3t ne is worjj to habbe maidenhod of 
bodye : fet hef wyl to by y-spoused. He spekp of fan 
jjet babbef behote maidenbod. Vor huo Ipet lie]) be- 
hote]|mayden]iod ojser chastete to loki / he ssel loki his 
herte chastliche / and clenliche. pe fridde lyeaf is ^'^^^"1^2^*'"''' 
mildenesse. Vor maydenhod proud : ne quern]? nojiing 
god. And feruore zayjj saint bernard. ' Hit is wel uayr 
Jjing : Jjet hef nii[l]denesse mid maidenhod. and wel 
stranglaker kuemj) to god fe ilke zaule to huam mil- 
denesse yefj) los to maydenhod. and maydenlaod / 
uayrejj mildenesse.' Ich dar wel zigge / fet wyfoute ^gg\°^g ™^^\'^'jj 
mildenesse / be maydenhod of marie / ne hedde neure of Mary would 

' ■■ "^ not have been 

y-quemd to god. uor w;)']3-oute madenhod / we mo3e by pieasuig to God. 
v-bor2e : and najt ^ry-oute mildenes. be uerbe lyeaf of The fourth leaf 

J > 7 ■/ J I o is the fear of 

]je floui- of hlye of maydenhod : is drede of god. Vor God. 

J)o Jjet bye)) zofliche maidines / hi were y-woned to bi 

dreduol / and ssamuest. and hit nis no wonder : uor 

lii bare J) a wel precious tresor ine a wel fyebble uet. 

)5a?^ne Jje mayde marie wes alneway by hire-selue / and 

hedde greate drede / \>o pe angel ssewede him to hire. 

Ac f e drede of god / is f e tresoriere / f et / >et tresor '^^^^^ 

of- madenhod lokej) / fet fe dyeuel me may hit stele, ofthe treasury of 

u or lii lokej) Ipe gates of fe kastele : huer fet tresor is 

be-sset. be gates of be kastele huer maydenhod is : J'^'^ sates ofthe 

i' o r -J treasury are the 

byej) ])G gates of fe herte. j)e like gates lokej) / pe gates of the 
drede of oure Ihorde / ])et lii ne by opene to fe viende The fear of God 

. locks these gates 

be ydele bysyhede of z^])e / of hyerfe / and ot speche / so that they are 

„ . . , , . . T • • not open to the 

ojjer of guomges me uela3redes suspiciouses. uor bisi- ^^^^^^ 

hede is specialUche to yzy / and to hyre pe ydelnesses 

of fe wordle / hy bye)) ofte way to ze/me of lecherie. 

jjawne me ret ine fe writinge / fet lacobbes do3ter / 

))o hi yede muzi uor bysihede uor to ysy \)q wymen of 

fe contraye huer Jjet hi wes. Hi wes y-rauissed of fe [Foi. 72. b.] 

pj-mces zone of be cite / and uorlaye. And Jjeruore whowiiipre- 

■•■ 11^' serve virginity 

huo bet wyle loki maydenhod hi?/j behoueji moche must withdraw 

1 • •! 1 A T ''^^ "''^ from idle 

wyjjdraje his wyttes uor to zye?me ydele bisihede. And business. 


])ct me dejj be lioly tbede of oure Uiorde jjet me dret 

alday to wrejji. )?et is pet wjt of J>e uif maydines 

liuerof oure Ihord lesu crist spekji ine his spelle fo lie 

The kingdom of zede. j)et j)e kiiigriclie of lieiiene is anlikned to ]>& ten 

heaven is likened n , -n ii.i ■£ 

to the ten madmes. liueroi Jje vil were wyse. and pe opre mi were 

Tewerewise''"' foles. He clepe]) liier-ine fan of J^e kingriclie of 
foolish'^ "'^'^^'^^ heuene : Jioly chercbe. fet is bier benejje. hueriune 
bye]) guode / and kueade / of foles / and of wyse. ])et 
byeji lenies of lioly chercbe / by fe byleaue of c?'{sten- 
The five wise are dom. ))e vif wyso bctokneb bo bet wel lokef> / and 

those that control i i i 

the five wits of lede]) pe vif wyttes of fe bodie. huerof Ave habbe]) 
beuore yspeke. pe vif foles be-tokne]? po : pet folHche 
his lokejj. 

The fifth leaf is Vjet vlffce leaf is ssarpnesse of hue. A"or huo bet 

" sharpness 

(austerity) of wyle wel loki liis maydenhod : him behouej) wel vpys- 
hche his uless ouercome / and do onderuot / be 
uestinges / be wakiinges / and be benes. Ssa[r]ppnesse 

which is a strong of hue / is ase a Strang heg uor to loki bane gardin of 

hedge surround- 
ing the garden of pe herte uram kuede bestes. J?et bye J) Jie viendes of 

helle / pet hy ne mo3e na3t in. J»et ne wylne[j3] na^t bote 

stele : fet tresor of maydenhod. and Jjeruore ssel fet 

tresor by wel be-sset / and wel y-do op / Jjet liit ne by 

uorlore. uor huo ))et hit lyest : neure ne ssel hit habbe 

ayen. nawmore jjawne pe lompe hua?^ne hi is to-broke / 

ne may by y-held. 

The sixth leaf is J?et zixte leaf is / bleuinge / Jjet is stedeuest wyl to 

constancy ii- 

(stedfastuess). loki ])et me he]) behote to god. panne saynt austm 

" roiiovv\ht'laib zay]) ine pe bok of maydenhod. and spek]) to maydines / 

aS^is'^Jesus ^^^ ^^yP f^^- ^013^}' fet lamb of mildenesse / ])et is 

Christ." jggij c7"/st / lokiude uestliche / })et ])ou best behote to 

god. do hardihche alsuo moche ase pe mi^t. J)et pe 

guodnesse of maydenhod ne spille ine pe. uor ])ou ne 

mi^t do no j)ing huerby hit com]) ayen : yef ])ou hit 

liest. ase we pe habbe}) y-zed uorbysne of pe lompe. And 

study persever- . 

ance, for it win- Saint bemard ])us zay]). Stude ])ou to bleue. uor hi 

neth the crown of / , ■ n 1 

heaven. One / wyu]) pe corouiie 01 heuene. 


pise zix leues beuore yzed uayi'e]? moche fe lylye of 
maydenliod. ac hit behouej) Jjet jjis flour Kabbe ^yJj)- 
inne Jjri cornes of gold. Jjet betoknej? jjri maneres to 
loiiie god. Vor maydenliod wyJ3-oute Jje loue of god / virginity without 
is ase jse lonipe wy]j-oute oyle. panne pe fole maydenes is a lamp witiiout 
uor fet hi ue uelden na3t hare lo?Hpen mid Jje oyle : 
weren basset wy])-oute uram jje bredale. And Ipe wyse 
maydines jjet wel nelden hyre lomjjen of pe oyle : 
yeden in mid jje bredgome to pe bredale. 

J?e fri maneres to louie god / pet hjep be-tokned The three grains 
be jje Jiri cornes of jje lilye : sajTit aiistin tekjj po he eth how to love 
zede jjus. j5ou sselt louye god mid al fine onderstond- ^jfj^' ^^^ ^^^^^.^ 
inge wyb-oute errour. niid ale bine wvUe vrvb-oute ^t'*"*^"?' ^i"' 

, / . ' "^ "^ ' and thought. 

vv^yjjziggi^ge. and mid al Jjuie bejjenchinge wyjj-oute 
uoryetinge. Ine zuyche manyere is godes anlyche in such manner 

, , , . , , • T . ^^ God's likeness 

uoiueid ine manne / by pe px\ dingnetes jjet bie ji me jje fulfilled in man 

zaide. jpet is to wytene. onderstondinge. bejjenchinge. properties of the 

and wyl. Hua«ne jjise jjri jjiuges byejj wel ydi^t to ^°" ' 

god ine firi maneres / ase zayj) saint austin / panne byejj [FoI. 73. a.] 

jje jjri cornes of jje lilye wel y-gelt mid jje golde of 

charite jjet yefjj uayrhede / and guodhede to alle 

Ui'rtues. uor wij)-oute jjo golde / no u/rtue ne is be-uore 

god. Ojjerlaker spekjj saynt bernard of jje maniere to st Bernard 

louye god. And jjus zayjj. ' 0. jju jjet art eri&ten / i^e God ^^ 

lyerne hou jjou sselt louie god / pet is lesu crhV 

Lierne him to louie / vrysliche. zuetehche. stran[g]liche. wisely, sweetly, 

T 1 -ITT T 1 J 1 1 strongly, and 

and stedeuestliche. Wysliche : pet jJou ne by y-stered stedfastiy. 
be none prosperite. Strongliche : jjet jjou ne by ouer- be not'^inoved by ** 
come / be none aduersete. and jJus is uayr jjet flour of stror"'^that 
be lylye of maydenhod / hua/me hi is zuvch / ase we "*°" ^* ^°^ o^^""' 

r J J •! I J I comebyadver- 

habbej) y-zed. And jjet is pe ojjer scele huer-by pe stat ^'^y- 

of madenhod / is moche to praysy / jjet is uor liis 

J?e jjridde scele huerby hit is to alowe / is uor his '^\^ "!'''<^ ""'^''^o" 

•* '' I why virginity is 

guodhede / and uor be note bet berof comb. Vor may- *» '^^ praised 

° . ' '^ Y r r J is for its good- 

denhod is a tresor of zuo grat worj) : jjet liit ne may nesg. 



Nothing is 
worthy of being 
compared to the 
chaste heart. 

Virginity brings 
forth most fruit. 
Maniage thii-ty- 

widowhood sixty- 

and virginity a 

[i bolcmge\> and 
bouore in MS.] 

In marriage one 
shall keep the ten 

In widowhood 

one shall keep 
the ten behests, 
and six works of 

The number 
hundred betoken- 
eth a round num- 
ber, and is the 
fairest of all 

It betokeneth the 
crown wherewith 
the wise maidens 
crowned them- 

[2 Originally the 
passage stood 
thus, were mid 

for they have a 
special crown 
above the crown 
of bliss, 

by / be nonen y-zet a pr/s. j)anne pe writinge zayf. 
)?et no fing ne is wovlpi to be ylykned : to Jje chaste 
lierte. and is to onderstonde specialliche : of ]>e chaste 
maydenhod. uor maidenhod aboiie alle ojjre states ber]) 
jjet gratteste frut. j5o pet byej? ine spoushod yef hit 
lokej) ase hi ssolden : hi habbejj Jjet J5iitta3te frut. Jpo 
Jjet byej) in wodewe-hod : habbej) fet zixtia^te frut. ])o 
fet lokejj maydenhod : habbeji Jiet hondr[ed]a3te frut. 
Vor zuo zayjj oure Ihord ine his spelle. Jiet / fiet zed 
fet vil into pe guode londe : fructefide of one half to jje 
J)ritta3te. of ojjer half to zixtia3te. and of fe Jjridde 
half / to Jje hondreda3te. j)ise fri nombres of fritti. of. 
Ix. and of an hondred : belongej) ^ to Jie Jiri states beuore ^ 
yzed. pe tale of fritti / pet is of jjrisijje ten : belongej? 
to pe stat of spoushod. huer me ssel loki pe ten hestes 
ine pe byleaue of Jje t^v'nite. j)e tale of zixti Jjet is wel 
gratter / J»et is of zixzife ten. be-longe]) to pe stat of 
wodewehod. uor in zuych stat me sse[l] lold pe ten 
hestes. and mid J»an me ssel do pe zix workes of merci / 
huer-of we habbej? aboue y-speke. Ac Jje tale of an 
hondred fet is femeste of pe Jjriuol-do. uor hibetoknejj 
ane rounde figure. J»et is pe uayreste amang alle pe 
oJ)re figures. Vor ase ine pe rounde figure : pe ende 
went ayen to his ginninge / and make)) ase ane coroune : 
alzuo Jie tale of an hondred : ioyne]? pern ende to pe 
gi?zninge. uor tenzife ten : make)) an hondred / jjet be- 
toknej) pe coroune jjet pe wjse maydjTies : ham 
cororuiede.^ And pa^ hit by zuo fet ine pe stat of 
spoushod. and ine pe stat of wodewehod / me may wel 
Wynne pe coroune of bHsse / and more habbe of merite 
auoreye god : psme uele madines. Vor manie pev byej) 
ine paradis of ham ))et habbe)» yby ine spoushod / and 
ine wodewehod / fet more byej) nier god : panne manye 
maydines. ac alneway habbej) pe maydines ane specials 
coroune : aboue jje coroune of bhsse / jjet is pe coroune 
to alle pe hal3en. Vor fiet pe maydines habbe)) ane 


speciale ouercomynge of liare ulesse. nor to uol^y fie 

lamb of mildenesse / huyder hit gejj / to liiiam lii [Foi. 73. b.] 

Ibyej) y-spoused. and liabbej) ylete pe ulessliche for they have 

, , , . , , . , overcome in an 

sposayles / uor to by mid mm ate sposayles sure- especial manner 

1 . . ^ the lusts of the 

lestinde. Aesh. 

J3e tende ' stat huer me ssel loki cbestete / is of The sixth state of 
clerkes y-hoded / ase byejj sujjdealoies / dyaknes / hoodeo'eierks, 
prestes / and bissoppes. Alle fos byef y-hyea[l]de to ;',es~:,who 
loki chastete / nor manye sceles. Verst / uor bet hod '"'* bound to 

I <J I r preserve chastity 

bet hi habbeb onderuonge / bet acseb alle holinesse. for many reasons. 

^ ^ . First, because 

j)anne ]>et sacrement is zno he^ and zno holy / pet po their hood de- 

jjet hit onderuongejj / bye]? ybounde to chastete to loky. ness. * 

Jjet neuremo hi ne mo3e ham do to spoushod. Efter- secondly, their 

ward nor hare office ]?et hi habbejj. nor hi bye)) y-di^t. God* '^ 

propreHche to serni god ine his tewple at his wenede. 

and handle]) / and be-takej) to hare honden pe j)inges 

pet byej) y-hal3ed. ase pe nesseles ybhssed. pe chalis. to handle sacred 

pe copereans. and fet more is grat J)ing wyj)-onte com- and"^above aii 

parisonn : bet bodi of onre lords lesn cn'st / bet be the body of our 

■• I f T Lord Jesus 

prestes sacrej) / and ondernongej) / and betake]) o])ren. Christ. 

JSTon hi ssolden panne by wel klene / and wel holy / 
nor fane scele of pe Ihorde to huam hi serue]) / fet is 
holy / and hate]) alle nelfe. Jeanne he zajp ine pe The Scripture 
writinge. ' Bye]) holy / uor ich am holy.' uor to zuiche fori'amhoiy.'^' 
Ihorde / zuich maine. Vor fie scele of fie stede huer hi 
seruef) / fiet is fie cherche / fiet is holy / and y-hal3ed 
god to seruy. Me uint ine pe writinge / fet amang pe Among the 
paenes fie prestes fiet lokeden chastete ine fie temple / observe chastity 
weren to-deld uvam pe ofiren / fet hi ne loren hire ^^ «tempe. 
chastete. Mochel ssollen bi more clene wjp-oute com- 
pansoun / and more chast fie cmtene prestes / fiet 
sernye]) me godes te?/iple / f)et is y-hal3ed / and 
apropred god to serni. Yet eft hi ssoUe by more christian priests 
clene / and more holy / uor fiet hi seruef) at godes more chaste, 
borde of his coupe / of his breade / and of his ^vJ'n.e / 
[1 So in' MS. : read zizte ?] 



for they serve at 
God's table. 

St Paul exhorts 
Christian bishops 
to be chaste. 

This chastity 
was betokened in 
the Old Law by 
the girding of 
the loins. 

The g irdle is 

Aaron and his 
children were 
clothed in linen 

Before the linen 
" kirtle " is white 
it must be beaten 
and washed ; 
so must the flesh 
be disciplined by 

The kirtle must 
have above the 
white girdle of 

[Fol. 74. a.] 

The linen kirtle 
betokeneth chast- 
ity of heart. 

The girdle above 
denotes chastity 
of body. 

and of his mete. Godes table is jje wyeued. J?e coupe 
is fe clialis. his bread and his wyn : ])et is liis propre 
bodi and his propre blod. Mochel ssolle lii J?a?me by 
clone and holy / J30 Jjet zuiche seruice dojj. jjanne 
sainte panl zayj). hit behoue)) fet J)e bissoppes / and jje 
ojjre ministres of huani he heji y-speke / fiet byej) Ipe 
ministres of holy cherche / by chaste. 

J)is chastete wes be-tokned iiie f>e yealde la3e Imer 
god het to ham Jjet ssolden ethe of jje lombe / jjet be- 
toknede Jjet bodi of lesu cn'st / fet lii gerten wel hare 
lenden. j)e gerdel huermide jie ministres of holy 
cherche / ssolle ham gerde / ope fe lenden : is chastete / 
jjet wyJ3-dra3jj fe lecherie of hare ulesse. j)o god het 
to aaron / Jjet wes prest and bissop / J)et alle his chil- 
dren weren yclofed ine linene kertles / and y-gert 
aboue mid huite linene gerdles. Aaron and his chil- 
dren / ])et serueden ine fe tabernacle : be-toknej? / jje 
ministres of holy cherche / Jjet ssol by y-clojjed mid 
linene kertles / of chastete / jjet is be-tokned be jje 
huite ulexe. Vor ase linene kertel erfan hi by huyte : 
uelezijje hi???, behouejj Jjet he by ybeate / and y-Avesse : 
And alsuo hit be-houej) / ]?et uless beate / and wesse / 
be dissiplines / and be hardnesses, and ofte wesse his 
herte of kueade lostes. and of kueade \A^lnynges / be 
zofe ssrifte / er pan me mo^e habbe pane huite kertel 
of chastete. Ac pes kertel ssel habbe pane huyte gerdel 
aboue. pet is to zigge / pet chastete ssel bi straytHche 
y-loked / and wel wyp-dra^e be abstinence [uorberinge] / 
ase moche ase scele berp / pet is pe bocle of pe gerdle. 
Operlaker me may zigge / pet pe linene kertel / be-tokn- 
ep chastete of herte. pe gerdel aboue / be-tocnep 
chastete of bodie pet ssel wypdra^e pe lostes of pe 
ulesse uor to loki pe chastete of pe zaule. j)is ilke selue 
is ous betokned / ine pe aube / and ine pe gerdle aboue / 
pet pe ministres of holy cherche dop an / hua«ne hi 
ssolle serui at godes wyeuede. Vor hi ssolle by chaste 


wvljine ine be lierte / and -tt^'b-Giite ine bodye. Mocliel Very foul is the 

'' ' ' ' '' ' _ "^ _ spot of lechery in 

is uoul be spot of ze?ine / and nameliche of lecherie / the ministers of 

•* ^ ' ' ' the church, 

ine jje ministres of holy clierche. Vor hi biejj Jje 630 
of holy cherche / ase zayjj J»e ^Titinge. Yor ase jjet 
626 let bet body / and \\\ni sseweb his way hnerby hit for they are the 

eyes of Holy 

ssel guo : alsuo ssoUe jje prelas / and jje ojire ministres cimrch. 

of holy cherche sse^vy jjane way of helj^e to oJ)ren. 

Jpanne alsuo ase J)e spot fet is wel uouler ine fe e^en / as the spot is 

. „., , . L £ fouler in the eye 

J)a?nie me ojjre iemes 01 pe bodye : alsuo is pe spot 01 than in the other 

lecherie more uouler/ and more perilous ine clerkes so is lechery more 

and ine prelas : jsawne ine leawede uolke. Efterward / and'^reutes'^^han 

hy byejj fe sseawere of holy cherche / huerine Jiet in'ewdfoik. 

lewede uolk loke]) /and nimej) uorbysne. Ac hua??ne 

fe sseawere is bri3t me zijjj wel fane spot / and fe 

ueljje fat is ine ])e ssewere. Ac jje ilke Jjet ine zuich a 

ssewere na3t ne lokej) / he ne zikji' na3t his 03ene spot / [i aijfjp] 

ne ]?et me de]) mid jje sseawere Jiet is uoul an dim. Ac 

hua?jne fe ilke sseawere is wel bri3t and clene : ]5a?^ne 

may me wel y-zy / and wel y-knawe liis spottes. Alzuo 

hua/?ne jje prelat is of guode Ijiie / and of guod los. 

jja?^ne he ssel nime uorbisne of guode lyue. Efterward. Prelates should 

be pure and holy, 

hi ssolle by wel klene / and wel holy, uor fet hi for they haiiow 

clenze]) / and hal3e]) fe ojjre. Vor ase zayjj sajTit ' 

gregorie. 'fe hand )jet is uoul / and behorewed / ne 

may ojjremawne uelfe do away.' and jje writinge zayjj. 

bet be ilke bet is uoul : ne may nenne obrenne kle?zsy. '^"t the foul are 

not able to cleanse 

And J)et is to onderstonde : ase moche ase faylej) of his others. 

merits. Yor Jje sacrement jjet is y-mad be fe ministre / 

be )je hand of Jje kueade ministre. ne is na3t lesse worjj 

ine lii??i-zelue / ne lesse uiHuous / ne Jje lesse mi3tuol / 

uor to hal3y ham Jjet liit onderuongejj. Yor yef hit on- 

deruongejj be l)e hand of ane guode miuistre. uor Jje The wickedness 

of the minister 

kueadnesse of Jje ministre / ne apayrejj na3t Jje sacre- impaireth not 

, the virtue of the 

ment / ne Jie guodnesse. Ac alneway Jje kueadnesse of sacrament. 
Jje ministre / may anpayri Jje ojire be kueade uorbysnen. 
and J»e guodnesse edefie / be uorbisne of guode lyue. 



Ministers should 
be ail example of 
chastity to theirl 

The seventh state 
is the state of 

Those who are 
dedicated to God 
must always ob- 

[Fol. 74. b.] 

for their state 
is one of per- 

The devil strives 
most to tempt 
them to sin. 

for he has greater 
j oy over the fall 
of a good and 
great man than 
over many others, 

as the fishennan 
hath greater joy 
to take a great 
fish than a little 

)?eruore jjawne liuam fet hi hal3e]j / and dense]) jje ojjre 
ine fet hi ministrej) |je sacremens of holy cherche : hy 
ssolle by pe more holy / and more clene / J»a?ine fe 
o])re. Vor yef hi byej) queade : hi ssolle by fe more 
y-harmed / J)a«ne jje o])re. j)is is Jie zixte stat. 
hner me ssel loki chastete. and Jje zixte boj of Jjise 

])e zeuende stat hner me ssel loki chastete : is Jje 
stat of religioun. uor fo Jjet byeJ) ine fet stat / habbejj 
to god behote : fet hi ssolle libbe eiiremor chasteliche. 
And Jjeruore hy bye]) y-hyealde / and y-obliged be 
ziiych beheste. fet nenremor hi ne mo^e by spoused / 
ze])])e hi byef profes. And huo pet him dep s]3ousy : 
fe sponshod ne ssel by na3t. and feruore hi ssolle do 
greate payne / and grat diligence wel to loki hare 
chastete / and uor hare stat / pet is stat of holy pe?'fec- 
cion. ])et pe more J)et / fet stat is holy : be zuo moche 
is pe ze??ne pe more / and pe more uoul. Jpe uouler 
fet is pe spot : pe more he is yzyenne ine pe huyte robe. 
And huo fet he3est ualp : pe zorer he him blechef. 
And uor to ouercome hire aduersarie fet is pe dieuel / 
fet mest Imn paynej) uor to uondi and to do ualle fo of 
religion, and more is gled huanne he his may ouer- 
come : panne of eni o]ier stat. Yor alsuo ase pe angles 
of heuene habbe]) grat glednesse of ane zene3ere 
hua/ine he him repente]) / and dej) penonce uor his 
zewnes ; alsuo pe dyeulew ham gledie]) hua?^ne ' hi mo3e 
ouercome / and do ualle in-to zewne ane guodne man. 
And pe more Jiet he is of grat stat / and pe i^arfiter : 
pe more hef he pe gratter glednesse / hua?2ne he him 
may gyly. Ase pe ^dssere hep more blisse uor to nime 
ane gratne viss : ])ane ane littlene. 

Here lieth a 


One readeth in 

the lives of the 

Hyer ly]) a tale. 
Me ret ine Hues of holy uaderes / fet an holy man 

1 MS. \>uannc 


tealde / hou he com to "by monek / and zede. hoii bet i^oiy fathers 

that a holy man 

he hedde y-by ane payenes zone / Jtet wes a prest to jje toia how he be- 

. came a monk. 

monienettes. And po he wes a child : on time he yede He was a pagan 
into ]je temple mid his uader pn'ueliche. )?er he yze3 whenaXudhe 
ane gratne dyeuel fet zet ope ane uyealdinde stole / and temp°ie oV" ^^^ 
al his mayne aboute him. ber com on of be prmces : Mahomet, 

■^ ' ' ^ and there he saw 

and leat to hi?n. j)o he Mm aksede be ilke bet zet ine a great devii sit- 
ting on a folding- 

pe stole, hiia/mes he com. and he ansuerede / fet he stooi, and aii his 
com uram ane londe huer he hedde arered and ymad Mm. 

/ T ... ; , , 1 One of his princes 

manye werren / and manye vi3tinges / zno fet moche came and toid him 

uolk weren yssla3e /and moche blod Jjer y-ssed. ])e 'fy^^lJ'^r]'^^]^ a 

mayster hi??^ acsede ine hou moche time he hedde Jjet caused in so days, 

y-do. and he ansuerede: 'ine britti daaes.' he him zede/ His master the 

devil ordered him 

'Ine zuo moche time / hest zuo lite y-do V j5o he het to be weii beaten, 

, because in so 

]jet ha wer ri3t wel ybeate / and euele y-dra^e. Jitter much time he had 

J>an : com anojser jjet alsuo to hi??i leat ase fe uerste. 

)3e mayster hi?». acsede : hua??nes ha com. He ansuerede / Another came 

and said tliat in 

j?et he com uram fe ze. huer he hedde ymad manye 20 days he 

, . ,11/1 1 n had caused tem- 

te?wpestes. uele ssipes to-broke / and moche uolk pests and ship- 
adrey[n]ct. j)e maister acsede ine hou lo?zg time, he "^^^^ ^' 
ansuerede /'ine tuenti da3es.' He zayde / ' Ine zuo He too was re- 

1 • 1 T 1 ) T-i /» 1 buked for his 

moche time: hest zuo htey-do? Efterward com pe idleness. 
bridde. bet ansuerede / bet he com uram ane cite huer a third came and 

related how at a 

he hedde y-by at ane bredale / and per he hedde arered wedding he had 
and y-mad cheastes / and strifs. zuo pet moche uolk discord, and' 
Jjer were y-sla3e. and Jjer-to : he hedde ysla3e jjane ^ys^'^^ "^ 
hosebounde. ])g maister him acsede hou long time he 
zette fet uor to done. He ansuerede fet ine ten da3es. 
j3o he het ]}et he were wel ybyate. uor jjet he hedde for which he was 
zuo longe abide f et to done : A\d]3-oute more. Ate beSr S" 
lasten com an-ober to-uore be prmce. and to him he oolong about it. 

•'•'■'■ At last there 

bea3. And he him acsede / huannes comst fou. He ^^^ another, 
ansuerede pet he com uram pe ermitage / huer he who said he came 

■1111 ,. , 1. ipi>' from an hermit- 

nedcle yby uourti yer uor to uondi ane monek ol lorni- ^^^ where he 
cacion / bet is be zenne of lecherie. and zuo moche ich ^^^'^ '^f " ^'i. 

' ' ' years temptmg a 

habbe y-do bet ine bise nyjt ich hine habbe ouercome / ^""'^ *» commit 

'••'■> I fornication, and 



[Fol. 75. a.] 
was ultimately- 
Tlie devil kissed 
this prince, and 
placed a crown 
on his head and 
praised him for 
his prowess. 

Thus we see how 
glad the devil is 
when he may- 
cause a man of 
religion to fall 
into sin. 

Our Lord went 
into the desert to 
be tempted. 

Religion is a 
desert hard and 

Wlioso will avoid 
lechery, must 
withdraw from 
the lusts of the 

He who will take 
a castle must 
withdraw the 
meat and the 
water so as to 
starve his foe. 

The castle of the 
womb may not 
withstand the 
spirit when it is 
star\'ed by fast- 
ings and absti- 

and y-do him iialle in-to Jie ze?me. J5o lliip op pe 
mayster / and him keste / and be-clepte / and dede pe 
coroime ope his hened / an dede him zitte he-zide him. 
and to him zede / fet he hedde grat fing y-do / and 
grat prowesse. j3o zayde J^e guode man / Jjet huawne 
he hedde Jjet y-hyerd / and pet j-zo^e : he Jjo^te / jjet hit 
were grat jjing to hy monek / and be po encheysoun 
he hecom monek. 

Ine J)ise tale me may ysy / ))et greate glednesse hal)- 
beJ3 pe dyeiden hua?aie hi mo3e do iialle ane man of re- 
hgion in-to ze?me. Vor hua?me Jiet a man is y-giio in- 
to religion / he is ase pe ilke Jiet gejj in-to pe iielde 
nor hi?/i-zelue / to ni3te w}'J> fiane dyenel. )5a?me 
hua?ine oure Ihord wolde by uonded of pe dyeule : he 
yede in-to desert, nor Jie desert of religion : is ueld of 
uondinge. Religion is ycleped desert, uor alsuo ase pe 
desert is hard and draye / and uer uram alle men : 
alsuo ssel by pe stat of religion hard / and draye be 
hardnesse of line. Jiet is a Strang heg aye pe wyckede 
bestes. and a Strang armure a-ye fane uyend. j)is is 
remedie aye ze??ne of lecherie. nor huo J?et wyle quenche 
J)et uer of lecherie ine him-zelue : he ssel wyj3dra3e pe 
brondes. fet bye|) pe lostes of pe ulesse / ,J)et pe guode 
rehgious ssel wy]3dra3e of his ulesse / be uestinges / be 
wakiinges / be dicipKnes. ojjer oj?erlaker Jjet uer ne may 
na3t by y-quenct. Huo Jjet wyle ane cite ojjer ane castel 
nime : he ssel asemoche ase he may / w^jpdva-^e pe 
metes / and Jjet weter / uor to asterue his. Yor huawne 
Jie castel is asterued : he ne naay hym hyealde aye his 
yuo. Alsuo pe castel of pe wombe Jjet is pe strengfe of 
pe ulesse / ne may hi9?i hyealde aye Jjane gost : paiine he 
is asterued be uestinges / and be wyj)dra3j(es. })e stat 
of religion ssel by zuo yuerred uram pe wordle : Jjet pe 
ilke fet is ine J»et stat / ne uele na3t huerof he ssel by 
dyead to pe Avordle / and libbe to god. ase zayjj zainte 
paid. ])et alsuo ase pe ilke fet is dyead bodilich / hep 


ilore alle his bocliliclie -v^yttes / f e zi3|)e / fe hyerfe / pe 
speche. jjane ziielj, / Jjane smel / and pe uelinge. alsuo 
ssel by be religious zuo dyead ase to pe wordle : Jjet he The religious 

should be dead to 

nojjing ne uele Jjet belongejj to zenne. jjet he 111036 the world. 

zojjliche zigge jjet word / fet pe apostel saiiite paul st Paui held the 

zayde of him-zelue. ')3e wordle' he zayji 'is y-creicefyed hateful, as one 

to me : and ich to pe wordle.' he wolde zigge fet al erocifieTor^hang- 

alsuo ase pe wordle him hild uor uyl / and uor wlatuol / ^'^^["J" '"^ ""^' 

ase me dejj enne y-honged : alsuo hed he pe wordle 

uor \'il / and uor wlatuol / ase me hejj Jjane : fet is y- 

crz/cified ojjer anhonged uor his misdede. Alsuo ssel 

pe like Jjet is ine stat of perfeccion / pe wor[d]le hatie. He that is in a 

jjet is to zigge : pe couajiiise / and pe kueadnesse of pe ha^teth the covet- 

wordle / pet he ne uele na3t be loue and be wyhiinge. °" rid,*^* ° 

zuo jjet his co;^uersacion by al ine heuene. ase zay]) 

zainte paul of him / and of ham Jjet hjep ine stat of 

perfeccion. 'Om-ecowuersacioun' hezayb 'is ine heuene. for their conversa- 
tion is in heaven. 

uor J3et body is ine pe evpe. pe herte is ine heuene be 
loue / and be wylninge. 

Man rehgious ne ssel nobing o^en habbe ine erbe. f^°^- '^^- ^-^ 

''-'■' J The religious man 

Ac he ssel maki liis hord ine heuene. ase zay b om'e shall make ws 

hoard in heaven. 

Ihord me his spelle. ' Yef j)ou ^v}dt' he zayjj 'by parfit : 
guo and zele al fet Jjou best / and yef hit pe poure uor 
godes loue / and zuo pe sselt habbe Jjin hord ine heuene.' 
Mawnes hord of religion: ys zobe pouerte bet comb of The man of re- 

° 'J r 1 r r ligion's hoard is 

guode wylle / ase zayb an haben ine be lyues of uaderes. true poverty, 

wherewith one 

Yor pouerte is pei menet / huermide me bay]) pe riche buyeth the king- 

n T r. dom of heaven. 

01 heuene. Hueruore oure Ihord zay]). pet pe poure of 
sprit bj^e)) y-blissed. Vor pe riche of heuene : is hare. 
Yorzofe huo Jjet is poure of spmt / pei is of wj'lle. He 
ne zekj) ine fise wordle / ne lostes. ne richesses, no 
worbssipes. ac rabre uoryet al / uor god. And zuo ssel The good reiigi- 

ous man seeks to 

do pe guode religious / Jjet wile cliue into be belle of ciimb unto the 

hill of perfection, 

perfeccion. J3a?ine pe angel zayde to lot / po he wes 

y-guo out of sodome. 'ne trost pe na3t ine jje stede pei 

J30U best ylete. ac ywyte Jje ine pe helle of perfeccion.' 




for he trusts not 
to tlie world. 

Lot's wife looked 
back to the burn- 
ing city, and was 
changed into an 
image of salt. 

Lot's wife be- 
tokeneth those 
whose bodies are 
in the cloisters 
but their hearts 
in the world. 

They have only 

the clothing of 


The image of salt 

betokeneth wit 

and discretion. 

Our Lord exhorts 
his disciples to 
remember Lot's 

He who sets hand 
to the plough and 
looketh behind is 
not worthy of 

Those dedicated 
to God should 
ever have the 
eyes of their 
[Fol. 76. a.] 

Vor hue Jjet is y-giio out of pe co/mersacion of Jje wordle : 
he ne ssel him na3t trosti / ne hyealde besyde fe wordle 
be wylle / ne be wilninge. Ac him asoyny ase moche 
ase he may / al huet he is iue Jjc helle of perfeccion / 
and pev me ssel abide to his heljje / wyjjoute lokinge 
ayen. Lottes wyf lokede behinde hire / jje cite jjet 
ber[n]de hueroiit hi wes i-guo. and Jjeruore hi w^es 
ychonged in-to an ymage of zalt. Lottes wyf / be- 
toknejj ham / zeppe pet hi bye]) igiio out of jje wordle / 
and bye]? yguo into rehgion. wende]> ayen be wille and 
be wyhii?2ge / pet habbef hare body ine cloystre / an 
zettep hare herten ine pe wordle. Jjos anlykneji pe 
ymage of zalt / ]jet ne he]) bote Jie lyknesse of man. and 
hit is hard / and chald ase a ston. Alsuo hjep ])et 
uolk chealde ine pe loue of god / and hard wy]j-oute 
wetnesse of pite : and of deuocion, j)a??ne hi ne habbe]) 
bote pe clojiinge of hare religion. ])e ymage fet wes of 
zalt / be-tokne]) ine pe writi??ge : wyt / and discrecion. 
uor ase fet zalt yefj) smac to pe mete : alsuo ssel man 
habbe wyt. and discrecion ine his dedes / and ine his 
wordes. j)e ilke ymage panne of zalt ssel y[e]ue wyt / 
and onderstondiwge / and uorbysne : to ham of religion, 
pet habbe]) uorlete pe wordle / pet hy ne wende ayen to 
])an ])et hi habbe]» y-lete. And peruore zajp oure Ihord 
in his spelle to his deciples / Jjet liim uol3ede. 'be])enche]) 
you he zai]) of lottes wyue.' j)et is to zigge / ne loke]) 
na3t to ])et ye habbe]) y-lete uor me. pet ye ne lyese pet 
lyf of grace and of blisse : Alsuo ase lottes wyf / 
uorlyas pet lif of pe bodye / uor pet hi lokede to pan / 
pet hi hedde y-lete. j)amie oure Ihord zayp ine his 
spelle. J?et pe ilke pet zet pe hand ape ZU0I3 and lokep 
behinde him : ne is na3t worpi to pe riche of l^euene. 
Vor alsuo ase pe ilke pe let pe ZU0I3 lokep alneway 
beuore him / uor to lede wel liis znol^ : Alsuo ssel do 
he pet zet pe hand to pe ZU0I3 of penonce oper of reli- 
gion : alneAvay ssel habbe pe e3en of his herte / pet is to 


zigff^e be onderstondiuge and be vryl to ban bet is be-uore : ^^'^^ directed to 

''^ ^ ° r J r r everlasting bllss, 

and na3t to jjan -Jjet is behynde. |)et is to pe guodes and not to tem- 

. HIT • 1 poral goods. 

eurelestmde pet ssoilett by be-uore me pe nerte. na3t to 
pe timliche guodes / Jjet ssoUe by behynde. And pus 
dede zajTite paul jjet zede / Jjet be hedde uoryete Jjet / st Paul always 

directed his un- 

fet wes benmde. jjet wes pe wordle and al Jie couaitise derstanding and 
fet pev is / jjet be ne prayzede na3t / and yede alneway 
beuore him. Vor be bedde alneway bis onderstondinge 
and bis ^vyl to beuene. Ac mocbe uolk of religion 
zettejj pe ZU0I3 be-uore pe oksen. uor uele pev hjep and Many religious 
jjet is bire barm Jjet more zechep pe timlicbe finges / porai things and 
and dop beuore / fet ssolde by bebynde. J?e timlicbe before\he°ofen. 
guodes beuore : pe eurelestinde. and pe gostliche be- 
hynde. Zuyche religious byejj ine wel grat penl of hare 
uorlyezynge. uor hi ne babbej) bote pe clofinge of hare 
religion. To pe uorbysne of zainte paul / ssel pe guode st Paul exhorts 
religious / uoryete pe wordle / and lete his behinde hi//i. "everlasting 
and pe guodes eurelestinde alneway habbe beuore bis 1°^^^^ them'^^^ 
e3en. and alneway guo lU'am nirtue / to uiVtue / alhuet and go from 
he comj) to pe mont ioye. jjet is / to pe belle of blisse until they come 
eurelestinde. huer he ssel clyerliche izy god. and him eveHasthig°biiss. 
ssel louie parfitliche. and worjjssipie euremo. j)et is pe 
blissinge huer pe yeffe of onderstondinge let J3o Jjet 
lokej) clerenesse of herte / and of bodye / ase we babbejj 
aboue y-sseawed. And feruore zayj? oure Ihord. pet 
yblissed byeJ5 pe clene of herte. uor by ssolle clyerliche " Blessed be the 

,,.,,,,.. , . 1 1 • 1 clean of heart, 

ysy god. pe iLke bnssmge begin]) hyer. uor hi byep for they shau 
yclenzed of Jjiesternesse / of errour to pe onderstond- 
inge / and of spottes of ze??ne / ase to pe 'wylle. And 
Jjeruore hi y-zyej) god be byyleaue ali3te / of pe bri3tnesse They shall see 
fet com]? of pe yef j)e of onderstondinge / huerby me y,y the gift of 
knau]) his sseppere / and al ]jet belongejj to beljje of ^^ ^'^^'^^ '^°' 
zaule wyJ)-oute drede / w;)' J)-oute comparer / wy])-oute 
chancelier. and ine pe byleue of lesu cn'st huer hi byejj 
zuo to-gidere / and yzet uestliche / fet hi ne ni03e bam 
to-dele ; uor dyaj) / ne uor torment. And jjeruore hi 
16 * 



The pure of heart 
are blessed in this 
mortal life. 

for they see God 
clearly with the 
eyes of their 

This blessing 
shall be perfected 
in the life ever- 

when they shall 
see God face to 

[Fol. 76. b.] 

In heaven there 
is all beauty, 
sweetness, and 
goodness ; 

wherefore think 
on things above, 
and consider how 
desirable is that 
buss which com- 
prehends all 

God is the highest 


of Him come all 

goods, as the 

streams of the 


He is greatly 

blessed who with 

his naked visage 

byej) ylDlissed / jje clene of herte / ine fise lyue dyad- 
lich. uor hi habbe]) Jje e3en of hare herten / and J?e 
onderstondinge of hare wylle / zmo clene / and zuo clyer / 
fet hi zye3' god / and yleuej) be stronge beleaue / and 
zikere. ase zayjj oure Ihord to saint thomas fe apostel. 
'Vor fet Jjou me best y-zo3e : Jjou me best yleued. Ac 
Jjo ssolle by yblissed : jjet me ne y-ze3e and me yleue]?.' 
Ac fis blissinge ssel by uolueld / ine fe line enreles- 
tinde. huer jje clene of herte Jjet bier ssolle ysy him be 
byleaue. ac alneway Jiiesterliche. hi ssolle y-zi face wyjj 
face : al aperteliche / ase zayj) zayte paul. J)et is Jje 
blissinge of angles / and of hal3en of poradis. Jjet yzy 
god ine Jje face / yknawe enne god ine J)ri persones. to 
ysy cherliche ine Jjo sseawere hneri?zne alle Jjinges byejj 
bri3te / mid -Jje lombe / and Jie hal3en ham wondrejj / 
and ham y-zyef). and nolle ne mo3e by : him an to loki. 
Vor Jjer is alle uayrhede / alle znetnesse / alle guo[d]- 
nesse. welle of lif eurelestinde / and al Jiet herte may 
vfjlnj I and of guod desiri. Ac ich zigge lite, nor 
ase zayJj Jje writinge. ' ne e3e dyeadlich ne may najt 
ysy. ne eare hihere. ne ma?znes herte Jiencbe. Jjet 
god hejj agrayjjed to his uriendes.' )?a«ne sant 
ansalm zayji. 'Man arere al J)ine onderstondinge Jjer 
aboue / an Jjench ase moche ase Jje mi3t / hnet / and 
hou moche grat / and hno moche lostuol / is Jjet guod / 
Jjet heJj Jje ioye and Jjane lost of alle guode. and na3t 
zuych lost / ne zueche blisse / ase me nint ine sseppinges : 
ac asemoche more : ase Jje sseppere is more Jja?2ne Jje 
sseppinges.' IS'on zayJj he / 'mannes makinge huet 
y-zyxt Jjou foleant uor to zeche diuerse guodes to J)ine 
zaide and to Jjine bodye. Loue wel on guod huer byeJj 
alle guodes / and liit is }tio3. Jjet is hi?n-zelf Jjet is he3est 
guod of huam comejj alle Jje oJ)re / ase Jie streames / of 
Jje welle.' Vorzojie he ssel by wel yblissed zayJ) saynt 
austin / Jjet wyjj-oute none nakede uisage onwri3e ssel 
yzy Jje blisse of god. and ssel by y-went ine anhcnesse 
1 For zyejj. 


of pe blisse huer he ssel ysy god ase lie is. liiiych zisbe shall see God 

, PIT ^""^^ ^^ H^ '^• 

IS coroune wyj?oiite eiide / and al fe ssepe oi nal3en. 

pet ssel by al pe guod of man / zayj) hu^e de saint 

uictor. aiioreye ])ane man fet he made ine bodye and ine 

zaule / uor pan Jjet man him y-zej mid jje e3en of pe 

bodie ine his manhode. and pe zaule hwi yzif ine his 

godhede. ztio ))et he uand zuetnesse / and lost ine his 

sseppere wj^jj-ine / and wyjj-oute / "vvyf-inne : ine pe 

godhede. wyfoute : ine pe manhode. jjet ssel by pe blisse 

of man / bet ssel by his ioye / and his lost / and lif "^^'^ ^'s^* ^^^ 

I ' - '' ' ' be the great joy 

eurelestinde pe ilke yblissede zi3|)e. pet is pe blissinge of life everlasting. 
yef hit onderstondejj : J30 jjet lokej? cle/messe of herte 
and of bodie. 

Or pE YEFJ5E OP WYSDOME. Of j)B UJiJTUE OF Of the gift of 

^ wisdom. 


be laste yef be / and be meste / and be hejeste : is be "^^^ 1*^* ^^ ^""^ 

■* J r I r I r :> r the greatest is 

yef j)e of wysdom. Jjet is a grace jjet jje holy gost yef j) to wisdom, 
be co?2templatiue herte. huerby he is ynome of jje lone ^^y which the 

■' _ heart is possessed 

of god. jjet he najt ne "vvylnejj / ne ne ze^jj ojjer jjing / with the love of 

I ^ 1T1/-1- ^^ only. 

jjawne mm to zye?me / and to habbe / me him uor to 

likni / mid liim uor to bleue. Jjis is J)et greate of pi?r- tms is the step 

1 • 1 p p ^ of perfection. 

feccion / jje ende of co?^te??^placlon. J5e yef jje of onder- 
stondinge huerof we habbe}) aboue yspeke / makejj 
knawe god / and pe gostliche jjinges ase be zi3}je / and 
be simple lokinges. Ac be yef be of wysdom / makeb to tws gift makes 

^ ° I •' I '' I •'us to know God 

yuele god / an to y-knawe ase be zuelj. jjanne wy^sdom perfectly, 

ne is ojjer jjing / jja??ne knaulecliinge smackinde / jjet is 

mid smac and mid grat lost of herte. uor ojjerlaker he 

knaulj wyn / Ije ilke jjet hit yzij jj ine a uayr gles. ojjer- as one knoweth 

■^ wine by seeing or 

laker jje ilke jjet hit drincjj / and taste jj / and smackejj. tasting it. 

Ac pe filosofes yknewen god be writinge / ase be ane The phUosophers 

knew God by 

ssewere huerinne hy lokede??. be skele and be onder- writing, as by a 

, - . , , . mirror; 

stondinge of his mi3te. his uayrhede / his wyt. and his 
guodnesse / erjjan hi y-ze3en pe sseppinges jjet he hejj 
ymad zuo greate / zuo uajTre / zuo guode / and zuo wel 



and by the works 
of nature, and by 
natural reason, 

[Fol. 77. a.] 

but never byj 
love or devotion. 

The gift of wis- 
dom joineth 
man's heart to 
God by the glue of 

and there he 
feedeth, resteth, 
and is nourished, 
and forgettetli all 
his labours and 
desires (carnal 
and earthly). 

This is the last 
step of the ladder 
of perfection. 

The steps of this 
ladder are the 
seven gifts of the 
Holy Ghost. 
By these steps 
climb the angels. 

going from virtue 
to virtue. 

Having reached 
the highest 

there is a greater 
need for meekness 
and self-abase- 

y-ordayiied. |?a/me lii knewen wel be zy3])e and be 
uorbisne / and be simple zi^Jie of onderstondinge / and 
of kendelich skele. Ac neitre na3t ne yuelded / ne 
ne nii3te y-uele be zuel^ of ri^te loue / ne by deuocion. 
Alsuo fer byej) uele cnstene clerkes / and leawede / 
Jjet wel liam yknewe be byleaue / and be "wrytinge. Ac 
nor pet hi babbejj Jjane znelj na^ wel y-dijt be ze/ine 
hi ne moje no Jjing yuele na?^more psMne pe zike iiint 
smak ine pe guode mete, pe jefpe of wysdom / ))et Jje 
holy gost zet ine herte / zikerliche uayrejj / and dense]) / 
of alle ueljje of zewne / and arerej? ziio fane gost of man : 
Jjet he him ioinej) to god / be a giu of loue / zuo Jiet he 
is al on mid god. per he him neth. jjer he hiw^ norissejj. 
Jjer he hirn uettejj. per he him lostej). jjer he him restej). 
pev he hi7n slepj). jjer he uoryet al his trauail / alle his 
wylninges xilessliche / and erjiliche / and him zelue / 
jjet he hi??^ ne befengj) of na^t : bote of fet he loxiep / 
and ])et is god onlepiliche. Jpis is pe laste stape / of jje 
Iheddre of perfeceion / Jjet lacob yze^ ine his sslepe / jjet 
tok pe heuene / huerby pe angles of oure Ihorde lesu 
cnst cKue op : and doun. pe stapes of jjise Iheddre : 
hjep pe zene yefjjes of pe holy gost / huerof we habbejj 
y-speke. Be po zeue stapes cliuejj pe angles. Jjet byejj 
jjo fet habbef hare herten to heuene / jjet ledej) lyf of 
angle ine erpe / be uayrehede / and be clewnesse / fet 
habbej) hare herten in heuene be wylnynge. huanne hi guo]? 
and profite)) uram u/rtue to u/rtue / al huet hi yzyep god 
aperteliche and herieji parfitliche. Ac huarme hi hjep 
y-cliue op al to pe laste stape : oferhuil hit behouejj guo 
doun be lojnesse. Vor ase moche ase man is more 
pr?rfit : pe more he is milde / and pe lesse hi??i-zelue 
praysejj. ferof me kan zigge : he ))et is mest worp : he 
him mest lojej?. panne pe guode parfite mann ssel by 
ase fet trau fet is y-karked mid frut / Jje more hit bou^ 
to pe gritnde. Ine anofre manire me may onderstonde / 
J)ct pe angles yeden doun. nor pe guode men fet ledej) 


lif of angel an erbe / be hire holyhede / huawne hi byeb it behoveth those 

leading the life of 

y-cliue op to pe ]ie3este stape of cowtemplacion / huyder angeison earth 

J)e yefjje of wysdom his let / Jjet is alsuo y-goyned to 

god / jjet he uoryet al jjet is onder god / he Jje greate 

znetnesse pet ])e herte uelj) / Jiet is alsuo iroted ine god . 

fet he lyest alle ojjre lustes. ziio ham hehouej) oferhuyl 

guo doun of J)ise zuetnesse / of jjise reste / of jjise loste / 

ixram his zuete bryesten of solas, huer god ha.m dejj 

zouke ine J)e co/?te???placion to fe "n^orkes of pe bysye to descend to the 

i/T P1111 IT n works of this 

l}aie / hiieroi we habbej) aboue y-speke. huer pe pariite busy ufe. 
abide ssolle / and uor hare note gostlich / and uor 

Anojjer scele j^er is / hueruore hit behouef guo domi 
of jjo ilke zete of co?itemplacion / huer pe gost of wisdom 
wonep. Vor jje corrupcion of pe ulesse is zuo grat pet The corruption 

, . .,.,. , -..-, ,- ,. of tlie flesh is so 

Jje gost ne may ine pise hue dyeadlich longe bleue / in g^eat, 

zuo he^ stat of co«te?r(placion. ne yuele pe ilke greate ^^y notions* 

zuetnesse / bet paseb alle lostes bet me may yuele ine remain in so high 

' f r ^ ' "^ -^ a state of eou- 

pise wordle / ase jjo wytep pet liit habbep y-proued. tempiation. 
Jjeruore pe ayenwj^te of pe ulesse / is zuo heuy / pet he The flesh drags 
dra3p pane gost a-doun wylle he / nolle he. and peruore 
pe ilke greate zuetnesse pet pe herte co??te?/?platif uelp / 
be pe yefpe of wysdome ine pise dyadhche Ijnie. ne is [Foi. 77. b.] 
bote a litel zuel3 / huerby me smack ep hou god is in this earth the 
zuete / and zofte as me tastep and smackyp pet wyn. taste of God's 
erpan me drincp his nolle. Ac hua?me me ssel come ^ut Vhen'he shaii 
in-to be greate taue?-ne / huer be tonne is be-take. bet is '^°™^ '"*° "'® 

•TO II r great tavern 

ine pe line eurelestinde. huer pet god of loue / and of (heaven), 

pays / is / of blisse / and of lostes / and of solas / ssel 

bi zuo abandones to echen / pet alle ssolle by nolle. 

Ase zayp pe sauter. )3et al pe wylninge of pe herte he shaii drink his 

ssolle be uolueld per. hua?nie god ssel do come ope his 

urendes ane ulod of pays / ase zayp pe p?'ophete. huerof for God shau 

hi ssolle by zuo uol dronke / pet hi ssolle by alle dronke / ^^nds^a flood of 

of pe greate plente / pet is ine pine house / and his sselt J'/itf^^ijj^.j, „n 

do drinke of pe ulode of pine zuetnesse / and of pine ^^^^ ^« '^™"'^- 



To win this bless- 
ing one shall live 
soberly in this 

Sobriety cometh 
of wisdom. 

Gluttony produces 
sickness and 
often death. 

Death seizes 
gluttons suddenly, 
as one doth the 
fish by the cheek. 

Dmnkenness de- 
prives man of his 

The drunkard 
loses his reason, 
and the wine 
drinketh (drown- 
eth) him. 

The glutton 
makes a god of 
his belly. 

out of which go 
filth and stench. 

likinge. fet mid fe is ]>e welle of lyue. pet is pe welle 
eiirelestinde / f»et alneway kuel3 • / and fayly ne may. 
pet is god zelf / pet is welle of Hue / and stenie ne may. 
huerof arist / and gep donn abone alio pe lial^en. pet 
byep / and ssolle bi ine paradis / a ulod of blisse •/ of 
lost / and of pais, ztio grat / pet alle po pet perof drinkep : 
hi byep dronke. J)et is pet pays and pe blissinge pet 
ssel by ine pe wordle pet is cominde bire uor to wyne / 
and habbe / me ssel iibbe sobrelicbe ine pise wordle. 
ase zayp saynt aiistin. Vor no?i ne dringp of pise 
stremes of pais : pet ne is dronke of pe plente of blisse : 
pet ne lokep sobrete. pet is pe xu'rtue pet pe yefpe of 
-wysdom zet ine herte / aye pe tomochelliede of glotunye. 
Yor wysdom tekp sobrete / ase Salomon zayp. Sobrete 
is a traw wel precious, uor bit lokep pe lielpe of pe zaule 
and of pe bodie ase zayp pe writinge. Of glotonye of 
mete and of drinke to moclie : comep uele greate zik- 
nesses. and ofte pe dyap. Vor be to mocbe drinke and 
ethe : sterfp moche uolk / and pe dyap his nimp sodayn- 
hche / ase nie nimp pane viss by pe cheake. pet is to 
zigge / pe morsel ine pe moiipe. 

Jjise u/rtue me ssel loky toppe alle pinges. uor pe 
guodes pet hi dep to pan : pet his wel lokep. Verst / 
sobrete lokep be skele / and to pe onderstondinge hire 
uridom / pet dronkenesse hire be-nymp. Vor pe ilke 
pet is dronke / is zuo y-nome of wyn : pet he lyest 
skele / and onderstondinge / and is ase adrayngt ine 
wyin. and huanne he wenp drinke pet wyn : pet wyn 
dryngp him. J?e oper guod pet sobrete makep is pet hi 
deliurep pane man of to uoul preldom. pet is of pe 
preldome of pe wonibe. Vor pe glotoun / and pe to 
moche nimere of metes : makep of hare womben hare 
god. ase zayp zaynte paul. Vorzope moche he him 
onworpep : pet seruep to ane zuiche uoule Ihorde / ase 
to his wombe. huerof ne may go out : bote uelpe and 
stench. Ac sobrete lokep man ine his Ihordssip. uor 
1 For kuel)?. 


be gost ssel by Ihord ouer bet body, and bet body ssel The spirit should 

be lord over the 

seriii to pe goste. J?e fridde guod Jjet sobrete maked body. 

is fet hi loki fe gate of pe castele aye fane ost of fe [FoI. 77. a.] 

dyeule. fet is f>e nioujj pet is pe mayster gate of pe The mouth is the 

master-gate of the 

castele of pe herte / pet pe dyeuel asaylejj ase mocne castie of the heart. 

ase he may. Ac sobyete him werj) pe gate / jjet is jje 

moiijj. And huarene pe gate of pe moujje is open : jje 

gest of zenne gejj in li3liche / and nor na3t he vijt ayen 

pe ojjie zennes / jset na^t wyfhalt his tonge. Huo f et 

hejj Jjise ui'rtue : he hej; of his bodye pe Ihordssip. 

Alsuo ase me ouerconifi fet hors bi pe bridle, sobrete sobnety is first 

assailed in the 

hep pe iierste batayle ine pe ost of n/?-tnes / and lokejj / host of virtues. 

and were]? pe ofre u/rtues. |3anne pe dyeuel nondede 

uerst / ase be pe moujje / of oure Ihorde Jjo he him The devu tempted 

zede / Jjet he ssolde maki of stones bread. Alsuo he the mouth. 

asaylede fane uerste man be pe nioufe / and him ouer- 

com. uor he him openede pe gate of his castele / J)o he 

hi??i co?2sentede to pe uondinge. To loki sobrete ous 

tekf / kende. writinge. an alle ssepfe. kende / fet 

amang pe bestes / man hejj jjane leste moujj be pe 

bodie. Efter man to Jje ojjre lemes y-dobled / ase pe Man hath some 

e3en / [and] earen / ac — he ne he)j bote enne moujj. Ine ^ut he has only 

Jjet ous tekj) kende / fet me ssel ethe lite / and drinke °"* ™°'^' ' 

lite, uor kende is mid lite y-payd. and be to moche 

of mete / is ofte y-ueld doun. pe wi-itinge ous tekjj 

sobrete. ine uele manyeres / and be manye uorbysnes / 

ase mo3e ysi / fo fet connejj pe writinge onderstonde / 

an bo bet yzveb be Hues of haben. Efterward / alle au creatures 

r r J J r r ? ' teach us sobriety. 

ssepfes techej) sobrete. uor ine alle ssepfes / he]) god 
yzet ri3te mesure / ase zayj? Salomon ine pe holy writ- 
inge. Sobrete ne is ober bing ba?me to loki ri3te Sobriety is a mean 

" J ' ^ ' ■' between too much 

mesiu-e. fet alneway halt fane middel ine to moche : and too uttie. 
and to lite, be fan f et scele a-li3t be grace tekf . Vor 
ine f ise timliche guodes / f et / fet is to moche to 
onen : is to lite to anof ren / and fet / fet is to moche 
to ane poure ma?me : to ane riche ma»ne hit Avere ofte- 

' be well ordained 
to God," 


zijjes to lite. Ac sobrete and temperance j zet ouer-al 
Eveninfastiiigs, mesiire. Alsuo ine gostliche guodes : ase ine uestinges / 

watchings, &c., _ . 

sobriety must be ine wakiinges / ine dissiplines / and ine ojjre dedes of 
ui'rtue / jjet bye J) y-do nor god / an uor note of fe 
zaule : zet mesure. zuyche ase scele acsej). ))e ii^'rtue 

The virtue of of te?wperance and of sobrete. Jse ilke mVtues loke]) 

temperance must ... , . 

be observed in all mesure sceluoUe. na3t onlepiliche ine mete and me 

drinke : ac in alle uw-tues. ase zay[J)] saynt bernard. 

for it moderates ^o^ j'isB ut/'tue zet alle Jje jjojtes. alle ]je willes. alle fe 

wliSVnSires steriynges of ))e herte. and aUe ipe wyttes of fe bodye / 

of the body. outnime jje lliordssip of ri3te scele, ase zayjj tullins fe 

wyse. zuo fet a li3te scele be Jje yefjje of wysdome / 

halt ine pese fe lliordssip of J)e herte / and of fe bodie. 

The end of all and jjet is fe ende and fe onderstoiidinge of alle 

SarTandSy""" ui'rtues )jet ])e herte and fet body by wel y-ordayned to 

god. zuo fet god onlepiliche by he^ Ihord. ine zuyche 

manere jjet al by ine his bo3sainnesse al fet he hejj ine 

Jje regne of bodye and of J)e zaule. and ])et make]? 

sobre loue of god. jjet zet of al / fe herte in-to ]>e wille 

of god. J2awne zaynt austin zayf. jjet ]3e uw'tue of 

tempf'rance and of sobrete / is alone fet is yloked to 

and be withdrawn god y-hollyche w}^))-oute corrupcioii. and ous wyj?- 

this world. dra^f) urani fe loue of hier benejie. Jjet is |)e loue of 

[Foi. 78. a.] jjise wordle / ]3et trouble]? fe herte of man / and hise 

zet ine zor^e. and him benimji ri3tuollB knaulechinge of 

god / and of hi«^-zelue. Alsuo ase me ne i\^^ na^t 

The love of God bri3tliche ine ]je wetere ystered. Ac fe loue of god/ 

peace. fet is wel y-clensed of alle erjdiche loue / and of alle 

ulessliche willes zet fe herte ine pais. Vor hi him dejj 

and zet ine his 03ene stede. fet is ine gode. }5er he him 

restej). fer he is in pais, ne ne hejj blisse / ne reste : 

Our Lord saith ^^^® j'^''- }3a?me zayj) oure Ihord ine his spells. 'J)OU 

"Thou Shalt be in gggj^ i^y jj^g t^Ytuayl iiie bise wordle. ac ine me bou 

travail m this u j r i 

world, but in me gselt vinde reste.' And saynt austin zede. 'Lhord: 

shalt thou find 

rest." min herte ne may by ine pais : alhuet hi restej? ine 

jje.' J)e ilke loue ne wext na3t of erjje / ne of mares. 


Of jjise wordle. Ac hy com]) doiin of be he^e roclie This love cometu 

down from the 

hueroppe lii ys yzet and y-mad J»e greate cite of high rock (Jesus 

paradis / and Jjb cite of holi cherche. j)et is lesu 

crist I ope huam byejj y-set and yniad uestliclie be 

gxxode bileaue. fe stronge casteles. Jjet byej) fe lierten 

of giiode men. Of Jjo he3e roche com]) doun fe welle or tins rock 

of lone ine herte fet is wel y-clenzed nor fe loue of jje ofioveintothe 

wordle. )3e ilke welle is zuo clier and zno y-zendred / ^^ ' 

Jjet jje herte bire y-knaujj / and y-zi^jj hire zelue and 

hire makiere. alsno ase me yzi3}) ine ane uayre welle 

wel yze/zdred. ope J50 welle Jje herte restej) efter ])e By that weii the 

trauayl of gnode workes / ase we redej) of lesu cri'st after its labour of 

onre Ihord. jjet jjo he hedde zno moche y-guo fet he ^°° 

wes al weri / he hi??? zette and restede ope ])e welle. |pe 

ilke welle boue fet guode herte / he Jjet hi???, wille 

ber3e / hi??? restej* is ])e loue of god. J?e ilke welle is This well is sweet 

zuo zuete and of zuo guod smac : fet jje ilke Jjet ferof 

dringj) / uoryet aUe ofre zuetnesses and ojjre smakkes. 

)5e ilke weUe ne uel]) na3t fane fauc ne }je erfe / ne it is pure and un- 

f • Ti / 1 1 • t "defiled, 

fane merss 01 jjise wordle / and feruore hy is zuete and 

of guod smac to drinke. uor ase moche ase be welle ^"^^ wholesome to 


yuel]) lesse of fe erjie : zuo moche hi is ]>o holer and 

be betere of to drinke. bet is be welle of -^Ttte and of ^^ '» the weu of 

^ ' ' •' wit and of 

wysdome. uor jje ilke fet ferof dringjj / he knauj) wyt wisdom, 

and whoso 

and ^vysdom and velf / and smackejj fe greate zuet- drinketh thereof 

,,.. -, I J,.-,! , J. !> knoweth wit and 

nesse pet is me god / and pet is pe he3este wyt 01 wisdom, 
man : wel to knawe his sseppere / and hi??? louie mid 
al his herte. Vor wyfoute fise filosofie / alle ojjre 
wyttes ys folye. 

Zuych wyt zet be holy gost ine herte / ba??ne he such wit the 

. Holy Ghost 

him jeij) fane yeffe of wisdom / fet is herte of gost- giveth, 

liche bHsse / and hire adraynkf / and makef him 

dronke of holy loue. Huet wyt is f et / f et f e holy 

gost zet in-to fe herte wel y-clenzed : f et ich liabbe and setteth it in 

^ ■ ^ 1/1 -in '^® heart, 

hier be-uore y-ssewed / huer fet is spek of fe Avyttes of 
f e zaule / ate ginninge of fe dra3]5e of u?>tue. and fer- 



to make it sober, 
meek, and patient, 

None may live in 
this world witli- 
out " some 
fighting of tempt- 

[Fol. 79. a.] 

The good lieart, 
when it hath 
well fought, 

returns to itself 
and resteth in 

uore icli paci fe ssortlaker. jjet gostliclie wyt jjet conijj 
of stedeuest loue of god. make]? J?e herte sobre / and 
zofte / and alle Jjinges a-mesure]) / zruo jjet fe herte fet 
is ine znich stat is ine payse / ase hi may by ine jjise 
dyadliche Hue. Vor ine Jjise wordle / non ne may 
libbe Avy]j-oute torment / and wy])-oute zome vi3tinge 
of te???ptacion. Jjet god zent ofte nor to nondi Ms 
kny^tes. and uor j?an Jjet hi co'/?.ne nsy of armes of 
u/j'tue. uor ojjerlaker hi ne mo^e by guode knyjtes. 
)?a?me me couJ)e maky pe tornoymens ine time of pays. 
Ac huanne pe guode kny^t het ouercome fet tornoy- 
mewt : he went ayen to his house. J?er he hi??z restejj 
al in eyse. Alsuo dejj jje guode herte hua??ne hi hej) 
wel yuo^te and hejj oiiercome pet tornenoyme?it of 
uondinges : ha com]) ayen to him-zelue / and him 
restej? ine god. Jjet him cowfortejj efter pe trauayl / zuo 
Jjet he Jjer uoryet al his trauayl. and ne Jjengjj bote of 
god. huer he uint al Jjet he wilnej>. Jjet is Jjet frut Jjet 
Jje traw of sobrete berjj / Jjet comjj of Jje jetpe of wys- 
dom / ase ich habbe aboue yzed. 

Of the steps of 

Moderation shall 
be observed in 
five things. 

1. Set bounds to 
the understanding 
and to belief. 

Those overstep 
moderation who 
ai-e unbelievers, 

[1 misbylefinde .?] 

and measure be- 
lief by their un- 

Of Jje stapes of sobrete. 

Ase ich habbe aboue yssewed / sobrete ne is ofier 
Jjing / bote to loky rijte mesure ine alle Jjiwges. Ac 
specialliche : ine vyf Jiinges me ssel loki mesure. Jjet 
byejj alsuo ase zeue stapes huerby wext and profitejj Jjet 
traw of sobrete. 

Jje uerste stape of sob^-ete is / Jjet me zette mesure in 
his onderstondinge. spacialHche to Jje articles and to Jje 
poyns of Jje beleaue. Jje ilke ouergejj mesure / Jjet wyle 
zeche kendelich skele / ine Jjan Jjet is aboue onderstond- 
inge / ase dojj pa bougres / and J)e misbylefde.^ J)et 
wyllejj mesuri Jje beleaue be hare onderstondinge. ac hi 
ssolden mesuri hire onderstondinge and hare skele to pe. 
mesure of Jje beleaue / Jjet god ous hejj y-yeue. And 
Salomon zayde to his zone. ' Vayre zone / do in-to Jjine 


wytte niesure.' j)et is to zigge / fet ]?oii ne bi na3t / of Man should not 

, ... .be overweening 

zuo o^ene "wytte /,ne na^t ziio ypi^t m Jjine ouenvemnge : and seif-confl- 

fet J)0u ne flechclai / uor to leue to guod red. and jjet 

j)Ou ne lete Jjin 03ene wyt / uor to bouje to fe wyser 

panne fou. And specialliche to Jje articles of Jje beleaue 

me ssel lete his o^ene wyt / and his onderstondinge He should set ins 

. understanding in 

ilechchi / and zette ine Jjreldom of jje beleaue / ase zay]) thraldom to belief, 
zayte paul. na^t uor to apeluchier ne zeche kendelich 
scele. huer he non ne hej? / ase doj) jje bysye / ojjer pe 
malancohen / jjet byej) ylich jjan jjet zek^^ jje cra/«nieles 
ine jje russoles. oj)er jjan jjet zekjj jjet uel ine jje aye / 
ojjer jjane knotte ine pe resse. 

Jje ojjer stape is / jjet me zette mesure ine jje loste 2. set measure in 

the lust and the 

and mid pe likinge of jje wille / jiet me ne hi??i ne aslaky pleasure of the 

na3t to moche jjane bridel to yerne to lostes of jje ulesse / 

ne to jje couaytise of jjise wordle. J3awne jje wyse zayj) 

ine jje writ[i]nge. ' 'Ne uol^e najt he zayjj jje couaitises ne foUow not the 

pe wylninges of jjine herte / and jje miswende to do jji thine heart. 

wyl / Jjet Jjou hit ne uoluelle najt. and yeld guod skele. 

uor yef jJou dest to jjine herte his vfjl : Jjou makest 

blisse to jjine vyendes / jjet byejj jje dyeulen of heUe.' 

uor alsuo ase jje ilke Jiet makejj blisse to his uo / ayens 

huam he ssel ui3te / hua?me he hi?/i yelt to hi?H ouer- 

come. Yef he him yelt ouercome to jje dyeule jjet hi??^ consent not to 

co72sentejj to his euele wylninges. j5eruore zayjj zayte tions!^ ssugges 

peter jje apostel. * icli you helsny / Jiet ye ase oncoujje / 

and pilgrimes / you loki uram wilninges.' Jje ilke Jjet Travellers in a 

. . strange country 

IS pilgrim and ine oncoujje contraye / huer byejj manye are watchful for 

jjyeues an robberes jjet aspiejj jje pilgr?'ms / and wajrtejj [FoI. 79. b.i 

jje wayes : ham lokejj moche / jjet lii ne ualle ine jje 

honden of jjyeues. and jjengjj hou he may guo zikerliche. 

Alle be guode men ine bise wordle byeb oncoube and ^^ sood men are 

r o I J r r like pilgrims. 

pilg?'ims. Hi byeJ) oncoujie / uor hi byejj oute of hare 
controye. J)et is paradys. jjet is jje contraye / and heritage 
to guode men. Hi ne byejj jjenchinde bote uor to Their heritage is 
uoluelle hire iornayes / al huet hi come}) to hare eritage / "^^^^ ^^^' 
1 For zekjj. 



The good pil- 
grims choose 
good society, 

and pursue their 
journey by right 
belief and true 

They have no fear 
of thieves, that is, 
the devil and his 

Belief and love of 
God lead them 

The heart is like 
a bird. 

and is liable to fly 
into the snare. 

Control thy will, 

as one doth the 
horse with a 

Sobriety is the 

Observe modei'a- 
tion in words. 

fet is J)e cite of paradis / jjet pe guode pilgrmis zechejj. ase 
zayj) zaynte paid. Jjetne habbejj / ne nolle]) habbe Jie eri- 
tage hier in fise wordle. Zuyche pilgn'ms pet wiUeJ? guo 
zikerliche : hi do]) ham ofte ine guode iiela3rede / and 
ine zikere guoinge. ]?e guode uela3rede pet let zikerliche 
and guo]) ri3tuolliche / is byleaue / and loue. beleaue / 
let pane way to pilg?-mies. ac loue his berf. zuo ])et pe 
way ha??^ greue]) lite / ofer na^t. Huo ])et he}) zuyche 
uela3rede : he ne he]) of ])yues none drede ]»et wayte]) pe 
wayes. ]jet hjep dyeulen ])et nime]) and robbe]» alle 
])0 / fiet none zuiche uela3rede ne habbe]). j)et bye]) })0 
])et wylle]) do hyere / hyre lostes : ])et \ia.m do]) in-to pe 
honden / and in-to pe gn'nes of pe dyeide. Beleaue / 
and loue of god. of-halt pe herte / and his wy])dra3t 
uram queade })03tes / and uram fole ' lostes / ])et he ne 
consenti. Alsuo ase me ofhalt ])ane uo3el be pe ges / 
])et he ne vly to his wylle. j)e herte is ase is pe U03el 
fet wolde vly to liis wylle / and bote hy by ofhealde / 
be pe ges of beleaue / and of loue / hy uly3]) perilous- 
liche / zuo pet hy hyi-e spil]) / and nalp ofte into pe 
grines / of pe uo3elere of helle. fet is pe dyeuel / ])et ne 
"^^'ylne]) / bote to nime fane U03el. jjeruore pe guode 
man and pe wyse / wy])dra3e]) hare wyl / and hare 
lostes / and hare })03tes. be te?/^perance and be sobrete 
Huerof senekes zay]». ' yef ])ou louest to bi sobre / and 
ate?/?pre : wyfscore / and wy])dra3 fine willes / and zete 
ane brydel to ])ine couaytises.' Vor alsuo ase me wjp- 
halt fet hors by pe bridle fet hit ne guo na3t to his 
wille : alsuo me ssel ofhyealde pe herte be pe briddJe of 
sobrete / J)et hy ne yeue hire na3t / to pe wille ne to pe 
couaytise of fise wordle. 

j)e fridde stape of sobret6 is / zette and loki mesure 

ine wordes. Huerof Salomon zajp. j)et ' pe wyse / and 

pe wel yto3te / tem])xep / and mesuref his wordes.' And 

saynt lerome zayf. fet 'mid ueawe wordes / is y- 

1 MS./o/o 


proued mawnes lyf.' pet is to zigge. by fe wordes nie By words may 

, 1 , n -XT *''*^ follies and 

may yknawe jie lolyes / and Jje wyttes ot men. Vor wisdom of man be 

ase me knau]) pet zuin "be fe tonge / yef liit ys hoi. 

oJ)er aboue y-zawe. and feruore zayj) Jje wyse ine pe 

"writinge. pet ' pe wordes of pe wyse byej? y-we3e ine pe 

waye.' ])et is to zigge / bet be ATyse ssel zuo we3e pe weigh thy word 

. . . In the balance of 

wordes me pe waye of skele and of discrecion ]jet pev ne discretion. 

by na3t to wyj)-nyniene. ^nie iiolk byej? / ]jet ne moje 

ha?/? na;t hyalde stille / ne na3t ham loki / Jjet hi ne zigge / 

by hit zojj by hit leazinge. pet hjep ase pe melle wyjj- 

oute schise. Jjet alne-way went be Jie yernynge of pe 

wetere. Yor hi habbe}) ase uele wordes / ase pev com]? 

of weter to pe melle. Ac pe wise zettej) pe schise of The wise setteth 

disc?'ecion / nor to of healde fet weter of fole wordes. cretion to keep 

and to uele. Jjet hi ne guo be pe melle of pe tonge. Jper- fo^oUsh words!' ° 

iiore zayj) Jie wyse ine pe writinge. 'Yzi3 jjet weter [Foi. so.a.] 

yerne.' j)et is to zigge : hald Jjine wordes ine pe scluse 

of discrecion. nor ase zayj> Salomon. ' Hno j^et let guo 

])et weter to liis Aville : he is ofte cause of strif / and of 

chidinge / and of manie kuedes / fet comej3 of kueade Manyeviiscomeof 

tonge.' ase ich habbe be-uore yzed / ine pe chapitele of 

uices. huer ich spek of pe zenne of pe tonge. Jjeruore 

zayjj wel pe wyse ine pe writinge. 'do' zayjj he ' / fine 

wordes ine wave / and snod bridel ine bine moube. and Take heed that 

•' ' ° ■* ' thou fall not by 

nim hede fet Jjou ne ualle be fine tonge be-uore fine thy tongue. 

no : fet pe asspief.' An-of er zayf. ' Do to fine mouf e / Put a door and 

a dore and a loc. and to fine wordes : a waye and a mouth. 

yok.' Huo f et ne we]f his wordes ine f e waye of disc/'e- 

cion. and ne of halt na3t his tonge by f e bridle of skele. 

f et ssel of hyealde f e tonge of kueade wordes. he ualf He who does not 

11/ guard his tongue 

li3tliclie me f e honden ot his uon. f et byef f e dyeulen / wui fail into the 

f et oueral ous aspief / and waytef . HuaHne f e von / t^Jdev^u. '^ °^' 

f et vi3tef aye fane castel / yef hi vyndef f e gate oppe : 

hi guof in li3tHche. alsuo f e dyeuel f et ui3t wyf fane 

castel of f e herte / huawne he uint f e gate oppe / f et The mouth is the 

is f e mouf / he nimf li3tliche fane castel. And f eruore ^'^ ^ ° 


zayde rlaiii]? ine fe sawtere. ' Icli sette guode lokinge to 
Reason has the Jje moiijje aye niine yno ' / jjet is jje dyeuel. pe lokinge 

care of the mouth. / • i i i t • 

01 j>e vaoiipG j Jjet is skele and discrecion. fet examenep 

J)e wordes / erfan hi gno out ate moj^e. jjis is ]je vijt 

huerof jje wyse spekjj ase ich habbe aLoue yzed / liner 

Weigh weu thy xnB ssel weje bet word er hit by yzed. And bon sselt 

words ere they be -^ ' . 

spoken. jwyte / J)et zojjnesse halt J)ise ri3tuolle waye. Vor 

zojjnesse acorde]) Jse onderstondinge of fe herte : and 
Jjet word of J^e nionjje / as hit is ine \>g herte. j)\s waye 
lie ssel hongi of jjis half / ne of yend half / arijthalf ne 

Be not afraid to aleftlialf. ])et uor noiie p?7"ue lone of man ne of wyf- 

speak the truth, 

man. ne uor timhch note, ne nor hate of ofren : me 

ne ssel lete to zigge zo]? / huer jjet me ssel / and hua?zne 

and speak not \i[\, ig nved. ne leazinges / ne nalsnesse / me ne ssel 

falsely to please _ ^ o / / 

any one. zigge uor ne?me man. 

Ase me ssel loki mesure ine wordes : alsno me ssel 
Be careful of what Iq^ mssure iiie hverbe. Yor asewel me may zene^y ine 

thou hearest. J r j ?j 

kuede hyerj^e : ase ine kueade speche. ];a?ine fe ilke 

Jjet yhyerjj blejjeliche missigge ojjren : ys partiner / 

If thou hearest and uelase of be zewne of ban bet he yherb. bet non ne 

with pleasure / \ -^ -^ *^ , t i 

evil of another, wolde zigge blejjeliclie knead of ojjren / nameliche to- 

thesin of the ^^0^^ greate men / bote yef he ne wende jjet hit likede 

slanderer. ^^ j^^^ j^^^ j^^ hyerjj. }3a?ziie an hal3en zayjj. jjet 'non 

ne ssolde by misziggere : bote jjer by an hyerere.' }per- 

nore salomo/i zayjj. ' jje norjjene wynd / to-jjraujj jje 

raynes / and jje lourinde chiere : Jie wordes of jie 

Great men should missiggere.' jpise greate men hi ssolden wel ham loki / }»et 

consider well what 

they hear. hi hierej) / and jjet hi leuej). jiet hi vindej) veaAve / fiet 

Flatterers and zoj) ham zigge. Ac iilatom's / and lye^eres / byeji to 

liars are plentiful, 

grat cheap me hare cort. )?e meste dierjje jjet is abonte 

but few are truth- ham / is of zojjiiesse / an of trewjje. and jjeriiore hi byej) 

[Foi. 80. b.] ofte y-giled, jjet hi yherejj blejjehche / and y-lenejj 

li3tliche jjet me ham zayjj and j»et ham likejj. Senekes 
Great men have zayJj. Jjet Jjer ne lackejj to greate Ihordes : bote zob 

great need of -i T T T r o r 

those who ziggeres. Vor hi habbejj lye3eres / and vlatours : to 

fearlessly speak 

the truth. greate cheape. and veawe zojj ziggeres. Me ssel habbe 


Jje earen opene / uor to liyere ble)?eliche / jje guode 

wordes / jjet byejj worjj to fe help of zaule. and y-sset : S'^'J' thy ears to 

to fole wordes / ydele / and queade. jiet moje do harm : 

and ne mo^e do guod. Jjeruore fe Avyse zayj? ine ]>e 

Amti??ge. ' Stoppe fine earen mid ]5ornes. and ne hyer ^'^"p ^^^™ ^^'''^' 

na^t fe queade tongen.' fe queade tonge : is tonge of 

eddre of helle / Jjet fe misziggeres berejj. and enuenime]) 

\)o J)ct his y-herejj. Aye zuyche tongen me ssel stoppi 

be yeren mid bornes / mid be drede of oure lorde / that is, with the 

, ' ' , ' ' fear of the Lord. 

ojjer mid |)e fornes huermide god wes y-corouned / nor 
bebenchinge of his passion: Vor huo bet heb drede of For who that 

-f ° 5 . . feareth God will 

god / and befenchinge of his passion : he nolde na3t not listen to uars 

T1T1 1 •• in I 1^ 1 ^"'^ flatterers. 

blejjeliche y-hyere fe misziggeres / ne liatours / ne lole 
wordes / ne lodliche. In anofre manere me may on- 
derstonde fis word. ' Stoppe fine yeren mid fornes.' 
J)e fornes j?et prikiejj / be-toknej? harde wordes and 
prekiinde / heruore me ssel "\v}^J»nime Jje missiggeres / 
and maki his stille and sse^vy semblont fet me ne hierj) 
his na^t blefeliche. )per is an eddre jjet is y-hote ine The asp cioseth 
latin / aspis. J?et is of zuiche kende / fet hi stoppejj fet and the^other" 
on eare mid erfe / and fet ofer mid hare tayle / fet hi tjlatshema'^not 
ne yhere fane charmere. }3e ilke eddre ous tekf a wel ^®^ *^® charmer 
grat wyt / f et we ne hyere na3t fane charmere / f et is jj^g 1;^^^ ^nd 
fe lye3ere / and fe flatour. fet ofte b^charmef fe riche S";2r\latone 
men. Ac huo fet stoppef fet on eare mid erf e / and ™"st beware of. 

He who stops his 

fet of er mid f e tayle : he ne ssolde habbe none hede to ears win not be 

bi be-charmed of fe dyeule / ne of kueade tongen. flattery; 

J3e ilke stoppef fet on eare mid erf e : fet f engf fet he and wiu twnk of 

, . the earth from 

is of erf e / and to erf e ssel come, and zuo f enche ma whence he came, 

uovdhede and his ziknesse. hueruore he him ssel moche 

mildi : and na^t hxm praysy. )?et of er eare stoppi mid 

fe tayle / uor to bef enche of fe dyafe / fet him ssel and of death that 

,,. TT,,, t I ■ ^ • I will overtake him. 

wel astonie. Huo fet fus coufe stoppi his earen:' He who thinketh 
he nolde yhyere blefeliche zigge / ne recordi fing : fet ^f^^^t us^en\o 
ssolde misliki god. and zuo ssolde he by wel ytempred / words^dispieasing 

' ifS. erarcH 



Moderation in 
clothing is tlie 
fifth step of 
Excess is a sin, 

wherefore we 
should not be over 
busy in adorning 

He is a foo! and 
chUdish that is 
proud of liis 

The wearing of 
clothes comes of 
the sin of our first 

[Fol. 81. a.] 

Under fair robes 
there is often a 
dead soul. 

Nature has 
adorned the pea- 
cock and cock. 

Nature has given 
man no clothes of 
which to be proud. 

St. Paul says that 
women shall 
adorn themselves 
with propriety. 

Many poor might 
be sustained by 
the number of 
robes tliat one 
woman wears in a 

and amesured iiie liyerj^e and ine lliestinge. And pis 
is j)8 iierjje stape of sobrete. 

}5e uifte stape is / to loki mesure of ssredinge of 
p?'(^ciouse robes / liuerof me pasej) moclie mesure / and 
make]) moche oiierdoinges. and Jjeraore Jiet oiierdede is 
grat zewne / and uelezi])e ancliesonn to zene ine ofren. 
jjeruore me ssel ine znyclie jjinges loky raesiu-e. Yor 
kit is to moche of p?'/s and to mocke kysy agrayjjinge 
ne were ze?zne : onre Ikord ne speke na3t zuo stefliche 
ine his spelle a-ye jje queade riche / fet zno oite ham 
ssredejj / ase of to zofte bougeren and of to moche of 
pn's ponrpre. 0. moche is he fol iiorzojje / and child of 
wytte / fet of his ssredinge is proud. Me ssolde him 
wel hyealde fol ; jjet were proud to here ]>& ssredinge. 
Jjet ne ssolde by bote a tokne. and a bcjjenchinge of jje 
ssame of his uader / and of his 03ene. j)es wone of 
robes nes yuounde / bote uor pe zenne of oure uei'ste 
uader xior to wry his confusion / and oure. Hua«ne 
me yzijjj here ane bpie. Jjet is tokne pet Jjer is wyfine 
a dyad, alsuo hit y-ualJ3 ofte / pet onder pe uayre 
robes : is pe zaulo dyad be ze?me / and nameliche ine 
pan pet ham gledyep / and predep. Yef pe pokoc him 
prette uor his uayre tayle. and pe coc uor his kombe / 
hit ne is no wonder pet kcnde ham hep y-yeue / an 
dop be hare kende. Ac man oper wyfman /pet hep 
wyt and skele / and wot wel pet kende ne hep na3t y- 
yeue hi«i pet ilke ssroud / he ne ssel hiin na3t prede : 
of pe ssredinge of his bodye. ne of pe quayntises of his 
heuede. Jjeruore zayp pe wyse ine pe writinge. ' ne glede 
pe na3t ine uayr ssroud.' And zaynte paul pus zay[p]. 
J)et pe wyfmen hi ssolle ham agraypi : mid sobrete. pet 
is to zigge : be mesure / and wyp-oute ouerdoinge / be 
pe stat / pet pe wyfman acsep. Vor zope pet ne is na3t 
Avyp-oute ouerdoinge. pot on wyfma??. ssel habbe uor 
hare body ine one yere zuo uele payre of robes / and 
of diuerse maneres / huerof manye poure mi3ten by 


sostened of ban pet is to moclie. Ac yet eft yef hi but they are not 

given to tlie poor, 

weren ate ende y-^eue nor godes loue to Jje poure : yet but to the disso- 
hit were zomfing. ac lii bye]? ofte y-yene to rybaus J)et 
is wel grat ze».ne. j5eruore me ssel loki niesure ine 
zuyclie J5inge be Ipa stat jjet fe persone acsejj ase ich 
habbe aboiie y-zed. 

])e zixte stape of temp^^rance and of sobrete is / Ipet The sixth step of 

Temperance is 

ecli loki guode mesnre ine liis contenonce / and ine bis moderation in 

1 • 1 -tT n 11 1 conduct. 

bermge. pamie seneke zay};. Yet |) on art sobre and Take heed that 
ate7??pred / imn foil bede fet Jje steriynges of jjine ^J^thear^tV/not 
berte ne of J»ine bodye / ne by noule ne onwor]?i. Vor ^'^"' •"^ '^'^^y- 
of J)e discordance of jje herte : conip Jje discordance of 
pe bodio. Zome per byej) zuo cbildhedi / and of zuo Some are so 

, childish that they 

nice manere / Jiet hi make]) ham-zelue to by hyealde cause tiiemseives 

f. 1 TT-j. 1 1 ij. ^ • I I,,- to be looked upon 

loles. Kit becomjj wel to man of worssipe / and jjet is ^^ foois 
ine grat stat / fet he hj v,rcl ordine / and amesured ine Look that thy 

ni.TT ; ,. ni- •• -\ 1} deeds be well or- 

alle Ins dedes / and m alie his ziggmges. and oi uayre deved, so that none 

contenonce to-iiore alle men / zuo Jiet non ne ni03e ^^ 'gximpie^'^^ 

nime of him kueade uorbisne / ne jjet he ne by yheakle 

nor fol / ne uor child. Vor ase zayjj a grat filosofe. 

' child of elde. child of wytte. and child of Jieawes : 

bye]) al on.' J3e Avritinge zayp fet / fet child of an Thechiuiofan 

. . hundred years 

hondred year: ssel by acorsed. pet is to zigge. pet pe shall be accursed, 

ilke pet hep nolle elde / and lenep ase a child : ssel by andyetiseiuidish. 

acorsed of god. )3awne zaynte paul zayde of hi??z-zeliie. 

' j3o ich wes child : ich dede ase a child, ich po3te ase 

a child, ac zeppe ich com to elde of uol man r ich 

uorrletl alle mine childhedes.' Vor huo bet halt aid Hewhohoidetu 

L J •'an old man a 

man uor child : he bine halt uor fol. And peruore cwi'i hoideth him 

a fool. 

zayp zaynte paul. ' iSTe by na3t child of wytte. ac ine 
queadnesse by lite.' ISom is hit pa?ine guod ping and 
oneste. p?'ofitable / and worbssipuol to man an to -svyf- ^'"■'^'^'^ man and 

i. I r i. •! woman shall so 

man / and nameliche to grat uolk. bet hi loki sceluolle "'•'i<^'' "'eu- oon- 

mesure / ine berynge / ine contenonce / and pet hi by decorous, profit- 
able, and honour- 

Avel ordyne oueral. and be-uore god / and be-uore pe aWe before God 

A T • • - p • i and man. 

uolke. And pis is pe zixte stape oi pise trawe. 
17 * 



Observe moder- 
ation in meat and 

[Fol. 81. b.] 

Load not the 
heart with the 
sins of gluttony 
and drunken- 

Of excess in meats 
and drinks see 
the chapter 
wliere the sin of 
gluttony is treated 

Moderation is to 
be found in all 

It is a fair tree, 
and its fruit is 
peace of heart. 

He who hath this 
virtue is joined to 
God by charity, 
and is separated 
from the world's 

and so he resteth 
in God and hath 
comfort and bliss. 

Such bliss setteth 
the Holy Ghost in 
the heart that is 
perfected by the 
virtue of sobriety. 

})Q zeuend sta]De is / to loki mesure ine mete and 
ine drinke. Vor ouerdede of mete and of drinke : dej> 
moche tarm ine bodie and ine zaule. ase ich habbe be- 
nore yzed. Jjeniore zayjj oiire Ihord ine his spelle 
' !Nime]j ye liede / J)et yoiire herten / ne by ygreued / 
ne y-charged of glotoimie / ne of dronkehede.' )?et is to 
zigge / jjet Jjou ne do oiierdoinge of mete and of drinke. 
Sobrete lokej) mesiue ine mete and ine drinke. Ipet me 
ne maki ouerdoinge. Of pe ouerdoinges fet me wes y- 
woned to do ine drinke and ine mete / ich habbe yno3 
yspeke ine Jje dra3})e of vices hua?2ne fet ich spek of Tpe 
ze?me of glotunie / to huam f)is u/rtue huerof ich habbe 
yspeke / zuo is contrariG specialKche. and j^ernore ich 
nelle nanmore hyer speke. 

l^ou hest jjoii y-herd fe stapes huerbi Jjis traw wext 
and note]), and yef ]?ou wylt ywyte fe bo3es of fise 
trawe : yzi^ alle fe o)jre u/rtues / jjet bye]) y-contynent 
ine Jjis hoc. and fon sselt yuinde oueral jjise u»'tu. 
Vor ase ich habbe yzed aboue / and y-ssewed. J^is 
vi/rtue zet mesure in alle pe xi/rtues. hueruore ich 
zigge / J)et alle J>e ojjre m'/'tues bye]? bo3es of fise. nor 
hy hyre ssewej) ine alle fe oj^re bo3es. ]5et traw berjj 
wel nayr frut. and wel smakinde. pet is j^ais of herte. 
ase ich habbe aboue yzed. Vor huo fet he]) fise 
uiVtue : he hep pe herte zuo to-deld uram pe loue of pe 
wordle / and zuo y-yoyned to god be charite. fet is 
charite : loue of god. Vor hi zet alle ofre ])inges ine 
uoryetinge Jjet ne bye]) na3t ydy3t to god. And ine 
zuyche manyre pe herte him reste]) ine god. huer hi 
he]) al liire confort. hire bhsse / and hire lost, fet 
pase]) alle o])re lostes. Zuych comfort / zuych lost / set 
pe holy gost ine herte pet is uolmad ine pe u^Vtue of 
sobrete / ])et com]) of pe yef])e of -^^^sdome / ase ich 
habbe aboue yzed. Vorzo])e he fet zuich pays of herte 
mi3te habbe / and yuele : he ssolde liim resti ine god / 
fet is pe ende / and pe uoluellinge / and pe so?»me of 


his wylni?zges. lie ssolde bi y-blissed iiie jjise wordle / 

and ine be obre. uor he ssolde habbe y-wonne be ilke The peaceaWe are 

■> -f ^ J blessed and are 

bhssinge Jjet god behat ine his spelle to ham jjet Jjise called God's sons. 

ilke pais lokede "o^Jj-oute brekinge. uor he zayp fet hi 

byej) ybhssed fe paysible. nor lii ssolle by y-cleped 

godes zones. )?o byep payzible / fet zayjj zaint austin / Those are peace-; 

pet alle fe steriinges of fe herte ordajTieJ) / and zette)) tJJVmotions? 

onder be Ihordssipe of ri^te scele and of be goste. j)os the heart by the 

lordship of reason, 

byejj ari3t y-cleped children / uor hi berejj J)e anlik- 
nesse of hire uader / Jjet is Jje god of loue and of pais, 
aze zayJj zainte paul. and lpa7ine pays and loue of god / Peace and the love 

. -, ^ of God make man 

IS pet pmg pet mest make J) man anlikni to god. and pe uke God. 

co?i[t]rarie to pe dyeule pet is godes uo. EfterAvard / 

hi byep y-cleped godes zones, uor hi uol3ep al hare 

uader wel nier pa?2ne eni oper. uor pays / and loue / him 

uoljep more nyer : panne eni oper u/rtue. Efterward / are called God's 

Ml,, T n -. • 1 T -I sons because they 

dop pe workes oi hire uader. uor god ne com m-to ^o God's works. 

pise wordle / bote tomaki pays be-tuene god and man. t^l'J'woriTto'"''' 
be-tuene man and angle. be-tueFnel man and liimzelue. ™''''® ^t^^^® "'^^ 

'-' L J God and man. 

j)a.nne po he wes ybore / pe angles zonge uor pet pays [Foi. 82. a] 

pet god hedde y-br03t in-to erpe. and peruore pet pe 

uolk ne ssolde zeche bote pays. }?eruore panne pet hi 

byep godes zones / hi byep ybhssed ine pise wordle God's sons are 

be special g?'ace. Ac pe ilke bhssinge ssel by uolmad world by special 

hua??ne lii ssolle by ine payzible possession of pe buuheir wiss is 

eritage of hire uader / bet is of be riche of lieuene huer perfected in 

/ J J heaven, 

hi ssolle by ine zikere pays, ine pese uoldo / huer alle 
lostes ssolle by uolueld. huer ne may by no kuead / 
ne zorse / ne aduersete / ne defaute. ac abundance / where is no sin, 

sorrow, or adver- 

and plente of alle guode. bHsse and ioye wyp-oute sity, 

ende. J)et ssel by pais worpssipuol / lostuol / and everlasting peace. 

eurelestinde. Pais pet pasep / and ouergep wj^t. ase 

zayp zaynte paul. And zeppe pet hi pasep alle -wj'ttes : 

hi pasep alle wordes. Vor herte non ne may penche / ma"teii'of th^^ 

ne niannes tonge telle : huet ping is pet pais pet god K';eatnessofthis 

hep behote his urendes. And peruore ich ne ssolde by 



Aviierefore I were bote a Avlaifere lie zigge fiPxg to j?e nolle. And feruore 

a mocVer to . , ,. . ,..,.,, ,. . 

attempt to de- icli neile non more zigge. ac hier icli wiile eudi mine 
fuH. ^ " '" ^"^^ niatire. To pe blisse of oure lliorde / to huam by alle 

Avorjjssipe. fet ous lete wonie ine liis uela3rede / huer 

is lif enrelestiinde. 

This boo'.c is come 
to an end, 
May God his bliss 
us send ! 

Tiiis boo': is 
written in the 
Ei'.glisli of Kent 
for lewd men, for 
fathers and 
mothers, &e., 
to lieep tliem from 
sin, so that their 
consciences maybe 
The author's 
name signifies 
' Who as God,' 
and may God 
give liim the 
bread of angels 
and receive his 
soul when dead. 

N.S. This book 
was finished in 

the Eve of the 
Holy Apostles 
Simon and Judas, 
by a brother of 
the cloister of St. 
Austin of Canter- 
bury, in the year 
of our Lord 1340. 

[pater nosier.] 
Our father that 
art in heaven, &c. 

[aue Maria ] 
KaU Mary ! 


)?is boc is ycome to \ie ende : 
Heuene blisse god ous zende. Amen. 

Kou icli mile jjet ye ywyte liou hit is y-went : 
jjet Ipis boc is y-^\^■ite mid engliss of kent. 
))is boc is y-mad nor lewede men / 
Vor uader / and nor moder / and nor o|)er ken / 
ham nor to ber3e uram alle manyere zen / 
)?et ine hare inwyttte ne bleue no uonl Aven. 
' Huo ase god ' is his name yzed / 
jiet fis boc made god him yeue J?et bread / 
of angles of henene and Jjerto liis red / 
and ondernonge his zaule huanne jjet he is dyad. 

Ymende. Jiet J)is boc is uolueld ine fe ewe of pe 
holy apostles Symon an ludas / of ane brojjer of J>e 
cloystre of sanynt austin of Canterberi / Ine j>e yeare 
of cure Ihordes beringe. 1340. 

Vader oiu'e jjet art ine heuenes / y-hal^ed by J)i 
name, cominde Jji riche. y-worjje J)i Avil / ase ine 
heuene : and ine erjje. bread om'e echedayes : yef ous 
to day. and uorlet ous oure yeldinges : ase and we uor- 
letejj oure yelderes. and ne ous led na3t : in-to uoiid- 
inge. ac vri ous uram queade. zuo by hit. 

Hayl Marie / of ])onke uol. Ihord by mid j)e. y- 
blissed jjou ine wymmen. and y-blissed jjet ouet of 
fine wombe. zuo by hit. 

Ich leue ine god / uader almi3ti. makere of heuene / 


and of erbe. Aiid ine iesu cr/st / liis zone on-lepi / i b.-iieve in God 

' IP 'I'e Father M- 

oure Ihord. fet ydcend is / of jse holy gost. y-bore of mighty, siaker of 

nr ■ -tr ^ 11 -11. 11 heaven and earth, 

Alane Mayde. y-pyned onder poiins piiate. y-nayied a ^^^ ^^ jes„3 

rode. dyad, and be-bered. yede donn to belle. Jjane ^'^"^'''^c. 

|)ridde day a-ros uram ])e dyade. Stea^ to beuenes. 

zit a]3e rijt half of god Ipe uader al-nii3ti. Joannes to 

coniene be is / to deme be quike / and be dyade. Ich i believe in the 
' r i. I r J jjyiy Qhost, &c. 

y-leue ine Jie holy gost. holy cherche generalliche. 
Me?niesse of hal3en. Lesnesse of zewnes. of nlesse 
arizinge, and lyf eurelestinde. zuo by hjt. j-j.^,j gj t,.] 

Uor to ssea^yJ Ipe lokpige of man v/y>-i«ne. fellyche Z^^^,, , 
ane norbysne / oui-e Ihord ihfeni crist zayb. ' bis uorzobe =i"<i *i''<=<ie : and 

•^ I J r i r jjyg ^-ende / into 

ywyte]?. ]jet yef ])e uader of Jie house wj^ste huyclie loueofgod.] 
time Jje ]jyp.f were coniynde : uor-zo]je he wolde waky / the'hous'eknew a 
and nolde najt folye Jiet me dolue his hous.' Be J»ise he'wouirJatc™" 
uader of house me may onderstonde / be wyl of skele. '*"'^ ^'''"'^ "^'^ 

■^ / J- J house. 

to huam be-longeb moche mayne. j5ojtes. and his The Father of the 

house is the will 

besteriinge. "wj't. and dedes / ase wel vv^Ji-oute : ase of Reason, that 

, " hath many at- 

Avjr]3-inne. Jset is to zigge / huych mayne / to moche tendants, as 

slac / and -wylles uol ssel by : bote yef fe ilke uaderes emotions', sense, 

stefhede hise strajmy / and ordayny. Vor zoj^e yef he ThS'^'ervants win 

hym a lyte of his bysyhede wyjj-dra^jj : liuo may zigge / ^f^ slothful unless 

hou boates. ejeu. earen. tonge. and alle obre wyttes : active. 

If the reason is 

become]) wylde. Hous. is inw^yt / in huychen jje idle, the thoughts, 

uader of house "wonejj. })o hord of uirtues gaderej). Vor become wild, 

huych hord : fet iUte zelue hous ne by y-dolue / i,„vit,°oTspTrit.* 

he^lyche he wakeb. ber ne is naat on byef : ac uele. ac '^^"^ house is 

7 J r ' ? T J undermined not 

to eche uutue : ech vice waytejj. Jjajles hejlyche by ^ °"® ^'^^'^'^ ^"^^ 
be byeue : is onderstonde be dyeuel. a-ye huam and his The chief thief is 
kachereles / jje ilke zelue uader / fables yef he ne were are his catchpoics. 
na3t onlosti : his hous mid greate strengfie wolde loky. 
])Q uader of jje house / ate uerste guoinge in: he zette The Father of the 
sle3J)e / to by doreward. Jjet y-knaujj huet is to uorlete : sieight (Prudence) 
and huet ys to wylny. huet nor to bessette out of fe keeper. 
house, huet uor to onderuonge into ]>e house. Nixt stren^SpoL 
ban: ha zette strengb*?. bet be vyendes / bet slejbe zent t^e dev-iis and 

J '-'' I I 'J I r }i support Prudence. 


to zygge / to keste out : strengjje wyjjdro^e. jjet his 
mSand^Je'T ^°^^® ^^^^^ w^^])-dvo^e : and \ry])-zGde. Ki3tnesse 
to yacii its own uorzojje ssel zitte aiiiydde / fet echen liis 03611 yefjj. 
At what time tiie Hueruore : huyclie time be byef is comynde / me not. 

thief will come 

one knoweth not. ac eche tyme me ssel drede. )5ise zuo y-di3t : na3t longe 

to ]>e wakynde fe slep of zeiine iDenymJ). Vox al Jiet 

Sleight lets some lyf is to waky. Zome messagyers sle^be ssel lete in. 

messengers in to o^ ^j 

give warning. ])et zouie Jjinges mo3e telle / Ipet me may a-waki myde. 
The messenger of jjus be messagyer of dyabe acseb inguoynge : he is on- 

Deatli demands 

an entrance, deruonge. Me him acsejj ' huo he ys. hiiannes he com)). 

and claims a ., 

dead silence, and huet he hej? ysoje. He ansueref. he ne may na3t 

"?am Dread, and zigge : hotc yef ]>eT by he3liche clom. Huych y- 

De™hofs graunted: fus he begyn>. 'Ich am drede / and be- 

yo™'"^ "'^°" jjenchinge of dyafe. and dyajj comyde : ^ ich do you to 

I' comynde?] wyteue.' Sle3])e specj) uor alle. and acsej). ' And huer 

" Where t! Death? ^^ ^°^ f® ^^^ ^J^l?- ^nd huaunc ssel lie come f Drede 

TOine"? "'^^ '^* zayj). ' Ich Avot wel jjet he ne abyt na3t to comene / and 

Dread answers, nygi he is. ac bane day / ober bane t\Tiie of his 

" Slie delays not, "^ ' ^ J / r r J 

but Is nigh at comynge : ich not.' Sle3]3e zayj>. ' And huo ssel come 
and a thousand myd h}Te ? ' Drede zayjj. ' A J^ouzend dyeulen ssolle 

devils shall come .,.. ,, ■ ■> ^ i i -\ ^ i 

with her, come mid hire, and brenge mid ham / greate bokes / 

book^""^ ^^^^* and bernynde liokes / and chajaien auere.' Sle3j?e zayj). 
burning hooks, 'And liuet Avylleb hy do mid alle ban?' Drede zayb. 

and fiery chains. J x -J J 'J i 

In the books are ' Ine Jie bokes bye]) y- write alle Jje ze??nen of men. and 

Bins. hise brengej) / pet be ham hi nio3e ouercome men. of 

huychen fe zewnes perinne byej) yAvryte. pet byej) to 

The hooks draw hare ri3te. Hokes hi brengep / pet po pet byep to hare 

the souls out of ii,,^,ni 

the bodies, n3te ouercoiiiep : hire zaulen be strengpe : 01 pe bodye 

chains are they dra3ep out. and hisB byiidep mid pe chaines / and in 

iSeu"" ''"'''" to helle hise dra^ep.' Sle3pe zayp. ' Hua?mes comste ? 

[Foi. 83. a.] Drede zayp. ' Vram helle. Sle3pe zayp. ' And huet is 

comes from hell, hcUe. and huet yse3epe ine helle 1 ' Drede zayp. ' Helle 

TuS; w^ati is ^d / Avyp-oute metinge. dyep / Avyp-oute botme. 

bottomless. y^^ q£ brenc on-bolvinde. Vol of stenche / Avy-oute 

lull 01 fare mtoler- i •/ i <j 

able, and of sor- cojHparisoun. ber is zorjc. ber is byesternesse. ber ne is 

row and darkness. ' '^ ' ? s s -i s ^ 

non ordre. per is groniyngo wyp-oute ende. _per ne is 


non hope of gniode. non wa»trokiyiio;e of kueade. Ecli There is no hope 

i- o JO of good, and 

jjet jjerinne is : hate Jj him zelue : and alle oJ>ren. J?er abmidanceofuis. 

ich yze^ alle manyere tormens. jje leste of alle / is more 

panne alle ]?e pynen pet moje by y-do ine |)ise wordle. 

per is wop. and grindinge of teb. ber me gep iiram There is weeping 

. aud gnashing 

chele in to greate liete of nere. and bnofe onpolyinde. teeth. 

J3ere alle be uere / ssolle by uorbernd. and myd The soui shall be 

tormented by the 

wermes ssolle by y-wasted / and najt ne ssolle wasti. wonnofCon- 


Hire wermes / ne ssolle na3t sterue. and hare ver ne 
ssel neure by ykiienct. ISTo rearde ne ssel pev by y- 
hyerd / bote, wo : wo. wo hy habbej? : and wo hy 
gredej). j)e dyeules tormentors pynej). and to-gydere 
hy byejj y-pyned. ne neure ne ssel by ende of pyne : 
o]jer reste. Jjellich is helle / an a fousend zyjje worse. Heii is even worse 

.,,.., . 111/ 1 , 1-, than all this by 

And pis ich yze3 me lieile / and a pousendzipe more a thousand times, 
worse. )?is ich com nor to zygge you.' Sleabe zayb. ' God Prudence says, 

"O God, what 

wet ssolle we do. Nou brojiren and zostren y-hyreji shaUwedo?" 

my red. and yuejj youre. Bye]) sle3e. an AvakeJ? ine Be watchful 

youre bedes / porueynde guodes. na^t onlyche beuore ^^ prayerful, 

gode : ac be-uore alle men.' bolemodness zayb. 'Do Patience says, 

° ' J T " Work God s 

we to worke godes nebsseft / ine ssrifte / and ine likeness in shrift 

' ' and in psalms." 

zalmes : glede we hyni. bye]) sobre / and wakye]) / 
uor youre uo fe dyuel / ase pa lyoun brayinde ge]) 
aboute ban : bet he wyle uor-zuebe.' Strengbe zayb. strength says, 

^ -^ . OY JY ".Withstand the 

* Wyfstonde]) hym : stronge ine byleaue. Bye}) glede devil by belief. 
ine god. Clo])e}) you mid godes armes. pQ hauberk of aothe you with 
ry^t. fane sseld of beleaue. nyine]) Jiane hebn of helfe. 
and pQ holy gostes ziiord : ])et is godes word.' Ry3[t]nesse Equity says, 

** Live soberly." 

zayj). ' Lybbe we sobreliche. ryuoUyche an bonayrelyche. 
Sobrelyche : ine ous zelue. ry3tuollyche : to oure 
emcristen. bonayrelyche : to god. ])et we nolle}) fet me 
do to ous zelue : ne do we hyt na3t to o}iren. and fet 
we wj'lle}) pet me do to ous zellue : do we hit to o})re pmdence says, 

1 , , J • • J I rti 1 • c i^ • "Another messen- 

men. and uor zofe fet is ri3t; ble3})e zay}). ' Jjer is gg^ awaits with- 
anoper w;y^p-oute pe gates uap-. and gled. hit ])ingp fe he ""t." Equity com- 
bre[n]g})glednesse.' Ry3[t]nesse zay}>. 'onderuonge}>hym. received. ' 



The messenger 
enters and says 
that he is ' Love 
of evei'lasting life.' 

He asks for silence 
and peace. 

Equity says that 
his demand is 

The messenger 
says that he 
coines from 

and that lie has 
seen God as in a 

[Fol. 83. b.] 
"Isaw llieinefl'able 
and i)idivisible 
majesty of the 
Holy Trinity : 

thelight therefrom 
dazzles the eyes, 
and surpasseth all 

I saw Christ on 
God's right hand. 

and He bears the 
wounds and 
tokens of his 
passion in Iiis 

Next to Christ 
I saw the Virgin 

[1 godes ? or 
zones ?] 

who was inter- 
ceding for us. 

be 033 lie ous ssel gledye. uor fies ilke uerste : gi'at- 
lyclie he ous he]) y-mad of-dret.' Sle3|)e zayj? to jje messa- 
gere. ' Guo in. and huo ))ou art. and hua?nies J)ou 
comst. and huet fou liest yzo3e : zay ous.' j)e mes- 
sagyr zay]). 'Ich am loue of lyue eurelestynde. an 
"wybiynge of ])e contraye of heuene. Yef ye me wylle]) 
y-here : habbe]) amang you. clom / and reste. ]S[a3t 
uor zo])e amang gredynges and noyses : ych ne may by 
yherd.' Ei3[t]uolnessezay]». ' Yef welongegodes drede/ 
and be-]>enchinge of dya]»e were stille : ry3t hit is / fet 
\>e sj)ekinde / wel more Ave by stille.' Wylningge of ]ie 
IjTie ■wy])-oute ende / zay]). ' jperuore byeji stille / and 
yhere]i niyd wylle. Ich come m-am heuene. and 
])elliche ])inges ich y-ze3 ]>ev. fet no man ne may 
dyngneliche zigge. }3a3les zom])yng ich wylle zigge : 
ase ich may. Ich yze3 god. ac be ane sseawere ine 

' Ich yze3 Ipe ilke onspekynde / an on-todelinde 
mageste of ])e holy trinyte. be-gynnynge / ne ende ne 
help. Ac and ly3t per-inne wone]) / ])et me ne may na3t 
come to. Vra?;i Ipo Ij^te bye}) y-])orsse mine e3en / and 
Jje zy3])e ftyester. Hyt ouerge]) uorzo])e alle wyttes / 
and alle zj^lpes. ]>e ilke bry3[t]nesse. and ]>e ilke uolnesse. 
])a3les a lytel ich yze3 oure Ihord iesu crist / ine ri3t 
half zittinde. fet is to zygge : ine ]»e lyuo wy])-oute ende 
regnynde. J5a3 he ouer alle sse2i})es by zuo uayr : ])et 
ine hi?« "wj^lne]) Ipa angles to zyeiine. Yet nou Ipe 
Avounden and Tpe toknen of pe passion he he}) ine his 
bodye. huermyde he ous bo3te. be-uore pe uader uor ous 
stant uor to bydde. Ich y-ze3 nyxt iesu crist pe ilke 
blisfolle mayde / and moder pe ilke zodes^ / and oure 
lliordes iesu cristes / myd alle wor|)Ssipe and reuerence / 
y-nemned marie / ine pe Avonderuolle trone zittynde / 
aboue alle pe holy ordres of angles / and of men : an- 
he3ed. hire zone iesus uor ous byddinde. and to huam 
hi is uol of merci. Ac pe ilke Avonderuolle mageste / 


and |)e bi i3tnesse of pe mocler / and of pe zone : ich ne 

niy^te najt longe polye / icli wente myne zi^Jje uor to ^!^t t^* tiw''o,"fr 

yzi / jje ilke holy ordres of pe gostes : pet stondef be- of bUssfui spirits. 

xiore god. of huichen pe eurelestiiide holynesse of pe 

zi^pQ of god / an of pQ lone, ne hit ne ssel lessi : ne hit 

ne ssel endi / ac enre wexe and blefjj. Ac na3t po, ilke 

degrez / and dingnetes / heryinges alsuo / huyche \ijvQ 

makyere hy berejj no man uollyche jjenche / ne na^t ne 

may by ynoj to telle, berefter be pro fetes ich y-zej. Thereafter i saw 

•^ J -^ y > .. . the propliets and 

and pQ pat/7'arkes wonderlyche giediynde ine blisse. uor patriarchs 

J)et hy yze3en ine goste : uolueld hy yzejj. pai ine longe 

anoy onderuynge / ]?et ouet of blysse wyjj-oute ende 

chongeden. Ich y-ze3 pe apostles ine tronen zittynde. andthe apostles 

pQ tribj / and pe tongen / alle preste. and of poure / ^' "'^°" 

and of zyke : zuo blisuolle and holy / of cure Ihord iesu 

crist / and zuo he38 / ynoj alneway ich am wondrinde. 

Ich y-ze3 / ac uollyche ich ne myr3lte al yzy / be innumer- i saw the innu- 
merable fellow- 
able uela3rede of pe holy martires / mid bKsse and ship of the holy 

/ 11 r> • / martyrs. 

worjjssipe / y-corouned. pel be pe pmen of jjise tmie / 
huyche lii beren to po blisse / fet wes ysseawed ine 
ham : hy come ferto. Hyre holynesse / and hyre 
blysse: long time ich me lykede. Ich yze3 to be i saw the blessed 

heap of confessors 

blyssede heape of coftfessours. amang huam / men and teachers of , 

apostles / and techeres / pet holy cherche mid hare 

techinge wereden. and alsuo lu'am alle heresy e / "\vy [Jij-oute 

wem habbe]} yclenzed : sseawejj. and hy uele liabbej) 

y-ta3t. ssynejj ase sterren / ine eurelestynde "w^' [jjj-oute 

ende. J5er bye]? Monekes pet uor claustres / and uor Therewere monks 

, , I . , , / , , , that shine clearer 

strayte ceilen. wel moche / an clyerer jjanne pe zonne : than the sun. 
habbej) wonyinges. Vor blake and uor harde kertles / 
huyter Jjane pe snaw. and of alle zofthede / and 
nesshede / clo|)inge habbejj an. Vram hare e3en / god 
wype]) alle tyeres. and ])ane kyng hy ssoUe ysy ine hys 
uayrhede. iUast / to pe uela3rede of may dynes ich 
lokede. of huychen / blysse / ssepbe / agraybinge / and fellowship of 


melodya. huyche none mannes speche : dingnelyche 



and heard tlieir 
fair son^. 

[Fol. 84. a.] 

Sleight inquires 
of the messenger 
concerning the 
life of the blessed. 

He is told that 
they live, enjoy, 
love, rejoice, 
praise, are swift, 
and are in 

They live an ever- 
lasting life free 
from all pain. 

Their life is the 
sight of the 

They taste of 

God's counsel and 

dooms, and learn 

the causes of 


They love God 

with an infinite 


They rejoice in 

God and of their 


They have as 
many blessings as 

and their joy is 



may telle. Aud hy zonge Jjane zang : fet noii ojier ne 
may zynge. Ac and ])e zuete smel ine hare regyon / 
ziio zuete ys : pet alle manyre zuete smelles ouercomj). 
And to hare benes : oure Ihord arist. to alle ofren : 
zittinde he Ihest.' Sle3}?e zay]). ' Hyt lykef fet pou 
zayst. Ac uor of echen of pe holy ordres / wondres 
fou hest y-zed : we hyddejj fet })ou zigge ous / huet is 
hare dede in mennesse / and huet is fe co?zuers[ac]ion of 
uela3rede : zay ous.' })e Avylny[njgge of ]>e lyue -wyjj-oute 
ende zayjj. ' Vor zojje ich wylle zygge. J3e dede of alle 
ine mennesse / ys zeueuald. Hy lybbejj. hy smacke]?. 
hy louyejj. hy bye]) glede. hy heryejj. hy byejj zuyfte. hy 
byej) zikere.' Sle3J3e zayj?. ' ])^ ich zomdel J»is onder- 
stonde : uor ham jjet Ihesfce]) / of echen zay.' Wylnynge 
of pQ lyue Avj^-oute ende zayjj. ' Zuo by hyt. Hy lybbe]? 
be lyue wyJ)-oute ende. wy]j-oute enye tyene. wy-oute 
enye lessinge. wyjj-oute enye wy))stondynge. Hyre lyf 
is Jse zy^jje and jje knaulechynge of ]je holy trinyte. aso 
zayj) oure Ihord iesus. fis is fet lyf wyf-oute ende / fet 
hy knawe jje zoj^e god / and huam fe zentest iesu crist. 
and jjeruore ylyche hy byej? / uor hy y-zyeji : ase he is. 
Hy smackejj pe redes and fe domes of god. Hy 
smackej) pe kendes/and pe causes/ and j?e begynny[n]ges 
of alle Jtynges. Hy louyej) god ivyji-oute enye com- 
parisoun. uor Jjct by wjte]) huerto god his hej) y-bro^t 
uorjj. hy louyej) ech oJ)ren : ase ham zelue. Hy bye]) 
glede of god onzyginde. hy bye]) glede of zuo moche of 
hare 03ene holynosse : and uor fet ech loue]) o])ren ase 
hi??; zelue. ase moche blisse hej) ech of o])res guode : ase 
of his 03ene. )?eruore by ziker / uor eurych hep aseuele 
blyssen : ase he hep uela3es. and aseuele blissen to 
echen : ase his 03ene of alle. and feruore eureich more 
loue]) vrypoute comparisoun god : Jiet hym and opra 
made / ]ianne him zelue / and alle ofre. More hy bye]) 
glede "wy])-oute gessynge of godes holynesse : fanne of 
his ojene / and of alle opre myd hym. Yef ])anne on 



onneajje njanjj al his Llisse. lioii ssel he nynie zuo iiele 

and zuo manye blyssen ? And beruore hit is yzed. guo The command is, 

'J -J I .^ u • Go mto the bliss 

into Jje blysse of fyne Ihorde. na3t pe ToHsse of f>ine ofthjLord.' 

Ihorde / guo in to f e. uor hy ne may. Jjerefter / hy 

heriej) god AvyJ)-oute ende / wy])-oute werynesse. ase hyt 

is y-wryte. Lhord / y-blyssed by Jjo ])et wonyeji ine 

fyne house / in "wordles of "wordles : ssolle herye ]je. 

Zuyfte hy bye)), uor huer ]?et ]je gost wyle by : uorzojje They are swift, 

TTi n ry ^ i and the body goe3 

J)er IS ]?et body. Alio hy byejj myL^Jtuolie. Zykere hy ^here the spirit 

byej) of zuyche lyue. of zuo moche wysdome. of zuo xhey are secure 

moche loue. of zuo moche blysse. of zuyche heryinge. of a"),*! on'ovg °*^ ^^^* 

zuyche holynesse. fet non ende. non lessynge. non 

uallynge doun ssolle habbe. Lo alyte ich. habbe yzed 

to you. of ])an ])et ich yze; ine heuene. l^B.-'^i uor zo]je 

ne may zigge / ase ich yze3 / ne na^t ase hy bye]? : ne 

myjte ysy.' Sle3]>e zayj). 'Vorzojte ine heuene we onder- strength asks, 

stondej) fet jjou were, and zo)3 fing fer fou yse^e. and separate as from 

zoj) J)ou best y-zed.' Strengjje zayf . ' Huo ssel ous to- 

dele uram cristes loue 1 tribulacion. o)3er zor3e. and ofire. 

zykere byeb. uor nober dyab / ne lyf. and obre.' Eyjt Right says, Turn 

^ -^ '^ '^ -^ '^ ' -^ ^.'"out the messenger 

zayj). ' Do]) out fane uerste messagyer. hyt ne is na^t Dread, 

ri3t J)et he bleue ine pe house / myd f>e ry3tuolle. Vor [FoI. 84. b.] 

ry3[tluolle loue : deb out drede.' Strengbe zayb. ' guo out forioveofOod 

. 1 1 -r\ 1 putteth out fear. 

drede. Jjou ne sselt na3t by me oure stedes. Drede 
zayj). ' Huet habbe ich mis-do. do. do. ich uor guode 
zede.' Teniperaucia zayb. ' Broben and zostren / ich Temperance com- 

'- J T T I niands Dread to 

zigge to you. naHuiore smacky / ])a«ne be-houeji. ac go out wiiungiy. 

smacke to sobrete. J5ou drede / guo out myd guode Avylle. 

Jjole fane dom / fet ri3t hep y-demd. be auenture fe 

my3t eft by onderuonge. yef wylnynge of lyf wyf-oute 

ende / oferhuyl let of.' j5e makyere zayf. ])ns / fus / Thus let us cast 

, . , , - , , oflffearand receive 

nou ssel eurich nys heuynesse / ssake a-Avay / uram tiieioveoftiie 
drede / to f»e loue of fe heuenelyche contraye him-zelue aom.''"^^ '""^" 
Avende. Zuo by hit. 



between a man 
and a beast. 
Glorify thee not 
in other things. 
Flies surpass thee 
in swiftness. 

The peacock is 
fairer than thou. 
God's image con- 
sists in thought 
and understand- 

Man's light con- 
sists in purity of 
The untrue, the 
evil, thieves, &c., 
are dark. 

Light exists, but 

we go away from 


Sin makes us 


The world is 
blind and wicked. 

Christ died for us, 
and yet was with- 
out sin. 

Suffer patiently 

and with a good 


God made angels 

as well as small 


The one is worthy 
of heaven, the 
other of earth. 

Yet wouldst thou 
reprove God if he 
place the worm in 
heaven ? 

But God is not to 
be reproved. 

Nammore ne is be-tuene ane manne / and ane beste : 
bote ine onderstondynge. J:^a^t of o]?re ])inge ne 
glorefye fe. Of n/rtnes Jie prest fe / of bestes J»ou sselt 
by ouercome. Of zuyfthede fe prest J?e / of uelejn Jjb 
worst ouercome. Of nayrliede ]>e prest ])e : bou moche 
uayr is ine fa ne])eren of Ipe pokoce / hnerof art fou 
more worjj 1 of godes ssepfie. Hucr is godes ssepjje 1 
Ine fencbinge / and ine onderstondinge. Yef J)ou 
jjanne jjernore art betere Ipanne a best / nor pet J)0u best 
Jjencbinge / btierby J)ou onderstans[t]. fet a best ne may 
onderstonde. );er-iiore uorzojje : man is more betere / 
fa/me a best. Li3t of man is ly3t of jjo^tes. Lijt of 
jjo^tes aboue ])03tes is. and onergeJ» alle ]?03tes. Yet 
eft .0. men / ne bye]) na^t Jjyestre. ne byej) najt 
ontrevve. onrijtnole. queade. robberes. VvTecben. lonieres 
of Ipe wordle. }3ise uor zojje byeji fyesternesse. Ly3t 
ne is na3t awaye : ac ye bye]? awaye / nram ly^te. j)e 
blynde ine jje zo»ne : be]) Jie zonne present, ac he is 
nram ]»e zonne. }?eruore ne bye}) na3t ])yestre. Yet 
eft. f>e "vvordle Jjyestre. nor fe lonyeres of Ipe wordle. 
byep fiyestre. and fie wordle is quoad, uor po pet Avonye]? 
ine wordle bye]) queade. ase a quoad hous. na3t pe 
walles : ac ])o pet wonjep perinne. Yet eft. crist ne 
hedde no pyng hueruore he ssolde sterue : and dyad 
he is. pou best hueruore : and to sterue pan best 
onworj) 1 wylne myd guod wylle to ])olye : be pjne of- 
seruynge / fiet he Jjolede myd guode wylle. })et he 
Avolde delyury / nram pe dya])e eurelestinde. Yet eft. 
be huam ])et angel is ymad : be him is ymad pe smale 
werm. Ac pe angel is worpj to pe heuene : pe werm 
to pe er])C. ]0e ilke ])et made : he dy3te. Yef he dcdo 
pane smale werm in-to heuene : pe woldest hym \yjp- 
nyme. Yef he Avolde maki angles of uoule stynkynde 
ulesse : fou woldest hym Avy])nyme. And na3t uorfian : 
nyxt ])an de}) god. and ])a3les he no is na3t to wy])- 
n^anene. Vor alle men of ulesse ymad : huet hjep hy 


bote wermes 1 and of wcrines / he makeb angles. Yet Men are worms, 

and of worms 

eft. liuych herte me' arere]5 : ech may y-zy. pet najt be Goa makes 


neuynesse of ulesses wylle beuore ygreued / auore ualjj / 

ere hit by arered. Ac ech him zekie y-zy bere / Jje The heart must 

1 i?T'i 11 ,1 ii.he lightened and 

heuynesse of his ulesse : yxie -^^l be wyj)dra3ynge. fet so raised to God. 

he clensy : Jiet he arere to god. zuo by liit. Hayl godes 

moder Marie / Mayde uol of fonke / god by myd ]jg / 

y-blyssed by J)ou / ouer alle wyfmen. And y-blyssed 

by oure Lhord iesus / fet zuete ouet / of ])yne wombe 

yblessed. zuo by liit. Mayde / and moder mykle. nor Maid and Mother 

,'„. 1-11 ,. 1 -ivr.i mild, me thiU am 

loue 01 pine chude : pst is god an man : Me pet am zuo sov.-iid from sin 
\yylde / uram zonne J30U mo ssykle : ase ich J)e byddc ™* ^ "°'"' ' ''''^"" 
can. amen. 


Page 1, 1. 3, wijched. The definite form wyckede is required 
after the definite article. 

Page 1, 1. 15, dm^e. The prefixed y is omitted on account of 
the preceding bj/. 

Page 6, 1. 2, huich . . . by, whatsoever that it may be; 1. 9, 
topi^e = ahove. This preposition is frequently used by Shoreham, and 
seems pecidiar to the Kentish dialect j 1. 18, ofee]) = acseJ3 = demands, 
requires ; o]) of zolpe, oath of truth. 

Page 8, 1. 6, be Ms loytlnde =hy his willing = he being willing = 
willingly; 1. 23, and — a??^ both — and; 1. 25, yhyealde = holden=. 

PafTe 9, 1. 12, arizinges is used to translate the 0. Pr. 
moeuementes; 1. 17, taldnges, touchings, handlings, 0. Fr. atouche- 

Page 10, 1. 1, ssel = owes. It has this sense occasionally in 
Chaucer ; 1. 15, ywyte . . . yherd, known, seen, or heard. 
Page 11, 1. 2, his = hev. 

Page 13, 1. 19, al to, 0. Fr. iusqua ; 1. 20, huer . . . made 
\zitte\. The Fr. is ou il se sist ; 1. 24, of-guo, deserved. 

Page 14, 1. 22, huer . . . an = Fr. ou il aura vescua ; 11. 28, 30, 
sseawynge renders the Fr. revelacion, vision. 
Page 16, 1. 33, W2jttes = wytes, faidt. 

Page 17, 1. 24, ouenveninge, Fr. sourqiiidrie ; 1. 25, folebayrie = 
over-boldness; 1. 26, ydele blisse = FT. veynglorie ; 1. 32, voidhede, 
Fr. vileynye = crime, disgrace. 

Page 18, 1. 4, ingratitude := 0. E. unkyndenesse. 
Pao-e 19, 1. 12, renay ^= renegate, apostate. The Midland copy 
reads ' he may tvel be cleped renegate ; ' 1. 2, me lokinge, in custody ; 
1. 10 from bottom, deuines = dem'neres. 

NOTES. 273 

Page 20, 1. 16, pe, the reflexive pronoun = thou thyself. 

Page 21, 1. 16, op weninge = upiveening ; ojMwiinge^^^iqytakmg, 
enterprise, and hence presumption. The Fr. text has sorquidance 
(O.E. surquidrie) and presumpcion. See p. 22, 1. 2, where 
opniminge translates Pr. emprise; 1. 18, worth, Pr. valoir; 1. 19. 
may, Pr. pooir ; 1. 20, moy., Pr. puet; conne, Pr. savour; 1. 21, 
can, Pr. set; mo:^e, pooir; 1. 22, conne, Pr. savour; 1. 26, onlep)i- 
Aec?e = singularity, cf. 1. onlepi, singular, 1. 30. It often signifies 
only, alone. 

Page 22, 1. 18, onioor])i, Pr. despire = despise, cf. onworpnesse and 
onioor]ihede ^=^ Pr. despit ; 1. 20, hisemers, mockings, derisions, Pr. 
gas; 1. 21, iismerep, Pr. moke; 1. 31, take =^teke :=m.?ij teach. 

Page 23, 1. 2, frihiges ^^irjings. Pr. fritures. Stevenson 
printed sriinges, and it is apparently so in the MS. ; 1. 3, ar^thalf 
and alefthalf= our modem expression right and left = on both sides ; 

I. 6, folliche yeue = Pr. folement doner, to give foolishly (or as 
Chaucer would say, fool-largely) ; 1. 16, fole heryinge, fooHsh prais- 
ing = flattery, Pr. vaine loenge ; 1. 17, ^//^erec? = praised, from hcry, 
herie, to praise, Hne 19 ; 1. 24, ?/(^eZe&Zz5se = vain-glory. 

Page 24, 1. 4, aye = again = Pr. ou devers, auorye = de par ; 

II. 7, 8, wyt icel . . . of-healde. Wit, well for to devise (discern) ; good 
memory well to retain; 1. 11, atempres=^"Ev. attempre, tempered, 
moderated, contented ; 1. 23, Iheuedi hap, Dame Portune ; 1. 24, 
hare htie^el, her wheel ; page 25, 1. 34, sotil, Midi. Vers. sU^he ; 
1. 35, uoulliedes, Pr. ordures, halkes, Pr. repostaiUes. 

Page 26, 11. 18, 19, ne sselt . . . by. 'Thou shalt never learn 
what man is until he is where he desires to be ; ' 1. 22, let, ceaseth ; 
1. 23, papelard, Pr. papelart, flatterer, deceiver. 

Page 27, 1. 4, calomoe mous, the bat. Pr. chauue soriz ; 1. 29, 
aicar^ede = Pr. maloite, schrewd, wicked. 

Page 28, 1. 34, hollyche, Pr. sainement = sauiglement = enticre- 

Page 29, 1. 30, tverreres = werres = Avars. 

Page 30, 1. 20, ' effterward ivrepe,' ivre^e is an error for liate. 
The Pr. text has haine. 

Page 31, 11. 4, 5, onlusthede, Pr. paresce; tyene, Pr. anui; 1. 10, 


274 NOTES, 

fownZtc^e = thinness, scantiness. TheFr. text has tenuites, and the 
Midland MS. reads tendernesse. Jjonneliche should evidently bo 
\enneleche ox J)/««e?ec'7ie = thin-ness, the -ZecAe being the same ter- 
mination as in knowledge, O.E. hirnoleche ; 1. 11, Iheiidiclie, Fr. 
tenurement, Mid. Vers. slaMy. Stevenson printed Iheneliche. Cf. 
Iheuc in 1. 13. 

Page 32, 1. 17, onssriuel, Fr. perreceus. This word does not 
occur in Bosworth's A. Sax. Diet. It seems to be = un-shrifel, 
Mid. Vers, reclieles, negligent, careless, from A. S. serif an, to care for; 
1. 17, slei,uoUe = sIev])-uoUe, slothfid, see sleatcolle in 1. 13; 1.22, 
omvoneth, Fr. desacoustume ; on-ioone therefore comes from the O.E. 
tvone, habit, custom, Avont, and signifies to cease to do what has been 
customary or habitual; 1. 23, Efterward . . . sleuuolliche. The 
Fr. has ' Apres vient negligence, car qui bien fait delaiement nest pas 
merueil le sil le fait ncgliiaument.' Here we see cnievst = Fr. 
delaiement = delayingly, from A.S. fyrst, delay, respite. 

Page 33, 1. 12, op-let = Fr. sormaine, fr. surmener, ' 7nal mener, 
maltraiter ' (Eoq.). 

Page 34, 1. 27, vynnynge holdeliclie, Fr. en aquestier ardaument ; 
of-liecddi.nge streytlicke, Fr. en retenir restreignaument ; 1. 31, 
gaiielmge, Fr. usure ; 1. 34, Icuedliedes, Fr, malignites. 

Page 35, 1. 7, ])e Jie:^j)es, Fr. les montes; cf. Jie^inge, profit, 1. 16 ; 
1. 9, loedde-dyade = mortgage, Fr. gage mort, see dead-zved, p. 36 ; 11. 
16, 17, chap/are makiinde = coYenant (bargain) making ; 1. 24, lene]) 
na^t, &c., i.e. lendeth not themselves. 

Page 36, 1. 6, time-zettere ontrewe. Fr, has termoiors desloiaus ; 
1, 20, vendonginge, Fr, vendenges, vendage, vending, sales. 

Page 37, 1, 20, seruons. The Fr, serums shows that this word 
shoiild be seruons (constables). 

Page 38, 1, 27, tayles, cornees. Fr, tailles, coruees. The latter 
term signifies a duty on beasts and corn ; 1, 30, of hircn = du leur r= 
of theirs. 

Page 39, 1. 5, sse^oes, payments, wages, Fr. loier ; 1. 8, niminges, Fr. 
exactions ; 1, 11, mesteres men, officials ; 1, 15, ac .. . yzed, but some 
are continued (above that) in addition to that that is here related ; 
1, 17, ycrne = erne = earne, run ; 1, 2?>,ptlayneres, Fr, playntif, Z^e^e^/i- 

NOTES. 275 

inges, Fr. peticions ; 1. 25, playteres, Fr. auocas ; 1. 28, yulemde r= 
fugitives ; 1. 28, wylpsettingges, exceptions = Fr. bar res. 

Page 40, 1. 7, ^e-^^eZyrtr/e = defiling = false accusations ; 1. 20, 
hezide-zitteres, Fr. asseseurs ; 11. 23, 24, yhet = yhed ^= hsid, 
Fr. eu; 1. 33, ereges = ^r. A ere^es = heretics, Stevenson explains 
this wrongly as witches. 

Page 42, 1. 7, denyes = Fr. deenez, deaneries. 

Page 44, 1. 2 from bottom, romongours, Fr. masMgiions = maqui- 
nons, fraudulent dealers, from 0. Fr. ramander, baisser le prix. 

Page 45, 1. 9, liysians = Fr. Mziaiis, heralds. Kempen = Fr. 

Page 47, 1. 26, he hare loytlnde. Fr. a son escient. 

Page 48, 1. 1, out of nyede = unnecessarily. 

Page 51, L 11, teue. Stevenson printed fe???, as if ^ tin; but 
teue = to-eue = yesterday evening, and it translates the Fr. dersoir. 

Page 52, 1. 13, Imet non == cd-huet non = until noon. Fr. iusqua- 
none. Cf cd-huet ni-^t, p. 52, 1. 12. 

Page 56, 1. 8, ssast =^ ssla^st, slayest/ 1. 19, ich tvylle a lite take 
of the zennes, &c., I will a little touch of the sins, &c. 

Page 57, 1. 1, euele telle, Fr. misconter; contad'y, Fr. bareter. 

Page 63, 1. 10, for a-mes read a vies = 'Fr. mes. 

Page 66, 1. 19, godelinges, Fr. maudiscons; cf. godelinge, p. 65, 
= Fr. maudire ; 1. 28, atwyt, blame, the word reprotie'\p has been 
erased in the MS. 

Page 87, 1. 12, hicet hi is y-do= until they do them; huet = 
al-huet = until ; is = his = them. Fr. tant soit parfais. 

Page 96, 1. 14, in 07ie wytte = in one sense. 

Page 101, 1. 6, ]iou sselt loue, &c. =Thou owest him love, &c. ; 
1. 16, ?<e/«3es^ = joinest, cf uela^^e, accessory; uela^rede, -p. 102, com- 
panionship, fellowship. See p. 102, 1. 12, where MeZrt^e]) =joineth. 

Page 103, 1. 24, hoystoyse, O.E. hostimse, boisterous, blustering. 
This is the earliest approach to the form bosteous or bostous, which 
has given rise to boisterous. 

Page 104, 1. 16, uor jjer ne is no gelt. The Fr. text has, car il 
nia nul trespas sement. 

Page 106, 1. 29, out of smaJc = out of taste = disagreeable. 

18 * 

276 NOTES. 

Page 108, 1. 10, w i/iide]) =tiy7ide]) = fi.n(\.etl\. 

Page 111, 1. 32, of h 1-7-671, of herself. 

Page 112, 1. 15, greafe, Fr. gros ; 1. 25, piecaille ne to che7iaille = 
cattle nor to dogs. The MS. reads cheuaiUe, which is evidently 
wrong. The translator seems to have been unable to render these 
French terms into English. 

Page 113, 1. 4, ojye, above. The Fr. has so7' (sur). 

Page 116, 1. 21, re/ye, Fr. movoir; ne rocJiy, Fr. croullcr; move 
nor render unsteady ; 7'ocky = to rock, and is equivalent to the 
0,E. ivagge = wag. 

Page 120, 1. 31, Ac . . . zone ; 7nore is wanted before ])a7i7}e, 
as the construction is, But wherefore are they called gifts of the 
Holy Ghost ?«ore than gifts of the Father and of the Son ? 

Page 121, 1, 23, fe yef\e of drede is fe doreward to pe great e 
jireste, The gift of dread (fear) is the doorkeeper to the great crowd ; 
1. 23, uordey, Fr. esterpe. The Midland MS. reads ' drawef up.' 

Page 123, 11. 14, 15, M ous delp heknaice and to byJmaire, she 
causes us to know and be known. Byknawe = by yknawe = be 
known; 1. 21, dyere OTihige, precious union. Chaucer has o?ie(im =^ 
united (pret. pi.) ; 11. 31, 32, Love of hope feeleth the smell and 
seeketh. Love of Charity taketh, and seeth, and swalloweth, and 
holdeth ; 1. 32, zih]) = zi3j3 = sees, ztiel^lp == Fr. gouste, tasteth. 

Page 128, 1. 21, ysnes, irons, fetters, from ysn = h:onj 1. 2 from 
bottom, 7vn'k]) = wn^]) = hideth. 

Page 129, 1. 20, ca ariieres. The IVfid. MS. renders this phrase 
by to-fore ; 1. 34, ' Man may lo7ige,' &c. This quotation occiu-s in 
the Eeligious Poems printed by Wright in the Owl and Nightingale. 

Page 130,1. 22, cornardyes = cosnardies, deceits. 

Page 131, 1. 4, calket7-e2')i')en, Fr. pieges, see Glossary; 1. 5, 
anliet, Fr. embrasee ; 1. 7, tvy^te, uy^te = fight. 

Page 132, 1. 21, a7ione is a-none = in no. 

Page 134, 1. 16, bouer-^e is for &or3e = save, not for botc^e^^ 
bo-^e, bow, be obedient. 

Page 135, 1. 25, jje tvy\i^eine the 7rylike =^ the halter (rope) round 
the neck. 

Page 137, 1. 3 from bottom, ssel a^t, owes auglit (anything). 

NOTES. 277 

Page 139, 1. 14, ze-^p = zel-p, seeketh ; cf. ?<7ecj) (1. 2, p. 140) for 
we^p =' weigheth. ' 

Page 140, 1. 25, ?iassasls. Thus the word stands in the Fr. and 
Eng. text. It is our modern word assassin. 

Page 141, 1. 6, Ingnel, 0. Fr. ignaus, O.E. delyuere, active. 

Page 143, 1. 11, y-zi'cj) = y-zi3]j = seeth ; 1.24, at loke^ = ed, 
Wliitsuntide (Pentecost), seep. 163, 1. 3 from bottom. Lo^-Sunday 
= Whitsunday, occurs in Shoreham's poems. 

Page 147, 1. 2, angrice, Fr. angoisse ; 1. 3, aw[/*]ec3jj = aivreJip = 
wreaketh, avengeth. 

Page 150, 1. 4 from bottom, houne = vvde, line. This is tho 
word in the Fr. text. D. Michel was evidently unable to 
translate it. The Midland MS. for pricke an houne reads merk and 

Page 154, 1. 1 from bottom, \eyse\. The Fr. text has eas. 

Page 155, 1. 3, zene-^'p is here plural, and should be written 
zene-^ej) ; 1. 3, foruions is the 0. Fr. foruokms. 

Page 161, 1. 14, dep auerst, putteth in delay. See uerste = to 
delay, respite, cause delay. See p. 173, 1. 16 ; 1. 20, be streng\)e = 
forcibly, by force; cf. no strengthe = O.'E. no fors = no matter; 
1. 34, Vor = or. 

Page 167, L 25, er])an pet pe kuen Jus do an = ere that (before) 
that the queen putteth it on ; his = her, and refers to robe, which 
is considered as feminine. 

Page 171, 1. 5 from bottom, sest geus ; so the words stand in the 
Fr. text. The Mid. MS. translates geus by euele pieces (evil 

Page 173, 1. 22, ^-^Me^/^ = y-kue(n)gt = O.E. ykueynt=^ 
quenched. Cf. dreijnt = drenched, &c. 

Page 178, 1. 24, uor wone makep maister. This passage 
literally signifies ' for habit makes master,' and is equivalent to our 
phrase, ' practice makes perfect ; ' cf. page 181, 1. 4, where ?/eaZ(/e 
wones = old habits. 

Page 182, 1. 16, ' be-uleap and ethep \7i\are onderlinges, flay and 
eat their subjects : be-tdeap = be-idea-^ep = be-JJayep = flay, fleece, 



Page 184, 1. 12, loely-liolpe =■ wel ^/-/w/^je = well-liolpen (suc- 

Page 187, 1. 24, \_di\(:ujmont. The MS. has aymont, hut the Fr. 
text shows that diaymord = diamond, is the correct reading. 

Page 193, 1. 4, ])et (for fe?^ .?) fo = than those. 

Page 194, 1. 10 from bottom, and ?wl = and [is] yhol = and is 

Page 195, 11. 9, 10, in = inn, lodging. 

Page 196, 11. 1, 2, in-to Jje greade o/ ]je j?o?<re = unto (at) the sui:)- 
plication of the poor ; 1. 8, hedinge = secresy ; cf. O.E. hidlinges, 
secret places. 

Page 198, 1. 23, ' comejj pe ' should be come)) ye. The participle 
yhUssede is plural, the singular being yUissed ; cf. acorsede, in 1. 

Page 203, 1. 5, ne = nor, seems wanted after uondinge. 

Page 204, 1. \i, fort in. This word is taken out of the French 

Page 205, 1. 21, liit dra^]) to smac, maketh it tasty. 

Page 207, 1. 9 from bottom, talyinde, Fr. contant. 

Page 210, 1. 3 from bottom, God ne is na-^t goth to uede mid 
leauGs, God is not a goat to be fed with leaves. 

Page 231, 1. 14, wy-oute = u-yj)-oute, without. 

Page 237, 1. 16, zikp = zi^], = sees. 

Page 241, 1. 9, hed, an error for Jieald, held, esteemed. 

Page 244, 1. 21, hihere, an error for ihere, hear. 

Page 247, 1. 2 from bottom, and Ms sselt do drinJce, and thou 
shalt cause them to drink. 

Page 248, 1. 2, Jmel^ = quel]? = welleth, springeth, or tcelts up. 

Page 249, 1. 2, maked = make]) = makes. The preterite would be 
makede; cf. p. 248, 1. 29. 

Page 251, 1. 2 from bottom, is S2)ek = ich spek, I spake. 

Page 252, 1. 31, mishylefde = mishylefinde = unbelieving (ones) 
= unbeHevers. Chaucer has misleved = misheleued = -imscvQani ; 
but myshyleuinde occurs on page 69 of this work. 

Page 253, 1. 10, zeklp = zek^ = seeketh; 1. 11, uel ine ],e aye = 
the skin in the egg. The Mid. MS. reads ' straw in the esrcr.' 


NOTES. 279 

Page 254, 11. 16, 19, ges, 0. Fr. .ges. Liens pour attaclier les 
oiseaux de proie (Eoquefort). 

Page 254, 1. 23. The pronoun hare (their) seems to require 
men instead of mwi. 

Page 264, 1. 12, he^Uche clom,Si profound silence ; 1. 14, comyde 
may be an error for comynde = coming ( = is about to come), or for 
corneal = comes = is coming ; 1. 22, chmpien auere, chains of fire ; 
auere^^SL fire; 1. 30, comste =c,o\\\Q^t thou; 1. 32, y/A^e^cJje = 
2/se3e-J?e = what didst thou see ; 1. Si, brene on-polylnde, intolerable 

Page 265, 1. 1, locmfroJciynge ^^lack ; tcan==\n\, as in O.E. 
xcantrust, loanliope, &c. ; trockiynge = failure, want. The wan 
seems to be intensitive; 1. 18, yue^ youre ^ yeue]) yeare = giyeth. 
ear; youre would signify yours; 1. 27, hehn o/ 7^ eZjje = helmet of 
salvation ; 1. 29, ryuollyche = ry^hoollyche = rightfidly, righteously ; 
1. 35, hit ]>inr/'p Jje =hit ])inglp pet, it appeareth that. 

Page 266, 1. 1, 6e cas = per-haps, per-chance ; 1. 2, of-dret = of 
dread == adread, afraid; 1. 6, wylnynge of pe contraye of heuene = 
desire of the kingdom (country) of heaven ; 11. 9 — 11, Yef . . . stille. 
If we, on account of ' God's Dread ' and ' Bethinking of Death,' were 
still (silent), right it is that thee speaking (whilst thou art speaking) 
we should be much more silent; L 13, 7nyd wylle == ^YiU.mgly ; L 20, 
Ac and, but also ; U. 25, 26, ine ri-^t half zittinde, on the right hand 
sitting ; 1. 31, zodes = zones = of the son. 

Page 268, 11. 13, 14, ^pa^ . . . zay.'' Though I understand some- 
what of this, (yet) for them that listeneth tell (in detail) of each (of 
these particulars, i.e. how they live, enjoy, &c., see 11. 11, 12) ; 1. 30, 
by ziker ^=\liy'\ %[e]j] ziker ; they are in security; 1. 32, ase his 
c^ene of alle = as is piossessed by all. 

Page 269, 1. 2 from bottom, supply a7id before to. 

Page 270, 1. 4, \e lyrest })e = thou pridest thyself; ^iele-i,n 
is an error for uU-^en = flies ; pe worst, thou shalt. 


A! ah! 51, 71. 

A, on, a pe, on the, 12, 64, 114, 
156, 214. 

Abandones, free, 247. 

Abatye, Fr, ahatre, to abate, less- 
en, 28. 

A.b.c.e., 1. 

Abegge (jDiet. aho-^te), to suffer or 
atone for, pay for, 73. It cor- 
responds to the later English 
able; A.S. a-hicgan. 

Abide, ^^9. delayed, 239. 

Abyd, imp. delay, 173. 

Abide, Abyde, await, remain, 51, 
113, 194 ; endure, 166 j refrain, 
242 ; A.S. abldan, hidan. 

Abide, Abyde {jjI. pret.), abode, 

Abide]?, Abydef, remaineth, 72, 
86; look for, await, (jj/.) 146, 

Abidinge, delay, 173. 

Abit, Abyt, abideth, waiteth for, 
awaiteth, 128, 143, 194, 169, 
211 ; bear with, 174. 

Ablent, bhndeth, 16; ahlende, to 
make blind, occurs in E. of 
Gloucester, 208 ; Chaucer uses 
hiende, pret. yhlent, in the same 

Abod {pret. of Ahijde), abode, de- 
layed, 173. 

Abomynable, 49. 

Abot, Abotte, abbot, 178, 219; 
Abbotes, 67. 

Aboue, above, 13, 15, 35. 

Aboute, about, 30. 

Aboutestondinges, circumstances, 
174, 175. 

Abstinence, 236. 

Abundance, 261, 

Abyde. See Abide. 

Ac, but, 6, 10, 16, et }xissim. 

Accidye, sloth, 16. 

Accombringe, destruction, ruin, 
182. The root of this word is 
comber, as in encumber, Du. 
Jcomber, loss, adversity. Ger. 
kummer, trouble. 0. Fr. en- 
combrer, to hinder, vex, annoy. 



Acorded, accorded, united, 153. 

Acordej), agreeth, '60, 1-47, 151, 
153 ; luiiteth, 256. 

Acordi, to accord, agree, 151, 152. 

Acorsed, j^jj). accursed, 66, 138. 

Acorsede, j>re/. accursed ; 57, j^P- 
pi 189, 198. 

AcounteJ?, counteth, 137. 

Acquayntonce, acquaintance, 143. 

Acsede, asked, 178, 190, 208, 
222, 239. 

. Acsest, askest, 207, 209. 

Acsejj, siiig. asketh, demandeth, 
prays for, require th, 53, 54, 99, 
109, 180, 209, 221, pi 111, 
116, imjy. 209. 

Acsi, Acsy, Acxy, to ask, de- 
mand, require, inquire, claim, 
101, 110, 139, 151, 198, 209, 

Acsinge, asking petition, ques- 
tion, 208, 209. 

Acsinges, Acsingges, askings, ques- 
tions, petitions, 129. 

Acsynge, false claiming, Fr. chal- 

enge, 139. 
Active, 199. 

Adauntejj, tametli, 167 ; Fr. 
doinpter,donter, to tame, daunt, 
Adopcion, Adopciomi, adoption, 

101, 102, 146. 
Adoim, downwards, 247. 
Adra3e, 2?^. drawn, 174, 218. 
Adrayngt = adreynt, p)p. drown- 
ed, drenched, 107, 248. 

AdraynkJ) = maketh drink, 251 ; 

A.S. a-drencan, to drench, 

drown, pret. drencfe, pp. ge- 

Adrenche, to drown, 50. A.S. 

AdrencheJ), drowneth, 50. 
Adreng]?, gives drink, 92. 
Adreynct, drowned, 239. 
Adreynten, pi pret. drowned, 50. 
Aduenture. See Auenture. 
Aduersari, Adversarie, 109, 170, 

Aduersete, Aduersite, Adversetes, 

27, 30, 68, 84, 125, 168, 181, 

Afaited, feigned, 212; 0. Fr. 

af alter. 
Affayted, trusting, 75. 
Affeccioun, affection, 151. 
Afrounti, to be offended, 229 ; 

Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons, 

the forehead). 
Age, 5. 
Agelt, sinneth, trespasseth, offend- 

eth or sinneth against, trans- 
gress, 5, 19, 65, 125. 
Kgeli, pp. sinned, 20. 
Agelte, to sin, commit trespass, 

15 ; A.S. agyltan, to offend, 

sin against. 
Ageltef), pi. sin, 6, 72. 
Agerse == a gerse, in grass, 36 ; 

A.S. gers, gcers. 
Aginne, Agynne, to begin, 32, 
168, 197. A.S. agynnan. 



Aginnynge, Aginninge, Agyn- 
ninge, beginning, 16, 31, 166, 

Agonne, ^^2;. begun, 165. 

Agrayjjed, pp. prepared, 14, 56, 
89, 244 ; ready, 140 ; estab- 
lished, 147. 

Agrayfejj, directs, orders, advises, 
81, 119, 125, 138, 140; deck, 
pi. 176, 195, 216. 

Agrayjji, to prepare, set in order, 
array, dress, direct, 55, 76, 
148, 173 ; to ornament, 216, 
258 ; to set (sail), 183 ; O.K 
greida, to make ready. 

Agrayfinge, sh. adorning, 229, 

Agrayjtinges, decorations, orna- 
ments, 176, 216, 226. 

Agrund, on the ground, 91. 

Ak, Ake, but, 6, 18, 55, 62, 69, 
97. See Ac. 

Akse, ask, 184. 

Aksede, asked, 239. 

Aksejj, asketb, demands, re- 
quires, 13, 18, 103, 109, 163, 
208, 222. 

Aksinge, asking, 197, 198. 

Aksy, ask, 113 ; see Acsl, acsy. 

Ak]) achetli, 51. 

Al, adj. sing, all, 13 ; sing., 15. 

Al, adv. quite ; al uol, qiute full, 
191 ; al ripe, quite ripe, 28 ; 
al quic, quite alive, 67. 

Al alsuo, just as, (SQ. 

Alast, lastly, last, 69, 118. 

Aid, old, 16, 48, 104, 124,219. 
Alday, Aldaye, adv. all day, 75. 
Ale=Alle, 233. 
Alefte, on the left. Alefthalf, on 

the left side (on the othei' 

side), 23, 38. 
Alfpeny, halfpenny, 193. 
Algorisme, calculation, compila- 
tion, numbering, 1. 
Alhuet = until, unto, 26, 33, 36, 

51, 74, 109. 
Alijt, Aly^t, enlighteneth, light- 

eth, 77, 81, 88, 105, 115, 121, 

122, 185, 249; kindleth, 66. 
Ali3t, Aly3t, J.1/;. enlightened, 105, 

109, 201. 
Ahjte, Aly3te, to enlighten, 109; 

A.S. alihtan, to enlighten. 
Alijte, Mj-i,ie,p)p. pi. enhghtened, 

201, 243. 
Ali3te]j, enlighteneth, 204, 205 ; 

maketh bright, beautiful, 229. 
Ali3tynge = alighting, jenkindling, 

incitement, 221. 
Ali3tynges, passions, 204. 
AUe, adj. p)l. all, 1, 5, 6, 10, et 

AM.&, p)ron. all, 10, 11. 
Alien (to), all, 145, 188. 
Allone, alone, 142. 
Almi3ti, almighty, 1, 5, 12. 
Almoner, 190. 
Alneway, always, 84, 178. 
Al on, the same, all one, 259. 
Alose]), make famous, 199. 
Alosi, to render famous, - re- 




nowned, 183. Cf. O.E. los, fame, 
Fr. los. 

Alouer, everywhere, 81. 

Alouwe, Alowe, to praise, to be 
praised, 95, 227, 233 ; 0. Fr. 
alouei; to praise, from Lat. 

Alozed, famed, 16. 

Alse, as, 8, 15. 

Alse-moclie-ase, Also-moclie-ase, 
Alzo-moclie-ase, as much as, 
15, 19, 28 ; A.S. alsivd, also ; 
for the form alse, cf. O.E. 
wlio-se = who so. 

Alsuo, Alzuo, also, 51, 57. 

AlJ)a3, although, 19. 

Aljjeruerst, first of all, 27, 51. 
Alper =^ aller, A.S. cclre, geii. 
pi. of all. 

Aljjerworst, worst of all, 1 7. 

Al-to, unto, 1, 13, 14, 215. 

Altogidere, all to gather, 59. 

Al-wet = all met, until, unto, 197. 

Aly3t, Aly3te. See Ali3t, Ah3te. 

Amang, among, 65, 103. 

Amanzinge, cursing, excommuni- 
cation, 189 ; O.E. amanse, to 
curse, from A.S. amansumian, 
lit. to disjoin, and hence to 

AmaystreJ), mastereth, overpower- 
eth, 129. 

Ambicion, 17, 22. 

Amended, 2'>P- 30. 

Amendement, 32, 83, 148. 

Amendes, amercements, fines. 

debts, 37, 38, 113; amends, 

corrections, 147, 148, 180. 
Amendi, to amend, 30, 31, 39, 

40, 74. 
Amendinge, amendment, 31, 170, 

179, 180. 
Amerd, marred, spoiled, 124, 125, 

217 ; O.H. Ger. marrjan, to 

hinder, make void; Du. merren, 

to obstruct. 
Ainerrejj, p)^- i^^^^> spoil, 130, 

203, 204, 220, 229. 
Amerjj, Amerrjj, 205, 217. 
Ames, a but 162. 
Amesured, moderated, tempered, 

Amesui-ej), moderates, tempers, 

Amidde, Amide, amid, 128, 143. 
Amoneste]), admonishes, 8, 101, 

102, 128, 145, 195. 
Amote, ant, emmet, 141 ; A.S. 

Ampayri, impair, 10 ; Fr. em- 

pirer, to make worse, from Fr. 

2ns, pire, worse ; Lat. pejor. 
Amydde, 95. See Amidde. 
An, and, 4, 6, 7, 8, et pjassim. 
An, Ane, A, p)rep). on, in, 1, 7, 14, 

51, 156, 214. 
An, adv. on, 167, 244; A.S. 

and 0. S. an. 
An, Ane, art. a, 11, 14, 15, 18, 

25, 29, 31, 37, 43, 50, et pas- 
sim; ace. 161. 
Ana3t, nought, 59. 



Ancheaysoun, Ancheysoun, rea- 
son, cause, 47, 258, 259 ; Fr. 

And =an, if, G5. 

Andzuerede, answered, 190. 

Ane, one, 117. 

Aneuen, at last, 168. 

Anfernii, affirm, 152. 

Ajiginnynge, beginning, 31. 

Angle, angel, 20, 21. 

Angles, angels, 20, 21. 

Angrice, hurt, harm, 146. 

Angrisi, terrify, hurt, harm, 146. 
A.S. agrysan. 

Anhand, in hand, 22, 164. 

Anhaste, in haste, 31, 45, 60, 68, 
70, 189. 

Anhej, on high, high, 85, 95, 
125; vipwards, 45, 46. 

Anhe3e]3, increases, is increased, 

Anhe3i, exalt, elevate, raise, 23 ; 
from O.E. lie-^, high; A.S. heg, 
heah, high. 

Anhet, heated, kindled, 108, 131 ; 
A.S. On-limtan, to heat, in- 

Anhonged, hanged, 241, cf. Eng. 

AnhongeJ), hangeth, 51. 

Anhongi, to hang ; A.S. an- 
?i6n, to hang, 

Anhyaldi, Anhyealde, 2^2^- = <^'^- 
healde = an - halden, with- 
holden, forbidden, 152. 

Anioynj, to enjoin, 172. 

Anlich, Hke to, 186. 

Anliche, Anlyche, image, like- 
ness, 145. 

Anlicned, Anlycned, Anhkned, 
Anlykned, compared, likened, 
like to, 61, 66, 101, 227, 232. 

Anlicnesse, Anhknesse, Anlyc- 
nesse, Hkeness, 87, 88, 100, 
101, 105, 111, 145, 201, 244; 
A.S. an-lic nes, 

Anlicny, Anlykny, to be like to, 
resemble, 101 ; compare, 157, 

Anlilaiejj, AnlykneJ), is like to, 
16, 32, 81 ; compareth, 91 ; 
are hke to, 242, 

4nlyke, alike, 227. i 

Anone, in none, 132. 

Anojjerne (ace), another, 162. 

AnoJ)re, def. another, 25, 175. 

Anojjren, Ano]?rene (ace), an- 
other, 91, 155, 175, 186, 249. 

Anojjres, anothers, 197. 

Anoy, sb. 267. 

Anoylinge, anointing 14. 

AnoyJ), annoyeth, 162 ; It. an- 
no/are, from Lat. in odio. 

Ansuere, answer, 194, 214. 

Ansuerede, Ansurede, answered, 
178, 208, 239. 

Ansuere)), answer, 56, 264. 

Ansuerie, Ansuerye, Answery, 
to answer, 67, 213. 

Ansuerie J), 159. 

Ant, and, 68. 

Anterapered, attempered, 224. 



The author seems to confound 
the an in this ' word with the 
an or a in anliongi, anhey, &c. 

Anpayri, impair, 237. 

Anuenymed, envenomed, poi- 
soned, 50. 

AnuenymeJ), poisons, 27. 

Aparceiuy, to jDerceive, 131. 

Aparceyuejj, perceive, 57. 

ApayreJ), impairs, 237. 

Apeluchier, 253, 

Apert, Aperte, open, clear, plain, 
11, 134, 203. 

Aperteliche, openly, 13, 26, 59, 
70, 96, 162, 201, 244. 

Apocahpse, 14, 183. 

Apostate, 19. 

Apostel, 41, 213. 

Apropred, appropriated, 40, 41, 
120, 235. 

Aqueme, to please. See Queme. 

Aquench, imp. quench, 130. 

Aquencji, quencheth, 207. 

Aquitti, acquit, set free, 137. 

Aquyked, 2'i>. kindled, 203, from 
quyk = quick, alive. 

Aquyttejj, acquit, release, pay, 

Arblast, Arblaste, arbalast, 47, 71. 

Arbytres, arbitress, 154. 

Archangle, 1., 

Archer, 45. 

Ardontliche, ardently, 51. 

Aredy, Already, ready, 121. 

Arere, raise up, elevate, stir up, 
excite, 31, 61,05,74, 178,179, 

210; /w^x 156, 217;s»/y. 217. 
Arerede, Arered, iiret. and 2W- 

raised, 14, 24, 86, 200, 203, 

Arere Jj, raiseth, 23, 85, 129 ; raise, 

pi., 66, 125; exaggerate, 136. 
Ar^nesse, timidity, slowness, 32 ; 

A.S. earg, inert, timid, evil. 
Arijt, Ary:5t, aright, 70, 74. 
Ari3t-half; Ary3t-half; on the 

right side, on the one side, on 

this side, 23, 38, 40. 
Ai'ise, inf. 35 ; imp. 51 ; p)p. 

arisen, 24, 121. 
Arisejj, sing, ariseth, 52 ; arise, 

2jI., 57. 
Arist, ariseth, lusteth, 30, 47, 49, 

50, 186. 
Arize, arise. See Arise. 
Arizejj, arise, p)l., 56, 
Arizinge, resurrection, 13, 14; 

rising, 52 ; lustful emotions or 

desires, 11; emotion, 147. 
Arizinges, lusts, 9. 
Armes, 162, 165, 265. 
Arme]), armeth, 25, 111, 180. 
Armure, 170, 203, 240, 
Arn, eagle, 61 ; A.S. earn. 
Aros, arose, 7, 13, 173. 
Arrogance, 21. 
Art, 65. 

Article, 12 ; articles, 252. 
Arwe, arrow, 66, 
Asayd, tried, essayed, 117, 142, 
Asayled, j:>p, assailed, 157, 
Asaylede, prct. assailed, 249. 



Asaylef, assailetli, 17, 31, 157, 
166, 168, 181, 182. 

Asayli, to assail, 169 

Asaylinges, assaults, 84, 117, 166, 

Asay}>, essay eth, 168. 

Ascaped, escaped, 166. 

AscapeJ), Askapef, escapetli, flee 
away, 180, 209, 210. 

Ascapie, Askapie, escape, 56, 
131, 172. 

Ase, as, 6, 7, 8, et i:)assim. 

Ase-moche-ase, as much, as, 9, 

Ase-wel, as well, 256. 

Aslaky, to slacken, 253. 

Aslepe, asleep, 199. 

Asoyli, absolve, 172. 

Asoyny, to strive, busy, 242. 

Aspid, Aspide, espied, seen, 142, 

AspieJ), Asepie]?, look after, 
watch, 253, 255. 

Aspiinges, watchings, spyings, 

Aspijj, spieth, 173. 

Assencion, 213. 

Asterue, kill (by depri^dng of 
food), 240. 

Asterued, starved, enfanushed, 

Astonef, astonish, 130. 

Astonie, astonish, 126, 257 ; as- 
tonish is Fr. estonner (Lat. at- 
tonare, to thunder at), to as- 
tonish, amaze ; but astonie, 0. 

E. stoimie, to dull the senses, 

is from the A.S. stimian, to 

strike, stun. 
Astorejj, victualeth, 112. 
Astorie, store up, victual, 136. 

E. of Gloucester uses as-tore, to 

store (a place), 11. 375, 385 ; 

Fr. estorer, to erect, build, 

garnish; Lat. instaurare, to re- 
pair, renew. 
Astranglede, strangled, 48. 
Astranglejj, strangleth, 65. 
AstrangK, to strangle, 50. 
AstruJ), destroys, 17 =ast)-ude])1 

A.S. strudan, to rob, spoil, 

Asummed, reached the sunmiit, 

completed, 168. 
Atamed, subdued, 152. 
Ate, at, 13, 14, et passim. 
Ate-laste, lastly, 104. 
Atempres, Attempre, temperate, 

moderated, 24, 153, 254. 
Atenende, Ate-ende, lastly, 128, 

Ate-uerste, firstly, 127. 
Afe, on the, 242. 
Atrayt, O.Fr. atrayt, continuously, 

protractedly, 50. 
Atuy tinge, blame, reproof, 194. 
Atuy tinges, reproaches, 194. 
AtAvyt, reproacheth, reproveth, 

At^vyte, Attw^te, to reproach, 

reprove, twit, 198 ; AS. cet- 

toitan, wttan, to blame. 



Atwytinge, reproaching, twitting, 

65, 194. 
Auarice, 16, 34, 38, 102, 147. 
Aube, priest's vesture, 236. This 

word is the same as alh, a white 

Auenture, adventure, hap, chance, 

18, 20, 27, 168. 
Auer, a-fire, on fire, 205. 
Auere, fiery, 264. 
Auerst, delayingly, in delay, 32, 

161 ; A.S. fyrst, first, a space of 

time, delay, respite. 
Auerst, adv. first, 5, 20, 32, 

Auocat, advocate, 127. 
Auoncejj, advanceth, 68. 
Auonci, to advance, 82. 
Auontage, advantage, 209, 210. 
Auore, before, 271. 
Auoreye, Auorye, towards, "\nth, 

before, against, as regards, as 

to, 1, 18, 24, 124, 129, 168, 

172, 186, 207, 213, 222. 

Auoreye = auore-aye; auore = 

before; aye = again, towards. 
Auoud, avowed, acknowledged, 

Auouerie, Auoerie, adoption, 101, 

146 ; Fr. avouer, to avow; Lat. 

Autorite, authority, 147, 221. 
Awakede, woke, 128, 199. 
Awar3ede, shrewd, wicked, cursed, 

27 ; A.S. awerged, acciu'sed. 
Awrecjj, A-mrekf, -ttTeketh, taketh 

vengeance, punishes, 68, 73, 

115,147. ^eeWreke. 
AA\^reke, jpjj- punished, 74, 83. 
A^vreke, avenge, punish, 9, 59, 

Awrekinge, vengeance, 8. 
Awynne, regain, 85. 
Ayans = ayens, against, 6. 
Ajdev = either, each, 53. 
Aye = ay 671, against, 1, 5, 6, 7, et 

passhn; as to, 24 ; towards, 

Ayeanward, on the contrary, 49. 
Ayen, back, again, 36, 56, 58, 

85 ; against, 170. 
Ayen-bite, remorse, 1. 
Ayens, against, 6, 18, 29, 98, 115 ; 

towards, 156, 163. 
Ayen-uallinge, apostasy (again- 

falHng), 116. 
Ayen- ward, Aye-ward, on the con- 
trary, 48, 49, 56. . 
Ayen-Ave3e, again-weigh, consider, 

Ayen-Avy3te, down-bearing, 247. 
Ayen-yefte, Ayen-yefjje (again- 

gift), recompense, 120. 
Ayen-yerne, recur, run to, 220. 

See Yeme. 
Azenkte, ^^re^. caused to sink, 

Azet, setteth, setteth out, 140. 
Aze wel, as well, 89. 
Azide, aside, 216. 
A3t, ought, 194. 
A3t, owe, 137. 




Bal, ball, 179. 

Balance, balance, peril, 30, 91. 

Bald, for heald, bold, 105. 

Barat, bargain, also fraud, deceit, 
39, 46, 61, 75, 82; O.Fr. 
bareter, to lie, cheat, beguile ; 
Sp. barata7\ to truck, exchange. 

Bargayn, unfair dealing, 9; O.Fr. 
harguiner, to chaffer, also to 
■wrangle, haggle. 

Baronage, 58. 

Baronyes, 38. 

Baroun, 38. 

Barouns, 38, 85. 

Baselycoc, basilisk, 28 ; Gr. 
(iaaCkioKOQ, a king. This form 
of the word is used by Chaucer 
in the " Persones Tale." 

Batayle, battle, 83, .117, 167, 

Batayles, 91. 

Bajjejj, bathes, 167. 

BayHfs, bailiffs, 122 ; Lat. hajulus, 
Mid. Lat. bajula, 1, a bearer ; 
2, a nurse ; 3, a tutor. From 
bajulus comes Fr. bailK. 

Bayly es, the jurisdiction of a 
bailiff (a term once applied to 
persons holding high offices, as 
regents, &c.) ; hence a king- 
dom, 26. 

Bay]), buys, 23, 76, 90, 91, 194, 
241. See Begge, to buy. 

Be, by, 1, 6, 7, 8, et passim ; for, 

13; though, 12; A.S. be, bi, 

Beat, beateth, 30, 69, 116. 
Beate, to beat, 210, 236. 
Bea3, bowed, 239 ; A.S. bugan, 

beogan {p)t. beah, beag, j^P- 

bogen, hug en). 
Becajt, j)2X beguiled, ensnared, 

54, 125. 
Becharme, charmeth, 257. 
Beches, beech trees, 23. 
Beclepief, Beclepj), embraceth, 88. 
BeclepieJ), ^^Z. plead for, 40. 
Becleppe, to embrace, clip, 46 ; 

A.S. be-dypimn. 
Becleppe, to raise a clatter, 66 ; 

A.S. clappan,' to clap, move; 

cf. O.E. clappe, talk. 
Becleppe]), clasps, embraces, 15. 
Becleppinge, embrace, 96. 
Beclept, 2>i?. embraced, 15. 
Beclepte, pret. embraced, 240. 
Becom, became, 6, 240. 
Become]), pi. become, 78, 92. 
Becom J», becomes, 19, 43, 51, 91. 
Bed, prayed, 191, 215 ; A. S. boid, 

pret. of biddan, to pray. 
Bed, 31 ; obliq. cas. bedde, 111. 
Bedeawe}), bedewe}), moisteneth, 

Bedele, messenger, 37. 
Bedeles, 39, 43; A.S. bijdcl, a 

preacher, messenger; Eng. bea- 
Bedes, prayers, 141 ; A.S. bed, a 




Begge, to buy, 17, 23, 36, 41, 

44, 78, 83 ; to' redeem, 95 ; 

A.S. hycga7i, to buy. 
Beggeres, beggars, 36. 
Beggef , buys, 36, 44, 139; buy, 

iL 39, 41. 
Begginge, buying, 38. 
Beginne, to begin, 150. 
Beginncjj, ph begin, 17, 66, 

Beginnynge, Begynnynge, begin- 
ning, 70, 72, 76, 97. 
Begin J5, Begyn]?, begins, 51, 65, 

67, 88, 99, 108, 131, 181. 
Begynne}), pi. 1 7. 
Begonne, 2 pers. pret. sing, bc- 

ganst, 71. 
Begyled, pp. beguiled, 76. 
Begyle)), beguiletli, 16. 
Bebat, promises, 64, 170, 179, 

181, 183, 201 ; A.S. heUtan, 

to promise, vow (pret. helidt, 

pp. heliaten). 
Bebeste, promise, vow, 67, 144, 

225 ; A.S. hiluGS. 
Bebestes, pi. of behest c, 98. 
Bebinde, Bebynde, bebiiid, 10, 

45, 130. 
Bebofsam, needful, 99, 192; A.S. 

heliSfian, to behove, to need. 
Beborewed, defiled, dirtied, 237. 
Behot, promises, 97, 179. See 

Bebote, inf. to promise, 162. 
Bebote, pp). promised, 13, 65, 67 ; 

vowed, 231. 

Bebotcjj, promisetb, 40, 42 ; pi. 

promise, 65. 
Bebotinge, entreaty, 207. 
Behotinges, p)l. of heliotinge, 40, 

Behouede, pret. behoved, 128. 
Behouejj, belioveth, 58, 79. 
Beknaulechinge, confession, ac- 
knowledging, 32, 77. 
Beknaust, confessest, 100. 
Beknawe, helinoiv, confess, 69, 

123, 132 ; A.S. he-cndwan, to 

BeknaAve]?, pjl. acknowledge, 132. 
Beknawynge, knowledge, 126. 
Bekneu, acknowledged, 215, 216. 
Beleaue, Beleue, Byleaue, belief, 

2, 11, 14, 19, 29, 72, 106, 

Beleaue, Beleue, Bileaue, believe, 

12, 13, 151, 203. 
Belefj), beheveth, 19, 139, 151. 
Beloke, comprehended, 97; A.S. 

beliican, to lock up, enclose. 
Beles, boils, 224 ; Du. huile, 

boil, swelling. 
Beleuinge, abiding, continuing, 

176. See Bleue, Bleuinge. 
Belongef, appertain to, 12, 17. 
Beloukf, includes, 99. 
Bench, 130. 

Bend, bond, tie, 48 (tie of mar- 
riage), 220. 
Bendes, bonds, 77 ; A.S. bend, a 

bond, band. 
Bene (/), prayer, petition; 




Loneii, pi. prayers, petitions, 
3, 99, 102, 114. A.S. hen. 
Benefices, 42, 96. 
Benefices, benefits, 96. 
Benes, prayers, petitions, 25, 51, 

74, 90, 97, 105, 180. 
Benefe, beneath, 108, 126. 
Benime, Benyme, to rob, deprive 
of, steal, 39, 59, 68, 79, 86, 
117, 181. See Nime, Nyme. 
Benimjj, Benymf, Benimef, Be- 
nyme]?, 3rd jJers. sing, and jd- 
of henime, 23, 29, 32, 38, 39, 
G8, 76, 77, 79, 86, 108, 218, 
223, 248. 
Benome, taken from, 143. 
Benotejj, employs, uses, 90 ; A.S. 
7ioti(,, nse ; hi-niotan, to enjoy ; 
notian, make nse of, employ. 
Bequide, beqnest, will, 112; A.S. 
he-cwedan, to bequeatli ; cicide, 
a testament, judgment. 
Bekuydes, bequests, wills, 38. 
Berdone, burden, 84, 141. 
Berc, a bear, 14, 15, 60. 
Bere, to bear, 8, 21, 56, 83, 
118; Avear, 90; enjoy, possess, 
Bere, 1*-^ p. sing, bear, 64 ; 2nd 
J), sing, borest, 20 ; suhj. pres. 
may bear, 217. 
Bere, barley, 141; A.S. here; 
barley = bere + lie (older forms, 
harllc,herelicli) ; the //c^A.S. 
leac = pla]it, leek; cf. garlicJi, 
Itondocli (old form heinlic). 

Bere-blisse, Bear-bliss, 72. 
Beref», BerJ), bears, produces, 8, 
20, 29, 78, 88, 97, 195, 217 ; 
pi bear, 97, 231. 
Berieles, tomb, sepiilchre, 12, 
26, 228; A.S. hi/rgeh, a se- 
Berinde, bearing, 96, 144. 
Beringe, birth, 130, 213. 
Beringe, burial, 5. 
Berke, to bark at, 179. 
Bernde, burnt, 242. 
Berne, to burn, 163, 173, 225 ; 

sidtj. pres. 212. 
Bernes, barns, 30 ; A. S. hern, 
{= here-ern, a store-house for 
Berne]), Bern]), sing, burns, pi. 

burn, 43, 74, 204, 206, 229. 
Bernide = Berninde = burning, 

Berninde, Bernynde, burning, 49, 

73, 107, 173, 203, 205, 207. 
Bernindcliche, ardently, 31. 
Berninge, sh. birrning, 205, 206. 
Bernston, brimstone, 49, 130. 
Berobbe}), pil. rob, 39. 
Ber3e, save, preserve, 197, 251. 
Besme, broom, 172 ; A.S. hcsma, 
a broom, hesoni ; hesmas, rods ; 
S. Prov. Eng. hissam, the heath 
Besmet, Besmetted, defiled, be- 
smutted, 32, 229; A.S. he- 
sinifan, to besniut, defile. 
Besnewed, made white as snow. 



81 ; hesnewed seems to stand 

for hesneaived. ' 
Besset = be-sliut, enclosed, 94; 

included, 97; A.S. seyttan, to 

lock iqx 
Besset, shut, 231 ; kept secure, 

232. See Ssete, to enclose, 263. 
Best, beast, 4, 14, 51 ; obliq. 

case, teste, 2, 14, 15. 
Besteriinge, emotions, 263. 
Bestes, beasts, 82. 
Bestrepe]), Bestrep]?, root up, 123, 

127, 144, 150, 185, 201 ; A.S. 

hestnjpan, to strip. 
Bet, better, 195. 
Betake, j9j;. assigned, 198; taken, 

247 ; A.S. hetc'ecan, to assign, 

Betakejj, j;?. assign, 36; give, 235. 
Betere, better, 7, 16, 24, 100, 

Betocneji, Betoknef, sivri. and pi. 

betokeneth, betoken, 15, 203, 

222, 236. 
Betoke, suhj. should give, 89, 

Bctokned, 2'>P- betokened, 199, 

203, 236. 
Betoknedc, ^jref. betokened, 236. 
Betuenc, Betune, between, 66, 

Befi, bath, 74 ; A.S. heed, hepian, 

to bathe. 
Bo])onch, tm2}. remember, hethhiJi, 

130, 146. 
Bejjenche, remind, 101 ; bethink, 


174, 178; repent, 172; A.S. 

BeJ)cnche]3, iiuj). bethink, con- 
sider, 81, 242. 

Befenchinge, hefJmiJiine/, memory, 
remembrance, 105, 188, 203 ; 
repentance, thought, fore- 
thought, 183, 184, 233. 

Bejjengjj, hethinJcs, remembers, 
considers, reminds, 18, 100, 
152, 177, 246. 

Be])03te, bethought, 156. 

Beualle, befall, 107, 118. 

Beualle, j)j9. befallen, 49. 

Beualf, befaUs, 174. 

Beuealde, bcfolded, -wTapped, 188; 
A.S. befecdclen, befolded. 

Beuelef, i?/. defile, 228. 

Beuelst, defilest, 230. 

Beuel)), defileth, 178, 229; A.S. 
hefukin, to defile; hefyled, de- 

Beuelynge, defamation, false ac- 
cusation. It signifies, literally, 
defiling, 40. 

Beuil, befell, 191. 

Beula3ef), flay, hence to fleece, 
rob, plunder, 38 ; A.S. hefleem, 
pret. hefiog, to flay. 

BeuleaJ), pi. heuleeiy.^, rob, fleece, 
182, 218; see Beula3e]5. 

Beulejj, ^?. avoid, 61. 

Beuliynge, be-flying, eschewing, 
avoiding, 121. 

Beulo^e, pil. j^re/. avoided, re- 
nounced, 77, 78. 



Beiily, Eeiili, to fly from, flee, 

avoid, 9, 15, 60, 74, 86, 121, 

139, 178, 179, 205; A.S. 

hefleon (hefleogan), to flee away, 

Eeiily^]?, Beuly3t, avoideth, 73, 

75, 136, 226. 
Bewepe, to weep. 
BewepJ), beweepeth, 51. 
Beyende, beyond, 165. 
Beyete, begotten, 130, 147, 224; 

A.S. he-getan (pt. hegeat, pp. 

hegeaten), to beget. 
Bezeche, beseech, 194. 
Bezechef), Bezeclii]?, 2)1. beseech, 

98, 106, 115. 
Bezechinge, petition, 97, 116. 
Bezechingcs, petitions, 97 ; com- 
plaints, 39. 
BezekJ?, beseecheth, 117. 
Bezenge, singe, 230; A.S. hcsen- 

gan, to singe. 
Bezengjj, singes, 230. 
Bezet, placed, beset, 102, 152. 
Bezest, besettest, 213. 
Bezette, inf. to beset, occupy, 

Bezettefi, besetteth, 207. 
Bezide, beside, 105, 126, 220,240. 
Bezuyke, px>- beguiled, 76 ; A.S. 

beswican, to beguile, deceive ; 

O.E. sioiJce, to deceive, swiJcere, 

a deceiver. 
Bezuykere, traitor, 171. 
Bezuykinge, Bezuykyinge, treason, 

28, 43 ; deceit, 61. 

Bezuykiinges, Bezuykynges, 

frauds, 23, 61. 

Bezyinge, be-seeing, forethought, 
183, 184. 

Bi, be, 49, 105, 135, 136, 163, 
177, 220. 

Bide = hldde, ivq). pray, 210. 

Bidde, Ave, let us pray, 127 ; 2nd 
pers sid)j. 114. 

Bidde, Bydde, pray, entreat, sup- 
plicate, 1, 5, 7, 49, 52, 87, 99, 
194, 207, 209, 210, 211, 212; 
A.S. hiddan. 

Bidde]?, prayeth, 211. 

Bidde]?, Byddef, pi., pray, 99, 113, 
114, 116,117, 210, 219; imp. 

Biddinde, praying, 219. 

Biddinge, command, 12 ; en- 
treaty, 194. 

Biddinges, Biddynges, commands, 
38, 42; prayers, 219. 

Bicd, Bie]5, Bye]?, are, 138, 157, 
200, 204. 

Bihote. See Behote. 

Biginnynge, beginning, 138. 

Bileaue, Byleaue, Byleue, belief, 
19, 176, 186. 

Bint, binds, 15, 33. 

Bisemere, scorn; pi. hisemcres, 
hisemers, mockings, derisions, 
22, 52, 58, 156 ; A.S. hlsnwr, 
reproach, mockery. 

Bisemere]?, mocketh, 22; A.S. 
bismerian, to mock, insult. 

Bisihede, care, 228. 



Bisiuol, busi-ful, officious, 226. 

Bissop, bishop, 189. 

Bissopes, Bissoppes, Bissoppo, 

189, 191, 236. 
Bissopriches, bishopricks, 42. 
Bist, biddest, 209. 
Bisye, busy, officious, 58. 
Bisyliede, Bysiliede, Bysybede, 
labour, care, 164, 228 j pas- 
time, 231. 
Bit, Byt, prayeth, asketh, 110, 
114, 116, 134, 209, 211, 218, 
Bit, biddeth, 116, 145. 
Bite, sb. bite, morsel, 223. 
Biter, Byter, sing, bitter, 82, 

Bitere, jjZ. bitter, 83. 
Biterliede, Byterbede, bitterness, 

Biteruesse, bitterness, 15, 139, 

Bitejj, jj^ bite, 70. 
Bitiude, biting, pungent, 143. 
Biualjj, befalls, 57. 
Blame, 23. 

Blame Jj, blameth, 17, 137. 
Blamyejj, 2^1 blame, 59, 79. 
Blasfeme)), blaspheme, 30. 
Blasfemie, to blaspheme, 70. 
Blasfemies, Blasfemyes, blasphe- 
mies, 45, 69. 
Blasfemye, blasphemy, 57, 69. 
Blauf, puffs, 32. 
Blawe, bloAv, 168. 
Bhawejj, 2'1 blow, 24. 

Bleche, pale, 53 ; A.S. bide, pale ; 

bUecan, to fade, bleach. The 

root still exists in bJUjlit. 
Blechest, hurtest, 147. 
Bleche]), injures, defaces, 40, 115 ; 

harms, injures, 238 ; A.S. 

hlmco, spotj blatcli, a blotch. 

Shorehani uses blulnie, to be 


The thriddc day he (Christ) aros a3cyn 
Of the throu2 (tomb) ther men liine 

Icyde, ill tokene 
That, man, thi body arise schel 
Of dcithe naumore to blokne. (p. 4.) 

Blefde, Blefte, remained, 12, 59, 

BlefJ) = bi-leveth, remains, abides, 
30,47,91, 177; A.S. be-Ufan 
(pret. bel'efde), to leave. 

Bleften,^;Z. remained, 189. 

Blench, change, 130; Blench is 
the soft form of blinlh. 

Blende]), ^;Z. make l)liud, 33 ; 
A.S. blendian, to blind. 

Blest, blast, 203; A.S. bh'ed, 

Ble])eliche, joyfully, quickly, read- 
ily, 20, 50, 65, 100, 102, 177. 

Ble])elaker, more quickly, readily, 
69, 140, 180; A.S. blide, blithe, 

Bleue = bileue, to remain, con- 
tinue, endure, 120, 203, 225, 
245 ; persevere, 232 ; remain 
in (curl), 177 ; A.S. belief an, to 
leave. See Blefde, Blefte. The 



O.E. h'deve, hcleve, signifies to 

remain, abide, continue. 
Bleuindeliclie, pcrseveringly, l-il, 

Eleninge, abiding, continnance, 

dwelling, 47, 72 ; perseverance, 

constancy, 215, 232. 
Elisfolle, blissful, 75,118. 
Blisse, Blysse, Blysce, /. bliss, 

14,71, 90. 
Blissede, adj. def. blessed, 70, 87. 
Blissen, blessings, blisses, 93. 
Blisses, blessings, 77. 
Blissinge, blessing, 97, 183, 243. 
Blissinges, blessings, 97. 
Blisuol, blisful, 148. 
BHsuolle, def. f. blisful, 118, 

Blisuolliclie, blisfully, 94. 
Blijje, glad, 87, 132; ready, 

eager, 85. 
Blod, blood, 1, 41, 87; oUiq. 

case, Mode, hloodc, 107, 111. 
Blody, bloody, 46. 
Blondere, flatterer, one who 

speaks hiandhj, 01. 
Blonderes, flatterers, GO, 61, 177. 
Blondinge, flattery, 10, 57, 75. 
Blondingges, 141. "WithWcmfZ- 

ing ne ■with, boste." Shorebani's 

Poems, p. 14. 
Blynde, p?. blind, 56. 
Blyssedhede, bliss, 97. 
Blyssinges, blessings, 97. 
Boc, book, 1, 2, 5, 14, 70, 124. 
Bochcrie, butchery, slaughter, 64. 

Fr. honchcr, from hoc, a goat. 
Boc-house, lil)rary, 1. 
Bocle, buckle, 236. 
Bodi, body, 236. 
Bodilich, bodily, 200. 
Bodiliche, Bodylyche, adj. jd. 

bodUy, 90, 119, 212. 
Bodye, body, 10, 14. 
Bodyes, bodies, 8. 
Bodylich, adj. sing, bodily, 72 ; 

corporeal. 111, 146. 
Bok, book, 42. 
Bokes, books, 42, 61. 
Bolde, ^j?. bold, forward, 216. 
Boldeliche, adv. boldly, 34, 63. 
Bontejj, bolteth, sifteth, 93 ; cf. 

S. Prov. Eng. hunt, to sift corn ; 

Eng. hunting, from Bret, hunta, 

Eng. hunt, to knock, push. 
Bor, boar, 69. 
Bord, Borde, table, 235. 
Bore, j)jA born, 221. 
Borgesye, citizenship, 161. 
Borgeys, Borgeyse, burgess, citi- 
zen, 161, 216. 
Boryeis, citizen, 161. 
Boryinde, jDiercing, 66; A.S. 

horian, to bore. 
Borje]?, take in jiledge, 36. 
Bosmc, bosom, 163. 
Bost, beast, 71. 
Bosync, sound, 137 ; A.S. hyscn, 

Bote, but, only, except, 5, 22, 65, 

Botcrel, toad, 187. 



Bote-yef, except, 6, 7, 10, of 

Botme, bottom, 140 ; A.S. hotm. 
Botoun, button, 86, 134. 
Bouer3e = bor3e, save, 134. 
Bougeren, heretics, 258. 
Boiigre, heretic, 19. 
Bougres, heretics, 09, 134 (it is 

derived from the Bulgarians, a 

Slavonian tribe). 
Boundes, limits, 207. 
Boune, O.Fr. a reed, nde, 150. 
Bourdedest, jestedest, 20. 
Boiire, chamber, 22G ; A.S. hur. 
Bou3e, to obey, be obedient to, 

bow to, 8, 20, 21, G8, 140. 
Bou3e]5, pi. obey, 143 ; sltj. 68 ; 

A.S. hugan, to bend. 
Bou3inde, prone, lit. bending to, 

B0U3, imp. obey, 194. 
Bou3inge, sh. bending, inclining, 

B0U3J), inclineth, 154 ; obeys, 20, 

B03, bough, 2, 3, 4, 17, 65 ; bo3e, 

ohliq. case, 22, 23, 58. 
Bo3es, boughs, 3, 4, 17, 65, 68, 

191, 219. 
Bo3e, bow, 45. 
Bo3en, lyret. pi. obeyed, 84. 
Bo3sam, obedient, 59. This word 

still exists, in huxom, O.E. 

hoglisam, hiighsom. 
Bo3sandiche, obedientlj^, 70. 
Bo3samnesse, obedience, 101,140, 

147, 217. 
Bo3te, bought, 133. 
Bo3]7, B0U3J3, obeys, 184. 
Boystoyse, boisterous, 103. 
Brayinde, howling, roaring, 73. 
Bread, bread, 113; ohliip c. bread e, 

113, 235. 
BrecJ) = breaks, 40. 
Brech-gerdel, a girdle, 205. 
Bredale, bridal, wedding, 118, 223. 
Bredales, marriages, 75. 
Brede, breadth, 105. 
Bredgome, bridegroom, 233. 
Brek, broke, 1 6. 
Breke, to break, 51, 52, 116. 
Breken, ^j^. ^;?. broke, 64, 213. 
Brekejj, ^;Z. break, 41. 
Brekf, breaks, 7, 8, 16, 41, 178. 
Brekinge, breach, 48, 261. 
Brekynde, brittle, breaking, 82. 
Bren, bran, 210. 
Brenge, imp. pi. bring ye, 1. 
Brenge, to bring, 87. 
Brengejj, pi. bring, 33, 83. 
Brengp, brings, 118, 128, 141, 

Brenston, brimstone, 73. 
Bres, brass, 203. 
Bridel, ohliq. case, bricUe, 249, 254. 
Bri3t, bright, pure, 74. 
Bri3te, adj. pi. pure, 73, 108. 
Bri3te, adv. clearly, 72. 
Bri3tliche, brightly, ck'arly, 150, 

Bri3tnesse, Bry3tncsse, brightness, 

81, 82, 143, 200. 



Broclies, brooclies, 229., "branches, 9. 
Brondes, hrands, 205, 240. 
Brotel, brittle, 129 ; A.S. hreotan, 

to bruise, break ; 0. K'orse, 

Brotelhede, brittleness, poverty, 

Brojierhede, Brojjerrede, brotlier- 

hood, 110, 146. 
Brojjren, brethren, 101, 102, 149. 

This form is used by Sborehani. 
Bro3te, brought, 118, 190. 
Bryad, bread, 107, 110, 111. 
Bryest, breast, 175. 
Bryesten, breasts, 247. 
Buones, bones, 64, 148. 
Burdes, jests, 56 ; Fr. hourde, a 

jest ; Bret, hourd, deceit, joke. 
Busse, bush, 28. 
By, to be, 7, 14, 88 ; is, 7, 14, 

16, 85 ; are, 9. 
Byad, offered, 41 ; A.S. head, 

from heodan, to offer. 
By at, beateth, 100. 
Bydde, Bidde, to pray for, 98, 99, 

113, 114. 
Byddynges, Byddinges, prayers, 

petitions, 100 ; entreaties, 40. 
Byddef, pi. pray, 107, 109, 113, 

116, 117, 118. 
Bj^eam, beam. 
Byenne, to be, 131, 169. 
Byet, Bye]), are, 1, 3, 6, 8, 66, imj)- 

Byet, begetteth, 181, 

Byete, suhj. beat, 191. 
Byetinge, begetting, 216, 
Byginninge, beginning, 11. 
Byinge, being, 82, 103. 
ByknaAve, acknowledge, confess, 

123, 182. 
Bylef]), beheveth, 19. 
Byleue, Byleaue, belief, 11, 12, 

19, 69, 101, 112, 114. 
Bynime, rob, deprive of, 39. 
Bynt, ByndeJ), bindeth, binds, 

77, 97. 
Byrie, bier, 258. 
Bysemeres, scorns, derision, 63. 
Bysi, busy. See Bisye. 
Bysihede, Bysyhede, diligence, 

care, anxiety, 55, 93 ; occupa- 
tion, amusement, 231. 
Bysihedes, occupations, 165. 
Bysinesse, labour, trouble, care, 

Bysye, pi. busy, officious, 226. 
Byt, bites, 61, 62, 66. 
Byt, biddeth, prayeth, 29, 110, 

Byter, bitter, sour, 82, 129. 
Bytere,i;Z. 150. 
Byteji, pi. bite, 61. 
ByJ) = byef, are, 17, 26, 102. 
Byuealde, befolded, 8. 
Byuly, avoid, 134. 
Byzylyche, busily, 79. 

Cachie, catch, to drive out or 
from, 178; 0. Fr. chacier, 
cacliicr ; cf modern phrase 



* caught off.' See Glossary 
to ' Genesis 'and Exodus.'' 
' Caccliyn, away, fugo, agito, 
atigo, effugo.' Pr. Parv. 

Calices, chalices, 41. 

Calketrepi^en, pits or snares, 131 ; 
A.S. calca-trij)pa, trap, snare ; 
of. Fr. clumsse-trapiye, caltrap, 
tribulus, murinus (AYr. Yoc. 
140), K. Alys, 1. 60, 70. See 
note on this word in Pronip- 
toriuin, vol. i. j). 59. 

Calowe-nrous, bat, 27 ; A.S. calu, 
caluw, bald ; O.H. Ger. chala- 
wer, bald. The bat is some- 
times called a reremoiise, from 
the A.S. hrere, raw. 

Can, knows, 58, 94, 135. 

Candele, /. candle, candelle, 102 

Caorsins, Sarasins, usurers, 35. 

Capiteles, chapters, 1. 

Capiteles, capitals, 43. 

Capons, 38. 

Cardinales, Cardinals, adj. pi. car- 
dinal, head, 3, 123, 124. 

Cardinals, sh. 124. 

Carkejj, produces, 230. 

Caroyne, camon, 86. 

Carten, carts, 35. 

Cartere, carter, 160. 

Cas, case, chance, as in he-cas = 
perchance, 36, 42, 70, 115. 

Castel, Castele, castle, 1, 43, 
121, 154 ; pi. casteles, 149. 

Catol, Avealth, 35, 36; O.Fr. 

catel, cliatel ; Lat. capitale. 
Cause, 224. 
Cedre, cedar, 131. 
Cellen, cells, 267. 
Chacejj, drives, 171. 
Chald, Cheald, cold, cliilled, 47, 

138, 152, 170; A.S. ceahl, 

cdld, cold. 
Chalenge, false claim, 34. 
ChalengeJ), j^Z. accuse, 43 ; O.Fr. 

cJialemjler ; Lat. calumniari. 

See Glossary to Hamjjole's P. 

of C. 
Chalis, chalice, 167. 
Chambren, chambers, 224. 
Chancelier, chancellor, 243. 
Chapele, chapel, 56. 
Chaj)fare, Chaj)uare, chaffer, un- 
fair dealing, 34, 35, 44, 90, 

120 ; pi. cheapfares, 36, 45. 
Chajjfari, vb. to chaffer, trade, 

162 ; A.S. cedj), a bargain, 

sale ; cedpjian, to buy ; feriati, 

to bear, carry. 
Chaj^itele, Chapitle, chapter, 136, 

Chapman, merchant, 77, 158; 

pi. chapmen, 76. 
Chapuare, chaffer, 191. 
Charge]), loadeth, 97 ; see R. of 

Gl. 13, 416. 
Charitable, 145. 
Charite, 79 ; pi. charites, 83. 
Charmeres, charmers, 69. 
Charmes, 43. 
Chast, Chaste, chaste, 203, 221. 



Chastete, Chastetee, 4, 159, 181, 

Cliastef, chastise, 17, 69, 100, 

U7, 156. 
Chasthede, chastity, 230. 
Chasti, to chastise, chasten, 8, 
148, 15S, 221 ; O.Fr. clmstier. 
Chastinge, chastening, chastise- 
ment, 68. 
Chastisement, 17. 
Chastliche, chastely, in pmity, 

Chaynen, Chaines, chains, 214, 

Cheake, cheek, 248. 
Chealde, xjI. cold, 242. 
Cheap, cheape market, 36 ; ' grat 
cheap,' ' greate cheape,' abund- 
ant, plentiful, 256. CtcJieej); 
pretium. Pr. Parv. 
Cheapfare, chaffer, 35, 36. See 

Cheapfares, chaffers, bargains, 36, 

Cheas, chose, 77. 
Cheaste, chiding, strife, 30, 65, 
%% ; pi. cheastes, 57, 138; 
A.S. ceast, strife, dispute, con- 
tention. Sec Piers Plough. 
1. 8946. 
Chef, chaff, 62, 137, 138; oUiq. 
case, cheue, 210; A.S. ceaf ; 
O. Dutch A;a/. 
Cheker, chess-board, 45, 46. 
Chcle, chill, cold, 75 ; A.S. ccle ; 
O.H.Ger. chuoHrpl Cheles, 124. 

Chenaille, CFr. dogs, 112. 
Cherche, church, 7, 8. 
Cherchen, churches, 30, 43. 
Cherchetounes, church-toAvns, 41. 
Cherl, churl, 76; A.S. ceod ; 
0. Dutch keerl (vir, rusticus) ; 
2]il. cherles, 112. 
Ches, chess, 52. 
Cheue, chaff, 210. See Chef. 
Chewynge, sh. chewing. 111. 
Chide, 67. 
Chidinge, sh. chiding, strife, 30, 

Chiere = chere, cheer, 155, 193 ; 
O.Fr. cltere, countenance, en- 
tertainment, cheer. 
Chiese, Chise, Chycse = clieose, 
86, 93, 101, 165 ; A.S. ceosan, 
to choose ; O.Sax. Icioscm. 
Chiese]), j;?. choose, 45. 
Child, veut. 58, 84 ; ohliq. case, 

childe, 82. 
Childbedde, 224. 
Childhede, childhood, 82. 
Childhedes, childishnesses, 207. 
Childi, to bring forth a child, 
224. See Orm. 156. Childin, 
parere (Pr. Parv.). 
Chinne, chin, 50. 
Chise, choose, 93. 
Choniberier, chamberer, 171. 
Chombre, chamber, room, 215. 
Chonge, change, 104. 
Chonge]), changeth, 129 ; 2>l. 

change, 42. 
Chongi, to change, 104. 



Cliongincle, clianging, 104, 105, 

Cliyaste = clieaste, strife, G7. 
Chyese, choose, 86. 
Cliyest, chooseth, 126. 
Cliyewe = cheoive, to chew, 111; 

A.S. ceowan, O.H. Ger. cJiiu- 

wan, to chew. 
ChyezeJ), j;?. choose, 165. 
Chyezingo = cheosinge, election, 

Cite, city, 49 ; pi. cites, 43, 

Clauen, claws, 61 ; A.S. eld ; 

O.Sax. clawa ; O.H. Ger. cldoa ; 

pi. cMawen, claw. 
Claustres, cloisters, 267. 
Clone, clean, pure, 73. 
Clenlich, Clcnlicho, adj. clean, 

45, 216. 
Clenliche, cleanly, in purity, 6, 

48, 76, 120, 138. 
Clennesse, purity, 75, 201, 202. 
Clensi, Clensy, to cleanse, purify, 

75, 137, 271 ; A.S. da-mian. 
Clenze]), cleanseth, 73, 74, 88, 

106, 171. 
Clepede, called, 190. 
Cleper, clapper (of a mill), 58 ; 

O.Dutch, MepiJcn^ pulsare, 

Clepest, callest, 100. 
ClepeJ), calls, 17, 21, 22, 26, 58, 

72, 78, 79, 81, 168. 
Clepie]), i^Z. call, 69, 72, 74, 112, 


Clepie, to call, 42, 43, 64 ; A.S. 

deopian, dypian., to call. 
ClepiyJ) = depi/e]i, call. 111. 
Cleregye, Clergie, Clergye, clergy, 

learning, 16, 18, 71, 78, 81, 

Clergyes, sciences, 89. 
Clerek, Clierk, clerk, scliolai', 23, 

25, 49, 78. 
Clerekes, Clerkes, Clierkes, scho- 
lars, 39, 42, 46, 78. 
Clernesse, clearness, brightness, 

Cleuiinde, Cleuiynde, cleaving, 

persistent, lasting, convincing, 

54, 98, 107; A.S. denfian ; 

O.H. Ger. ddehen, cleave, stick 

Cleuiyndeliche, completely, 103. 
Cliepeji = clepej), calls, 125. 
Cliene, clean, 224. 
Clier, Clyer, Clyre, clear, 24, 78, 

104, 159, 167 ; O.Fr. der. 
Clierliche, Clyerliche, clearly, 88, 

155, 174, 243. 
Clif}), Clyfjj, climbs, 131, 132, 

145, 219 ; A.S. difan, to ad- 
here to ; 0.1^. klifa, scandere. 

Cf. O.E. daveren, to climb ; 

Dutch Idaveren ; Dan. Idavre, 

to climb, 
Cliue, Clyue, to climb, 23, 26, 89, 

127, 162. 
GMwen, j)ret. pil. climbed, 126. 
CliueJ), pjJ. climb, ascend, 164, 




Cloni, silence, 266. See Cloinsed, 

in Glossary to Hampole. 
Clo}), cloth, 45 ; ohllq. case, clofe, 

188; j:;Z. clothes, 47, 128. 
Clojjede, ^^^. clothed, 133. 
Clofejj, imp. clothe, 265. 
Clojjinge, sh. clothing, 154, 165. 
Cloystre, cloister, 151, 242. 
Cloystrers, 67. 
Clyerer, clearer, 267. 
Coccou, Cockou, cuckow, 22, 59. 
Col, coal, ohliq. case, cole, 82, 

126, 205 ; i^l. coles, 205; A.S. 

Collacious, 155. 
Colour, Colur, Colurs, 15, 62, 81, 

Colrik, 157. 
Colt, Colte, 185, 220. 
Colaer, Coliire, dove, 142 ; A.S. 

culfre, a dove, pigeon ; O.E. pi. 

Coluer-hous, dove-cote, 142. 
Com, came, 26; wij). sing. 185. 
Come, inf. to come, 87, 98 ; stihj. 

pi. 93, 116; inijhj^l. 137. 
Conien, 2)1. p^ret. came, 130. 
Comene, gerund, to come, 106, 

Comejj, 2J?. come, 27, 91, 92. 
Cominde, Comynde, coming, 264. 
Comyde=Comynde, coming, 264. 
Commiin, Comun, Commune, com- 
mon, 37, 48, 102, 147. 
Communliche, commonly, 1 45, 


Communy, to share, 102. 

Comparer, 243. 

Comparisoun, 81, 92, 235. 

Compassion, 148. 

Complexion, 157. 

Conist, comest, 239. 

Comste, comest thou, 264. 

Com J), Come]?, cometh, come, 18, 
19, 26, 51, 87, 89, 161. 

Comunliche, commonly, 145. 

Comynge-a3en, return, 87. 

Conceyue]), conceiveth, 136. 

Condecendre, condescend, 157. 

Condicion, 173. 

Condicions, conditions, 172. 

CondueJ), leadeth, 122. 

Confermi, Confermy, confirm, 109, 

ConfermeJ), confirm, 105, 106, 

Conferminge, confirming, 1 4. 

Confessour, 172. 

Confort, comfort, 96, 142. 

Conforted, 160. 

Conforte)), comforts, 111, 160, 

Conforti, to comfort, 160. 

Confusion, Confuzion, 229. 

Conioun, 76. 

Conne, inf. to know, can, he ahle, 
21, 70, 73, 94, 98, 104, 117, 
130, 148; pi. 46, 58, 59, 
82, 86, 100, 126, 132; 2nd 
p)ers. 118; A.S. cunnan. 

Connej), j^Z. know, 249. 

Connynge, knowledge, 115, 122. 



Consayle, 122. 
Consentede, pret. 249. 
Consentemens, Consentement, 

consent, 11, 19. 
Consent!, to consent, 10, 73, 117, 

170, 176. 
Consentinge, 117, 176. 
Conspiracions, conspiracies, 23. 
Constance, constancy, 167. 
Contac, Contak, contest, dispute, 

15, iO;2yl. Contakes, 63. 
Contemplacion, 204, 247. 
Conteniplatif, Contemplatiue, 199, 

Contrario, Contraryo, contrary, 

14, 136, 151. 
Contraries, 123. 
Contrarious, 28. 
Contraye, country, 130. 
Conuersacioun, 96, 112, 241. 
Coppes, cups, 30. 
Corage, courage, 164. 
Corde, 58. 
Corn, 62, 140;^?/. cornes (grains), 

Cornardyes, deceits, 130. 
Cornees (O.-Fr.), customs or duties 

on corn and cattle, 38. 
Cornyeres, corners, 124. 
Coroune, crown, 168, 169. 
Corounede, j;?. croA\Tied, 234. 
Corounes, crowns, 15, 116, 169. 
Corsinge, Corsynge, cursing, 28, 

Cort, court, 137, 256. 
Cortays, courteous, 112; O.Fr. 

Cortayseliclie, Corteisliche, courte- 
ously, 106, 118, 160, 195. 

Comp. Cortayslaker, 163. 
Cortaysie, Cortaysye, courtesy, 

civility, 36, 97, 98. 
Corteys, courteous, 21, 22, 35, 

113. See Cortays. 
Corteysye, Corteyzie, courtesy, 

75, 118; jj?. corteysyes, 162. 
Cortoys, courteous, 100, 188. 
Corrupcion, 227. 
Corupt, 82. 
Cost, 58, 113, 119, 137, 176 ; 

0. Dutch Jiost, siunptus, expen- 

Costes, expenses, 40. 
Costnede, cost, 145. 
Costnej), costeth, 75, 121. 
Costningge, expense, 151. 
Costuolle, dear, expensive, 229. 
Cosyn, Cosyne, cousin, 89. 
Cou, cow, 56 -,231. Ken, 191. 
Couaitise, Couaytise, Couaytyse, 

covetousness, 2, 11, 16, 34, 

125, 154. 
Couaytous, Couaytouse, covetous, 

80, 136, 154, 197. 
Couche, 171. 
Couent, convent, 110, 219. Cf. 

Covent Garden. 
Coueytise, covetousness, 137. 
Coupe, cup, pi. coupes, 35. 
Coustouse, expensive, dear, 228 ; 

O.Fr. const, expense, cost. 
Cou])e, coidd,knew, 105, 126, 133. 



Cou])en, Copen, j;Z. could, knew, 
78, 1G8. 

Crammeles, crumbs, grains, 253. 

Crane, 56. 

Crayme, Creyme, chrism, cream, 
41, 93. 

Credo, creed, 12. 

Craft, oUiq. case, craft, art, power, 
35, 45, 90, lie, 157; A.S. 
craeft, O.Fris. kreft. 

Creftes, handicrafts, 178. 

Crete, cradle (cf. mod. Eng. 
crate), 137. Crate is generally 
derived from Lat. crates, wicker 
or hurdle work. It. crate, a 
hurdle ; but crete, a cradle, may 
be from A.S. crata, a cart. 

Cristen, sing. Christian, 93. 

Cristendom, Cristendome, Chris- 
tendom, christening, Chris- 
tianity, C4, 101, 145. 

Cristene, sing. clef, form, Chris- 
tian, 165. 

Cristene, j??. Cliristian, 79, 93, 
114, 145. 

Cristesniesse, Christmas, 213. 

Cristni, to cliristen, baptize, 107. 

Cristninge, christening 14, 74, 
107, 119. 

Crokede, j:*/. crooked, 224. 

Croki, to crook, curl, 177. 

Crouche, cross, 111. 

Crouchen, crosses, 41. 

Cruclete, 15. 

Cryepe, = creope, creep, move, 
107 ; A.S. creopian. 

Curiouseliche, curiously, careful- 
ly, 176. 

Dales, days, 198. 

Damezele, damsel, 72. 

Damnede, 51. 

DamneJ), condemns, 115. 

Damni, condemn, damn, 137. 

Danes = deanes, vales, dales, 39, 

59 ; dean, A.S. den, denn., is a 

common element in local names 

in the S. of England. 
Dar, dare, 32, 67, 70, 83. 
Daye (obliq. case of day), 7, 13, 

Dayes, days, 7, 13, 
Daynede, deigned, 76, 126. 
Dajne]), deigneth, 18, 196. 
Dajes, messe da3es, days, 214. 
Deade, j>?. dead, 86. 
Deadlich, deadly, 47, 223. 
Deadwed, mortgage, 36. 
Deajje (ohliq. case), death, 87, 

129 ; deafes (gen. sing.), 130; 

A.S. dead. 
Deau, dew, 91, 136, 144; A.S. 

Deawe (ohliq. case), dew, 91. 
Decende)), dcscendeth, 123. 
Decendi, to descend, 123. 
Deccyned, deceived, 79. 
Deceyui, to deceive, 82. 
Deciple, disciple, 13, 96. 
Dedbote, satisfaction, amend, 32, 

33; A. S. deed-hot. 
Dede, did, put, jilaced, caused. 



78, 86, 114, 133, 211, 216. 
Dedo, sb. deed, 10', 12, 21, 74. 
Deden, j»'e^. j>Z. did, caused, made, 

72, 78, 181. 
Dedes, deeds, 10, 73, 137. 
Dedest, didst, 21. 
Defaced, obliterated, 190. 
Defayled, wearied, overcome (with 

weariness,) 33. 
Defaute, lack, Avant, 33, 73, 261 ; 
2)1 defautes, 73, 78, 108, 131, 
DefendeJ), defends, excuses, 22, 

Defendej?, j:)?. defend, excuse, 38, 

Defendi, to defend, 157. 
Befouled, defiled, 167. 
Defoulent, defileth, 182. 
Defouli, defile, 221. 
Degres, Degrez, degrees, 123, 267. 
Del, deal, part, 17, 86, 175 ; A.S. 

Dele, to separate, 76 ; A.S. dcelan. 
Deles, Delles, divisions, parts, 1 7, 

50, 60, 153; properties, 125. 
Delices, delights, 24. 
Delitejj, deligliteth, 47. 
Deliti, Delyty, to delight, 82, 91. 
DeKure, imp. deliver, 110, 118. 
Deliured, Delyured, ^yp. deliver- 
ed, 87, 118. 
Deliurede, j;re^. delivered, 95, 128. 
Deliuri, Delyuri, to deliver, 12, 

13, 103, 117, 198. 
Deliurejj, delivcreth, 128. 

Deliureonse, liberty, 86. 
Delles, parts, 164. 
Delue, delve, dig, undermine, 
108 ; A.S. delf-an, to dig, delve. 
Delyty, to delight, 82. 
Delyury, to deliver, 270. 
Demde, judged, 175. 
Deme, to deem, judge, decide, dis- 
criminate, 13, 74, 76, 82, 126; 
A.S. deman, to judge. 
Demere, judge, 12, 62, 131, 138 ; 

A.S. demere. 
Demeres, judges, 39, 215, 227. 
Dem]), judgeth, deemeth, 27, 28, 

74, 125, 138. 
Demynges, opinions, censures, 27. 
Denyes, deaneries, 42. 
Depe, to dip, 106 ; A.S. depan. 
Depf, dippeth, 107. 
Derie, to hurt, 126, 166; A.S. 
derian, derujan, to hurt, harm, 
Deriynde, hurtful, injurious, 63. 
Derne, secret, 143 ; A.S. dijriie. 
Derrer, dearer, 36. 
Derye, to hurt, injure. See Derie. 
Deryinde, hurtful, injurious, 63. 
Des, dice, 45. 
DescendeJ), descends, 123. 
Descriue]?, ^vZ. describe, 168. 
Deserited, disinherited, 30. 
Desert, Dezert, 67, 131, 240. 
Desertesoun, desertion, 48. 
Desgised, distinguished, 97. 
DesgyzeJ), disguiseth, 158. 
Desiri, to desire, 244. 



Desordene, inordinate, 46. 

Despayred, 34. ' 

Despendi, to spend. DespendeJ), 
spendeth, 19, 41, 53, 187. 

Despense, spending, cost, 21, 55. 

Despit, contempt, despising, de- 
spite, 19, 20, 21, 69. 

Desputede, 79. 

Desspendoiire, ahnoner (trea. 
surer), 190. 

Dest, dost, 118, 129, 159. 

Destempringe, distemj)ering, 153. 

Destincti, distinguish, 152. 

Destorbe, disturb. Destorbed, 
disturbed, 212. Destorbef, dis- 
turbs, 179. 

Destorbinge, disturbance, 225. 

Destrud, destroyed, 30. 

Destrue, to destroy, 28, 117. 

Destruej), Destrui]?, destroyeth, 
destroy, 35, 36, "43. 

Detraccion, 10. 

Dette, debt, 35, 120, 135, 222. 

Dettes, debts, 113, 115. 

Dejj, doeth, causeth, placetli, 31, 
58, 67, 97, 102 ; * def aye,' 
break etb, doth against, 57. 

Deuines= deuineres, di"\T.ners, 19. 

Deuisi, deuise,name, tell, 73, 100, 
103, 144. 

Deuocion, Deuocioun, 33, 107, 
136, 210, 226. 

Deuouteliche, devoutly, 134, 211, 
215, 225. 

Diaknen, deacons, 190. 

DiajTuont, diamond, 187. 

Dich, ditch, 57. 
Diciplines, 240. 
Diere, Dj^ere, dear, beloved, 36, 

44; dearly, 194. 
Dierjje, dearness, scarcity, 256. 
Dieuel, Dyeuel, devil, 15. 
Difierence, 10, 210, 
Digneliche, wortliily, 20. 
Diligence, 238. 
Diligent, 32, 220. 
Diligentliche, diligently, 70. 
Dingnete, dignity, 24, 112, 119, 

Dingnetes, Dyngnetes, dignities, 

26, 42. 
Dingneste, worthiest, 109. 
Dingnelyche, worthily, projicrly, 

Discord, 43, 75, 157. 
Discordance, 259. 
Discrecion, 242, 256, 255. 
Disete=Disese, sorrow, grief, 57. 
Disordene, inordinate, immoder- 
ate, unrestrained, 34, 48. 
Disordenliche, immoderately, 55, 

Dispendede, expended, 128. 
Dispendejj, ) pass the time, sjjend, 
Despendef, J 7. 
Dispoyly, sj)oil, rob, 45. 
Dissiplines, disciplines, 236, 250. 
Dissuol, dishful, 120. 
Distemperance, distempering, 153. 
Diners, obstinate, 68. 
Diners, Diuerse, diverse, different, 

15, 42, 124, 244. 



Diuerses, pi. various, 162. 

Diuersejj, diifers, 124. 

Di3t, orderS; directs, prepares, 11, 

24, 124, 147, 222. 
Di3te, to order, direct, ordain, 

separate, put from, 210 ; A.S. 

dllit, a disposing, ordering; 

dlhtan, to order, arrange. 
Dijte, should distribute, 147. 
Dijtere, director, 100 ; A.S. 

Di^te]), j;/. direct, adorn, 7, 47. 
Di3tinge, decoration, adorning, 

24, 47, 215. 
Dijtinges, divisions, 17. 
Do, put, cause, 210; 247. 
1)0, pp. done, 68, 124. 
Dobblejj, doble]), doubleth, 22, 

Doere, doer, 135. 
Doinde, doing, 194. 
Dol, division, 112. See Del. 
Doles, divisions, 17. 
Dolue, should delve, break into, 

Dom, ohliq. case, Dome, doom., 

judgment, opinion, 6, 10, 13, 

37, 74 ; justice, equity, 113, 

124, 127, 148 ; A.S. dom. 
Domb, dumb, 1, 179. 
Dombe, j;Z. dumb, 56. 
Domes, verdicts, 40. 
Domesman, judge, 115. 
Domesmen, judges, 38, 44. 
Done, to do, to be done, 8, 9, 11, 

Q^, 74. 

Dong, ohliq. case, Donge, dung, 
61, 75, 77, 81, 137, 216. 

Donghel, dungliill, 81, 230. 

Dore, door, 210, 255. 

Doreward, doorkeeper, 121, 263. 

Dorilot, 177. 

Dorre, Dorren, pi. dare, 22, 32, 

Dorste, jj?. durst, 143. 

Dorstest, durst, 73. 

Dojj, pi. doth, place, set, cause, 
69, 72, 73. 

Doimib, Doumbe, dumb, 51, 224. 

Doust, dust, 26, 108. 

D03, dough, 205. 

Dojter, daughter, 26. 

Dojtren, daughters, 140. 

Draf, dreggs, 93. 

Dragoune, 174. 

Draye, dry, 137, 240. 

Draje, to draw, lead to, lead out, 
10, 12, 77, 79, 137, 186. 

Dra^e, p^;. drawn. 

Dra3jj, draweth, leadeth, 15, 43, 
100; taketh away, 40, 41; 
treats, 45. 

Dra3ejj, j?Z. draw, lead, 43, 147. 

Dra3]5e, treatise, 251, 260. 

Drede, fear, 4, 32, 74. 

Drede, doubt, 105. 

Dredejj, pi. dread, fear, 74, 84, 
86, 138. 

Dreduol, dreadful,fearful, cautious, 
tunid, 14, 15, 16, 22, 70, 144. 

Dreduolle, j^l. fearful, 116; ter- 
rible, 42, 70 ; horrible, 189. 



Dreduoller, more fearful, more 

cautious, 117. 
Drench, sh. drink, 130. 
Drenche, to drink; 3rd smg. 

Bring]?, 251, 248. 
Dret, dreadeth, 26, 34, 116, 125, 

Drinkeres, drinkers, 47. 
Drincf, drinketli, 137, 245, 247. 
DrinkJ), drinketli, 95, 251. 
Drinke]), 2^1 drink, 248. 
Dronke, i^j). drunken, 75, 107, 

127, 247. 
Dronkehede, drunkenness, 260. 
Dronkenese, drunkenness, 248, 
Drope, drop, 75, 91, 92, 189. 
Dropen, drops, 84, 92. 
Dropes, drops, 92. 
Droj, drew, led out, 13. 
Dro3en, treated, 164. 
Dru3jje, drought, 68. 
Dryff, driveth, 75. 
Dryngj), drencheth, 248. 
Dyacne, deacon, 190. 
Dyad, Dyead, s. dead, 12, 71, 82. 
Dyad, dead, 126. 
Dyade, j9?. dead, 13, 30. 
Dyade, obliq. case, 263. 
Dyadlich, Dyeadlich, s. mortal, 

deadly, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 73, 

110, 144. 
Dyadliche, Dyeadliche, ^9?. and 

clef, form of the adj., 9, 70, 

Dyadliche, Dyeadliche, adv. 

deadly, 6, 7, 86, 225. 

Dyaf, deaf, 1. 
Dyakne, deacon, 225. 
Dyaknes, deacons, 235. 
Dyamod, = Dyamond, diamond. 
Dyaf, Dyeajj, ohliq. case, Dyafe, 

dyeafe, 7, 12, 13, 23, 27, 69, 

70, 71, 72, 86, 95. 
Dyau, deau, dew, 144. 
Dyaue, Dyeaue, deaf, 189, 211, 

Dyead, dead, 240. 
DyeadUch, mortal, 244, 247. 
Dyere, dear, precious, 36, 68, 79, 

Dyere, adv. dearly, 73, 133, 194. 
Dyep, Dyepe, deep, 211, 264. 
Dyepenesse, deepness, depth, 105, 

Dyenel, devil, 15, 65. 
Dyeuele, ohliq. case, 1, 16, 19, 86. 
Dyeides, devil's, 77. 
Dyeulen, Dyeules, devils, 17, 73, 

83, 86. 
Dyuers, obstinate, hard, 68. 
Dyuerse, pi. divers, 73. 
Dy3te, disposed, ordained, 270. 

Ealde, def old, 169 ; A.S. eald, 
' old. See Aid. 
Ealde, ^jZ. old, 102, 166. 
Ealdinge, heooming old ; 95, A.S. 

ealdian, to grow old. 
Eare, ear, 189. 
Earen, ears, 204, 249. 
Ech, oUiq. case Eche, each, 11, 

12, 17, 18, 62, 71, 104. 



Echedaye, each day, 16, 
Echedayes, adv. daily, 112, 
Echen (of, to, ine), each, 11, 13, 

63, 119, 121, 122, 124, 125, 

Eddre, adder, serpent, 26, 61, 

150 ; A. S. nceddre. 
Eddren, serpents, 61, 203. 
Edefie, 197. 
Eft, Efte, again, 12, 13, 33, 71, 

Efter, after, 66. 
Efter|)an, afterwards, 24. 
Efterward, afterward, 24, 25. 
Eftsone, Eftzone, eftsoon, 73, 229. 
Elde age, old age, 11, 69, 71, 

220; A. S. eldo, yldo. 
Eldeste, eldest, 6, 104. 
Eldringes, elders, 35, 118; A.S. 

ealdor, an elder. 
Eles, O.E. oioels, awls, 66 ; A.S- 

cbI, dl, awel, an awl, needle, 

Elifans, elephant, 224. 
Elleshuer, elsewhere, 211. 
Ehiiesse, alms, 17, 76. 
Ehnessen, jj?. alms, 198. 
Emcristen = O.E. evencristen, 

feUow-christian, 10, 199 ; A. S. 

ejn. (in comp.) even. 
Emeroydes, emeralds, 77. 
Emne, even, 151 ; A.S. euDie. 
Emni, to make equal to, 16 ; A.S. 

Emparement, hecoming worse, 


Emperour, Emperur, 71, 78, 100, 

Empire, Empirite, empire, 85. 
Emti, empty, 143; A.S. emtig. 
Emtejj, empties, 58. 
Enchauntemens, enchantments, 

Encheysones, Enchesons, causes, 

205, 206. 
Enclieysoun, Enchesoun, Enchei- 

soun, Encheyson, reason, cause, 

68, 205, 206, 217. 
Endaunture, taming, 220. 
Ende, end, death, 33, 68. 
Endi, Endy, to end, 1 10, 1 1